54 Photos - Sep 5, 2014
Photo: This will be a step-by-step guide to why men earn more than women. I will explain the pay gap so that everyone can understand it.

I wont go into details as to how much a certain factor influences the pay gap. But I will present some of the factors and explain why they matter.





Slideshow made by Jurij Fedorov
jurij.fedorov@gmail.com
www.jurij.dkPhoto: Remember that different does not necessary make better or worse. Morals has nothing to do with scientific conclusions. And the average tells us nothing about the individual.

"Is is not ought." - Richard Dawkins


If you discover any mistakes in the tables or my descriptions I will correct of delete them right away. All the links should be working. If you have any more statistics on the wage gap I would be happy to see them.Photo: These are the the main groups for the instincts in human beings as seen in organizations. Every group consist of many instincts. These instincts can wary from person to person, from group to group and from men to women. And they are created by an gene-environment interaction in various degrees.


(Saad, Gad (2011). Evolutionary Psychology in the Business Sciences, Springer.)Photo: First of all we need to understand that some things are inborn. Therefore we cannot hope to change these things on a grand scale except trough huge force or gene manipulation. People are different and have different wants and needs. And some of these wants, needs and instincts are inborn but shaped by the environment. A factor such as intelligence is as heritable as height - highly. And factors such as personality and political affiliation are about 0.50 heritable. This means that your personality and political standpoints are in a degree inborn. And many factors, such as personality traits, are not influenced by parents at all.


(Genetic Influence on Human Psychological Traits. A Survey. Thomas J. Bouchard, Jr (2004). University of Minnesota, Minneapolis)



Here is 2 possible interpretation of Kappa - the agreement between the tests:

Poor agreement = Less than 0.20
Fair agreement = 0.20 to 0.40
Moderate agreement = 0.40 to 0.60
Good agreement = 0.60 to 0.80
Very good agreement = 0.80 to 1.00

Kappa Agreement
< 0 Less than chance agreement
0.01–0.20 Slight agreement
0.21– 0.40 Fair agreement
0.41–0.60 Moderate agreement
0.61–0.80 Substantial agreement
0.81–0.99 Almost perfect agreementPhoto: What about different wants and needs in the 2 sexes?

Here we see universal traits in men and women. Genders seem to pick partners based on different criteria. This will imply that to be seen as an "attractive" partner men have to focus more on status and women more on looks - than the opposite gender on average. Men also seek a cook and housekeeper in a higher degree than women.

The universal differences between men and women illustrate 2 different types of people. From hunter-gatherers to Muslims to Christians. We all share these traits.



(Larsen, R.J. & Buss, D.M. (2008). Personality psychology 3nd ed., New York: McGraw Hill.)Photo: These are the sex differences found in the brain as of 2011.

There seem to be quite a few differences and many of those can influence choice of job and influence different instincts and motivations and how the society as a whole sees you.Photo: This illustrates the differences between men and women, statistically. The former mentioned differences in aggression seem to actually influence our behavior on a grand scale. As predicted by the brain studies.

Willing to take risks was the primary factor related to income and job status. (Sad, 2011)



(WOMEN IN AMERICA. Indicators of Social and Economic Well-Being. March 2011. Prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce Economics and Statistics Administration.
http://www.esa.doc.gov/sites/default/files/reports/documents/womeninamerica.pdf )

( The main page. http://www.whitehouse.gov/administration/eop/cwg/data-on-women )Photo: Here you see different work patterns from different kind of societies. M is nearly only men. F is nearly only women. In between we have:
N - mostly men. G - mostly female. E - egalitarian. There seem to be universal ways of dividing labor in Homo sapiens as all societies have similar divisions of labor. This means that it could very well be an adapted and inborn behavior.



(EducationFactors in the Division of Labor by Sex: A Cross-Cultural AnalysisAuthor(s): George P. Murdock and Caterina ProvostSource: Ethnology, Vol. 12, No. 2 (Apr., 1973), pp. 203-225Published by: University of Pittsburgh- Of the Commonwealth System of Higher EducationStable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3773347 )Photo: A few variables from the former list are selected here. We can again see a pattern in social structures.

