75 Photos - Mar 16, 2014
Photo: A North Cascades Slideshow, ca. 1967
NOTE: These photos and captions are from an historic slide presentation developed by the North Cascades Conservation Council to promote a North Cascades National Park, which was designated in 1968. The photos were lightly adjusted when digitized, and reflect the state of film photography at the time. Photographers are unknown. The photo captions are taken from a script, and are verbatim and unedited, except for cases where spelling or other errors warranted an editorial note, placed in [square brackets]. The full script also contains an important introduction, and we HIGHLY recommend the viewer read it first, before proceeding, at www.northcascades.org/public_html/Slideshow_Script.pdf
1.        Looking south over the entire North Cascade Range from the Canadian Border to Mt. Rainier (the  large volcano in the distance). Chilliwack Range is in the immediate foreground; Mt.  Spickard  in the center, and the Pickett [sic] Range between Spickard and Mt. Rainier. View, about 160 miles.Photo: 2.        Map of the North Cascades, showing  location and proposed park and wilderness areas.    The area enclosed  in green  is "the North Cascades Area". The green area  is National  Forest  land.  The purple area at the bottom is Mt. Rainier National  Park; the purple area at the top  is the area of the proposed North Cascades National Park. This  is a  1966 map; a new map would show the North Cascades National Park divided  in half by what  is called the Ross Lake Recreation Area. The northern half of the proposed park  is the Pickett Range Countries; the southern half  is the Eldorodo [sic] Peaks Country. Just to the  left of the northern half of the park is the Mt. Baker area; just to the right of that is Ross Lake and the Pasayten Wilderness (formerly the North Cascades Primitive Area). Just to the south of the proposed park is the Glacier Peak Wilderness.  All  of these areas are  in dark green. Conservation organizations  in  1963 proposed a 1.3 million acre park roughly in a circle surrounding the Glacier Peak Wilderness, with that Wilderness as  its center. This circle encloses the area  in most danger from logging, as well as superlative scenic country. Further to the south, in dark green are proposed wilderness units  in the Alpine Lakes Country, just to the east of Seattle, and  in the Cougar Lakes Country, just to the east of Rainier National  Park. Note Puget Sound coming  in at the  left,  and the locations of the City of Seattle.Photo: 3.        Same view as number 1, only wider angle.    Note Glacier Peak at the far left horizon. North Cascades Mountains extend  for twenty to fifty miles to the  left out of sight of the picture. The range is some eighty to one hundred miles wide at  its widest point.Photo: Pickett Range Country:  Northern unit of proposed administration National Park:
4.        Picket Range  is extremely rugged country; three hundred thousand acres  in northern unit of proposed park.  This view looks over the Chilliwack Range, with Mt. Redoubt in foreground, with Redoubt Glacier behind.  Picket Range country is already located within the North Cascades Primitive Area; contains almost no commer­cial  timber and was  in no danger of exploitation.  For this reason, it was not included in conservationists recommendations for a National Park all of which concentrated on the area further south.Photo: 5.        View over the Picket Range across Mt. Challenger, Crooked Thumb Ridge, Mt. Fury, then the southern Pickets.Photo: 5.        View north across the Chilliwack Range kind of looking north into Canada.Photo: 7.     Mt. Terror group, southern Pickets.Photo: 8.        Southern Pickets, looking across Stetattle Valley, from Sourdough Mountain.Photo: 9.    Picket Range,  from Easy Ridge.Photo: 10.       Challenger Glacier, on Mt. Challenger - Mt.  a meringue pie.Photo: 11.   Baker River Valley,   looking west. The mountains  in the Pickett Range range from 6,000 to 8,000 feet  in elevation; the valleys are between 800 and 2,000 feet  in elevation.  Where not wiped out by periodic avalanches, the forest growth  is  lush, semi rain forest.Photo: 12.     Hikers descending Copper Mountain Ridge, North Cascades Primitive Area.Photo: 13.     Sunset from Perfect Pass, northern Picketts [sic]. Mt. Shuksan at right, Mt. Baker at left.Photo: 14.     Border Peaks at sunset from Copper Mountain Ridge, North Cascade Primitive Area  (northern Pickets).Photo: Ross  Lake Recreation Area;  Granite Creek Valley:
15.     The Ross Lake Recreation Area  is a narrow unit of one hundred thousand acres embracing three reservoirs in the North Cascades owned by Seattle City Light Company.  The area  is quite scenic and also takes  in both sides of the north cross state high­way, now under construction.    This first view shows a view of Diablo Lake,  a reservoir. Note carefully the forested appearance of the mountain plunging into Diablo Lake at the  left. This is the  route of the north cross state highway,  and this picture was taken before the highway was built.Photo: 16.     This picture of the same area shows what damaging effects road construction can have  in this area. This highway, traveling through some of the most scenic portions of the North Cascades, is a mess.  Hunting, some logging activity, and mining, under regulations of the Department of  Interior, are permitted in recrea­tion areas.Photo: Granite Creek Valley:
17.     View from Heather Pass, looking north  into the upper Granite Creek Valley. This 45,000 acre valley  is broad  and wide, and contains magnificent stands of timber. The 1966 North Cascades Study Team Report characterized  it as one of the most unique and scenic places in the entire North Cascades. And yet, now it is not  included   in the administration proposal  for a National Park. This is a beautiful  wilderness valley now, but  is the route of the north cross state highway. Northwest conservationists feel that the Forest Service intends to  log this valley when the high­way  is built. They are pressing for  its  inclusion either  in the recreation area or the National Park.Photo: 18.     Looking across the Granite Creek Valley to the Valley of Porcupine Creek. The new transmountain highway will  traverse the timber approximately across the left lower third of the picture.Photo: 18.   Headwaters of Granite Creek; Silver Star Mountain from spire on Early Winters Peak.Photo: Eldorodo Peaks Country; Southern Unit of Administrations Proposed National  Park:
20. View south and  east down Stehekin River Valley, towards Lake Chelan, from summit of Mt. Sahale.Photo: 21.    View to south from foot of Sahale Glacier, across the TripIet-Johannesberg Massif to the  lllabot Range.Photo: 22.      Boston Peaks,and Ripsaw Ridge from summit of Mt. Sahale, near Cascade Pass.Photo: 23.      Forbidden Peak and  Sharkfin Tower from Mt. Sahale.Photo: 24.      Mt. Buckner and Ripsaw Ridge from summit of Mt. Sahale.Photo: 25.   Cascade Pass, in the heart of the scenic climax of the North Cascades, looking west. This pass  is two miles from the end of the road,  and is one of the most heavily used places in the entire North Cascades. There is a trail in the lower foreground.Photo: 26.    View over Cascade Pass from Sahale arm,   looking south toward the Triplets and Mt. Johannesburg.Photo: 27.   Magic Mountain from near Cascade Pass.Photo: 25.    The  lllabot Range. Heavy logging operations are now taking place under Forest Service management, just to the right of the
picture.Photo: 29.    Typical  North Cascades forest, Cascade River valley. This is the issue in the North Cascades: The Forest Service proposes to log these forests. Conservationists feel that they are as much a part of the  scenery as the glaciers and  rock above. The National Park pro­posed by the administration  includes only the upper six miles of the Cascade valley, leaving out about ten miles of  prime scenic country which contains  forest of this type. There is very little forest of this type now in the National Park proposed by the administration. (S.I32I, and HR.8970). Conservationists have proposed a National Park (HR.12139)  which would  include the forest scenery, as well as the rock and ice.Photo: The Mount Baker Area:

30.  Air view over Mt. Baker, with Mt. Shuksan   in mid-background, and Chilliwack Range in far left background. Conservationists seek to add the 135,000 acre  Mt. Baker area to the National Park for three basic reasons:  (1)  It is a magnificent scenic complex in its own right, as the slides will  show;   (2)  It provides an outstanding geological display of  all  the North Cascades history. Mt.  Baker,  a young volcano, stands directly across from Mt. Shuksan, an example of the metamorphic rock which makes up most of the North Cascades,  both geological features are  displayed across  from each other. (3)  The Mt. Baker area already has roads in  it, and  would  provide living space  for persons wishing to view the park, without putting pressure on the Park Service to build roads into the wilderness which  is most of the proposed Park Area now.Photo: 30.     Sunset on Mt. Baker, from skyline divide.Photo: 32.     Advancing Colman Glacier on Mt. Baker.    This glacier ad­vanced 100 feet in the winter of   1965-66. It is still advancing. Mt. Baker has more glacier, pound for pound, than any other mountain in the North Cascades. Its two mile high ice gleams directly above range forests only 700 feet above sea level. Much of this forest un­fortunately has been  logged already.Photo: 33.     