By studying some the jobs that are done by females but should have been male jobs only the authors saw that they were defined in a wrong way.Photo: The Hadza hunter-gathereres and their division of labor. Women can hunt and men can gather. But there seem to be a division of labor in this famous tribe.This can again show us that individuals are not mere statistics.

A d value of -0.20 has been observed for sex differences in trust (Feingold, 1994).
The size of this sex difference is considered “small” and indicates 58% of women are higher than average man in trust (based on Cohen's U3).

A d value of +0.50 has been observed for sex differences in spatial rotation skills (Silverman et al., 2007). The size of this sex difference is considered “moderate” and indicates 69% of men are higher than average woman in spatial rotation skills.

 A d value of +0.80 has been observed for sex differences in physical aggression (Archer, 2004). The size of this sex difference is considered “large” and indicates 79% of men are higher than average woman in physical aggression.

 A d value of -1.00 has been observed for sex differences in tender-mindedness (Feingold, 1994). The size of this sex difference indicates 84% of women are higher than average man in tender-mindedness.

 A d value of +2.00 has been observed for sex differences in throwing distance among children (Thomas & French, 1985). The size of this sex difference indicates 98% of boys throw farther than the average girl.Photo: Not only do men and women differ in brains and instincts but in size and strength too. Seems as this could have something to do with the distribution of labor by gender.



No source.Photo: Here we see the well known wage gap in USA at about 23%. The so called "77 cents on the dollar".
But this wage gap disappears in single women. What about marriage creates this pay gap?

The main hypothesis goes that married women spend more time on their children. While men in marriages actually work longer hour than single men. (Saad, 2011)



(U.S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS (2013). Highlights of Women’s Earnings in 2012. OCTOBER 2013. REPOR T 1045. http://www.bls.gov/cps/cpswom2012.pdf)



The 77% "unfair and sexist" wage gap claim has been used by presidents and several organisations before. The 77-cent figure is real, but it does not factor in occupations held, hours worked or length of tenure.



(Glenn Kessler (2014). President Obama’s persistent ’77-cent’ claim on the wage gap gets a new Pinocchio rating. The Washington Post. 9 April 2014.
http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/fact-checker/wp/2014/04/09/president-obamas-persistent-77-cent-claim-on-the-wage-gap-gets-a-new-pinocchio-rating/ )Photo: Unadjusted the pay gaps are great. But adjusted for factors related to productivity these differences seem to become much smaller. But we still have a small unexplained wage gap. And it could in principle be caused by discrimination or factors that we cannot calculate statistically.



(Testimony on the Gender Pay Gap. Diana Furchtgott-Roth. Senior Fellow, Hudson Institute. September 28, 2010. http://www.jec.senate.gov/public/index.cfm?a=Files.Serve&File_id=2a1f8ad4-f649-4ad3-a742-268d946962db )



U.S. Department of Labor requested a report about the USA wage gap. And CONSAD did not find any wage gap that could be explained by discrimination.

Factors Identified through Decomposition of the Raw Gender Wage Gap: Occupation, Human capital development, Work experience, Career interruptions, Motherhood Industry.

Factors identified through analysis of compensating wage adjustments: Health insurance, Other fringe benefits, Overtime work.

Statistical analysis that includes those variables has produced results that collectively account for between 65.1 and 76.4 percent of a raw gender wage gap of 20.4 percent, and thereby leave an adjusted gender wage gap that is between 4.8 and 7.1 percent.



(An Analysis of Reasons for the Disparity in Wages Between Men and Women - Consad
January 12, 2009 - http://www.consad.com/content/reports/Gender%20Wage%20Gap%20Final%20Report.pdf )Photo: Questionnaires were used to ask people about what they wanted to work with. In countries where people are more free the choice will be guided by intrinsic(inner) needs in a higher degree.

It seems like men want to work with technology. Typically high paid jobs (Saad, 2011).



(The ROSE Project. An overview and key findings. Camilla Schreiner. University of Oslo. March 2010. http://roseproject.no/network/countries/norway/eng/nor-Sjoberg-Schreiner-overview-2010.pdf)Photo: Questionnaires were used to ask people about what they wanted to work with. In countries where people are more free the choice will be guided by intrinsic(inner) needs in a higher degree.

It seems like women want to work with people. Typically low paid jobs. (Saad, 2011). Jobs where you interact with people are usually the jobs most sought after. So the employee can if he chooses pay the average worker less money for it. Because of supply and demand. Maybe these jobs demand a lower degree of education?



(The ROSE Project. An overview and key findings. Camilla Schreiner. University of Oslo. March 2010. http://roseproject.no/network/countries/norway/eng/nor-Sjoberg-Schreiner-overview-2010.pdf)Photo: It seems like the 10 highest paid jobs are mostly done by men. A factor influencing the so called 77% pay gap.



(PayScale (please tell me if you find the paper itself)
http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2013/05/the-biggest-myth-about-the-gender-wage-gap/276367/ )Photo: The BLS report states that there are more women in the low paying jobs. And more men in the high paying jobs. They also write that the low paying jobs are social jobs while the high paying jobs are technical jobs.



(BLS report. Highlights of Women’s Earnings 
in 2012. OCTOBER 2013. REPOR T 1045.
http://www.bls.gov/cps/cpswom2012.pdf )Photo: Several questionnaires illustrated that people think that the jobs typically done by men are considered bad jobs. What could influence this?



(WORLD DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2012. Gender differences in employment and why they matter.  http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTWDR2012/Resources/7778105-1299699968583/7786210-1315936222006/chapter-5.pdf )Photo: USA

Can you see something peculiar in this chart? If you can't find it see the next pictures.



(NATIONAL CENSUS OF FATAL OCCUPATIONAL INJURIES IN 2012 (PRELIMINARY RESULTS) http://www.bls.gov/news.release/cfoi.nr0.htm )Photo: USA

Can you see something peculiar in this chart? If you can't find it see the next picture.


NATIONAL CENSUS OF FATAL OCCUPATIONAL INJURIES IN 2012 (PRELIMINARY RESULTS) http://www.bls.gov/news.release/cfoi.nr0.htmPhoto: USA

It seems like men take the most dangerous jobs. Men are inclined to go after a bigger pay compared to women and dangerous jobs have higher wages to compensate for the risks. While women also put great focus on having many other benefits at work.



( U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, in cooperation with State and Federal agencies, Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries. 2008.
http://www.bls.gov/iif/oshwc/cfoi/cftb0238.pdf )

( Similar graph:
http://economix.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/08/20/the-most-dangerous-jobs-in-america/ )Photo: Education does not explain the pay gap. But occupation and industry of employment does.


Wanna learn a magic trick? Right click on this image to open it in a new tab. Then take the numbers from "Photo details" and replace the width and height numbers in the address bar with them! MAGIC!

Or click the link  or zoom in...



(WORLD DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2012. Gender differences in employment and why they matter.  http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTWDR2012/Resources/7778105-1299699968583/7786210-1315936222006/chapter-5.pdf )Photo: There seem to be some productivity differences between genders in some jobs. But as productivity is very hard to measure we cannot look at productivity in all kind of jobs. And institutional constrains can create these productivity differences in Third World Countries. There could theoretically be some productivity differences in physical jobs?

A study showed that men produce twice as many articles as professors. (Gad, 2011)



(WORLD DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2012. Gender differences in employment and why they matter.  http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTWDR2012/Resources/7778105-1299699968583/7786210-1315936222006/chapter-5.pdf )Photo: How men and women tend to spend their time and energy.



(WOMEN IN AMERICA. Indicators of Social and Economic Well-Being. March 2011. Prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce Economics and Statistics Administration.
http://www.esa.doc.gov/sites/default/files/reports/documents/womeninamerica.pdf )

( http://www.whitehouse.gov/administration/eop/cwg/data-on-women )Photo: Pay gap by years. After marriage the pay gap widens.



From Wikipedias article on the wage gap. No source.Photo: Comparisons of male and female parental leave show that females are the ones taking the leave - statistically. Furthermore, mothers in countries where policy facilitates prolonged leave periods (Austria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Finland, Slovenia and the Slovak Republic) are most likely to be on leave during the first year.



( Child-related leave. PF2.2 Use of childbirth-related leave benefits, by mothers and fathers. http://www.oecd.org/social/soc/41927348.pdf )Photo: Seems like the law in the different countries support maternity leave in a higher degree than paternity leave.



( OECD report. Key characteristics of parental leave systems. http://www.oecd.org/els/family/PF2_1_Parental_leave_systems_1May2014.pdf )

( OECD report. July. http://goodmenproject.com/families/families-2-why-dads-face-a-flexibility-stigma-at-work-families/ )

( A database with all the data: http://www.oecd.org/social/soc/oecdfamilydatabase.htm )Photo: Mothers already seem aware of the possibility that being a mother can hinder your career advancement.



( The Pew Research survey was conducted October 7-27, 2013, with a nationally representative sample of 2,002 adults http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2013/12/11/on-pay-gap-millennial-women-near-parity-for-now/ )Photo: This Italian study with million of people shows that women take child care leave in a higher degree than men. This seems to be an universal factor. Even seen in hunter-gatherers where the women take the children gathering as the men cannot hunt with small children with them (Foraging Spectrum).



(Italian national statistics office (Istituto nazionale di statistica , ISTAT), Conciliazione dei tempi di vita e denatalità (Work-life balance and fertility rates ), presented in December 2005
http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/ewco/2006/03/IT0603NU04.htm )Photo: Mothers tend to focus more on family and children than fathers. A factor known from nearly all other animals on the planet (Evolutionary Psychology - Buss)



( The Pew Research survey was conducted October 7-27, 2013, with a nationally representative sample of 2,002 adults http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2014/04/08/chapter-4-public-views-on-staying-at-home-vs-working/ )

( On Pay Gap, Millennial Women Near Parity – For Now Despite Gains, Many See Roadblocks Ahead. December 11, 2013. http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/files/2013/12/gender-and-work_final.pdf )

(After Decades of Decline, A Rise in Stay-at-Home Mothers. April 8, 2014. http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/files/2014/04/Moms-At-Home_04-08-2014.pdf )Photo: The changing family structures makes women focus more on their career. Which narrows the gender wage gap.



( Roles of Moms and Dads Converge as They Balance Work and Family. http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2013/03/14/modern-parenthood-roles-of-moms-and-dads-converge-as-they-balance-work-and-family/ )Photo: As marriage seems to be a positive influence in the pay gap women not getting married should narrow the gap.



(WOMEN IN AMERICA. Indicators of Social and Economic Well-Being. March 2011. Prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce Economics and Statistics Administration.
http://www.esa.doc.gov/sites/default/files/reports/documents/womeninamerica.pdf )

( http://www.whitehouse.gov/administration/eop/cwg/data-on-women )Photo: Since the age of first birth rises we can predict a narrowing of the wage gap.



(WOMEN IN AMERICA. Indicators of Social and Economic Well-Being. March 2011. Prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce Economics and Statistics Administration.
http://www.esa.doc.gov/sites/default/files/reports/documents/womeninamerica.pdf )

( http://www.whitehouse.gov/administration/eop/cwg/data-on-women )Photo: Women are catching up with men as men seem to decrease in average wages in USA.



(BLS report. Highlights of Women’s Earnings 
in 2012. OCTOBER 2013. REPOR T 1045.
http://www.bls.gov/cps/cpswom2012.pdf )Photo: Seems like women joining the labor marked in a higher degree and focusing less on their children has a negative influence on the pay gap. Since men still earn more than women we can assume that men on average still focus more on work than on childcare. And since the modern women tend to work more/produce more someone else has to look after the children. So even though women seem to work more the state has to pay more for childcare as it has to come from somewhere.



( Testimony on the Gender Pay Gap. Diana Furchtgott-Roth Senior Fellow, Hudson Institute. Testimony before the Joint Economic Committee. September 28, 2010. http://www.jec.senate.gov/public/index.cfm?a=Files.Serve&File_id=2a1f8ad4-f649-4ad3-a742-268d946962db )Photo: The modern woman is again going back to basics and focusing more on the family life.

Another thing we have to keep in mind is that women do not earn less than men. Men earn more than women. When both are young and without children they earn about the same. Both will rise in pay but men will rise more during their lifetime. And married men will rise the most in earnings.



(BLS report. Highlights of Women’s Earnings 
in 2012. OCTOBER 2013. REPOR T 1045.
http://www.bls.gov/cps/cpswom2012.pdf )Photo: Modern women tend to bear fewer children than their mothers.




(WOMEN IN AMERICA. Indicators of Social and Economic Well-Being. March 2011. Prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce Economics and Statistics Administration.
http://www.esa.doc.gov/sites/default/files/reports/documents/womeninamerica.pdf )for

( http://www.whitehouse.gov/administration/eop/cwg/data-on-women )Photo: No children means more time and energy for other things.



WOMEN IN AMERICA. Indicators of Social and Economic Well-Being. March 2011. Prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce Economics and Statistics Administration.
http://www.esa.doc.gov/sites/default/files/reports/documents/womeninamerica.pdf )

( http://www.whitehouse.gov/administration/eop/cwg/data-on-women )Photo: Some of the effects of children on the pay gap.



( Testimony on the Gender Pay Gap. Diana Furchtgott-Roth Senior Fellow, Hudson Institute. Testimony before the Joint Economic Committee. September 28, 2010. http://www.jec.senate.gov/public/index.cfm?a=Files.Serve&File_id=2a1f8ad4-f649-4ad3-a742-268d946962db )Photo: It seems like parental leave correlates with the pay gap. As women will be more inclined to take the leave if it is there. The pay gap would possibly become smaller if parental leave was forced on both parents in Western countries. But some would ague that the opposite is the case.



( http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2013/12/20/the-link-between-parental-leave-and-the-gender-pay-gap/ )Photo: Seems like men tend to work full time. And women take off more weeks per year.



(WOMEN’S EARNINGS. Work Patterns Partially Explain Difference between Men’s and Women’s Earnings. United States General Accounting Office. 2003
http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d0435.pdf )Photo: The effect of taking weeks off is less experience.



(WOMEN’S EARNINGS. Work Patterns Partially Explain Difference between Men’s and Women’s Earnings. United States General Accounting Office. 2003
http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d0435.pdf )Photo: The pay gap is diminishing. And women seem to get a more similar pay to men in the public sector. Maybe because the working hours are shorter?

The lower paid public sector mainly consists of women - 75% in Denmark. In Denmark instead of a higher wage this sector offers longer maternity leave and fewer work hours a week. This seems to attract women who want to have a "healthy" work-life balance. (Nina Smith, 2012)



(WORLD DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2012. Gender differences in employment and why they matter.  http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTWDR2012/Resources/7778105-1299699968583/7786210-1315936222006/chapter-5.pdf )Photo: Do women value health care strongly because of a focus on family? If this is true and the public sector offers a better healthcare plan we would see more women in the public sector.



(WOMEN IN AMERICA. Indicators of Social and Economic Well-Being. March 2011. Prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce Economics and Statistics Administration.
http://www.esa.doc.gov/sites/default/files/reports/documents/womeninamerica.pdf )

( http://www.whitehouse.gov/administration/eop/cwg/data-on-women )Photo: It seems like the low-wage workforce consist of a high percentage of females according to this feminist organization. A direct comparison between genders wages would therefore not make sense. As they have different jobs - for various reasons.

Do you think that part time work would on an average pay less?



(Sources: Wage gap, share of women by occupation, growth in annual average employment: Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), Current Population Survey, annual average data for 2009-2013. Wage gaps are based on median weekly earnings for full-time workers. Workforce demographics: NWLC calculations based on IPUMS-CPS (2013) for 2012. Classification of 10 largest occupations with median wages of less than $10.10 per hour: BLS, Occupational Employment Statistics.
http://www.nwlc.org/our-blog/six-new-facts-why-we-must-raise-minimum-wage-and-advance-equal-pay )Photo: Women tend to work in part times jobs in a higher degree than men. Works hours is one of the biggest influences on the so called 23% wage gap. Unadjusted pay gaps are typically calculated by looking at pay per year. Better calculations use weeks. And the best and most detail-oriented calculations use hours worked. Remember to look for this simple "mistake" in any statistic on the wage gap. You have to look in the sources to see how they measured the pay gap.



(WOMEN IN AMERICA. Indicators of Social and Economic Well-Being. March 2011. Prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce Economics and Statistics Administration.
http://www.esa.doc.gov/sites/default/files/reports/documents/womeninamerica.pdf )

( http://www.whitehouse.gov/administration/eop/cwg/data-on-women )Photo: Women seem to earn more than men in the shorter work hours jobs. In which they also tend to work in in higher rate than men.



( Testimony on the Gender Pay Gap. Diana Furchtgott-Roth Senior Fellow, Hudson Institute. Testimony before the Joint Economic Committee. September 28, 2010. http://www.jec.senate.gov/public/index.cfm?a=Files.Serve&File_id=2a1f8ad4-f649-4ad3-a742-268d946962db )Photo: Yes, it's in Danish. You can yell at me later.

Nina Smith calculated that women (kvinder) born in 2011 will cost the Danish state 1,6 million kroner during their lifetime. While men will make a profit of 0,6 million. Women work less and demand more welfare which could become a big problem for the state if we don't adjust our expenditure. The taxes are already the highest in the world and raising taxes could have its ceiling. Smith calls the state the modern father.

"The figures reflect that Danish women - despite several decades in the labor market - still have an economic position where they are dependent on benefits. The "breadwinner" is no longer the family and husband, but rather the welfare state". (translated from Danish)



(Smith, N. (2012). Kvindernes økonomiske bidrag til velfærdsstaten. In Jubilæumsskrift - De Øko-nomiske Råd 1962-2012. (pp. 145-158). København: De Økonomiske Råd. http://www.dors.dk/graphics/Synkron-Library/50%C5rsJubil%E6um/144_157_nina_smith.pdf)Photo: What we can see here is that women tend to not be on company boards. In Norway there has to be legally at least 40% females on a board. The effect of this new law has not yet been discovered.



(Smith, N. (2012). Kvindernes økonomiske bidrag til velfærdsstaten. In Jubilæumsskrift - De Øko-nomiske Råd 1962-2012. (pp. 145-158). København: De Økonomiske Råd. http://www.dors.dk/graphics/Synkron-Library/50%C5rsJubil%E6um/144_157_nina_smith.pdf)Photo: Men have most of the top leadership positions in companies.

Men are also more motivated to seek status. And are willing to work longer hours and move for the job. They also seem to be more competitive and focus less on taking care of children.

Women are also less likely to seek a promotion if they feel unqualified.



(Saad, Gad (2011). Evolutionary Psychology in the Business Sciences, Springer.)Photo: The gender differences are clear in how we spend our life.



(Murray, C. (2004). Human Accomplishment: The Pursuit of Excellence in the Arts and Sciences, 800 B.C. to 1950, HarperCollins.)Photo: Women not being in top leadership positions or not inventing as many things as men could be explained by the intelligence distribution. As there are a higher number of less and more intelligent men than women. Even though the average IQ is the same.



(Ian J Deary et al. . Population sex differences in IQ at age 11: the Scottish mental survey 1932. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160289603000539 )Photo: Earnings correlates with IQ. Asians have a higher IQ that white people.



(BLS report. Highlights of Women’s Earnings 
in 2012. OCTOBER 2013. REPOR T 1045.
http://www.bls.gov/cps/cpswom2012.pdf )Photo: There are many videos on youtube about the pay gap and a lot of infographics on the subject as this one.



(Payscale. Do Men Really Earn More Than Women?
[infographic]. http://www.payscale.com/gender-lifetime-earnings-gap )



You should watch all of Christina Hoff Sommers videos. She is a feminist using science:

Is there systematic wage discrimination against women?
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LrbS537nnso



"If I had been married earlier in life, I wouldn't have seen the double helix. I would have been taking care of the kids on Saturday. On the other hand, I was lonely a lot of the time." - James Watson