Mt. Shuksan from Picture Lake. Mt. Shuksan is just inside the proposed North Cascades Park;  the lake is just outside it.Photo: 34.     Mt. Baker from skyline divide.Photo: 35.     Looking west down Ruth Creek Valley,  northern part of Mt. Baker area. There are about 100,000 acres of de facto wilderness in this area. This valley is a prime entry corridor into the Picket Range country.Photo: 36.     American Border Peak  (R) and Canadian Border Peak (L) From Gold  Run Pass, Tomyhoi   Lake trail.Photo: 37.   Looking north into Canada down the valley of  Silesia Creek, northern part of Mt. Baker area. The Forest Service considered log­ging this area,  by coming  in through Canada, but has apparently tem­porarily abandoned the idea.Photo: The Glacier Peak Wilderness:

This 458,000 acre area has been the focal  point of most of the controversy  in the North Cascades.    Formerly a Limited Area, the Forest Service proposed to reclassify  into a Wilderness Area  in 1957. However, the proposals were carefully drawn to exclude all  of the commercially timbered valleys,  leaving only rock and  ice. Conserva­tionists,  labeling this proposal  a "Starfish" or "Wilderness on the Rocks", mustered their forces,  and  by dint of great pressure, forced the Forest Service to  include at  least portions of  some of these valleys  in the wilderness. However,  many beautifully scenic valleys still  remain outside of the wilderness, just to the west, south, and east.   It is continuing Forest Service logging  in these areas - which are  logically part of the same scenic and wilderness complex - which has given   impetus and strength to the drive for a North Cascades NationaI Park.

38.    View north of the Napeequa Valley,  southeast portion of Glacier Peak Wilderness,  from Little Giant Trail.  Glacier Peak out of  sight to the left.Photo: 38.    On Napeequa Valley floor.Photo: 38.    Upper part of Napeequa Valley.Photo: 38.    High Pass and Triad  Lake, end of  July. This pass is at an elevation of about 5,500 feet, high for this country which starts at near sea  IeveI.Photo: 42.    View of Glacier Peak from Buck Creek Pass,  showing charac­teristic forests,  meadows,  and glaciers. (Glacier Peak  is 10,450 feet in elevation)Photo: 43.    Traversing meadows near High Pass. Much of the high country of the North Cascades is characterized by this picture. During flower season in July and August, one can walk for miles through oceans and oceans of these flowers.Photo: 44.    Leo's Lump and Ten Peak Mountain from flower dome. Glacier Peak out of picture to the right.Photo: 45.    Seven Fingered Jack Mountain from Entiat meadows, eastern part of wilderness.Photo: 46.    Lyman Lakes from Cloudy Pass, on Cascade crest trail. [now Pacific Crest Trail. -ed]Photo: 47.    Clark Mountain and high meadows.Photo: 48.    Deer  in upper Napeequa Valley. The major opposition to a North Cascades National  Park has come from hunters, who claim that much hunting opportunity will  be lost if  such a park  is established. The hunting is entirely deer and mountain goats. 16,000 deer are killed each year  in the State of Washington,  and about 300 mountain goats. The Administration Proposed Park,  according to the State Game Department,  would affect about 600 deer;  the 1.3 million acre National  Park proposed by conservationists would affect about 800 deer. In other words, about 2% of all  the deer killed  in the state would be affected  by the creation of the largest possible North Cascades National Park.Photo: 49.    Upper Ice Lake  (7150 feet) from summit of Mt. Maude (9080 feet). Ice Creek Valley  in background.Photo: 50.    Mouth of Agnes Creek, as  it empties  into Stehekin River. The Agnes here has just flowed through a five mile gorge, 300 feet deep,  which is almost totally unknown. The Forest Service proposed to  log the valley of Agnes Creek in the  1950s,  until conservationist pressure forced  its  inclusion in the Wilderness.Photo: 51.   Lyman  Lake and Bonanza Peak. Bonanza  is the second highest non-volcanic peak in the entire Cascade Range (951 I feet).Photo: 52.     Lyman Lake and DumbeII Mountain  from Cloudy Pass.Photo: 52.     Image Lake and Glacier Peak.  This lake,   located at 6,000 feet on top of  Miner's Ridge, is one of the most scenic places in the State of Washington. It is located 15 miles from the nearest road, and a 4,000 foot gain  in elevation.     It takes two days to get there, and yet thousands of  people make the trip every summer.Photo: 52.     Dawn over Image Lake and Glacier Peak.    The Suiattle River valley separates Miner's Ridge from Glacier Peak; the bottom of the valley is about 2,000 feet in elevation, leaving 8,000 feet between it and the top of Glacier Peak.Photo: 55.     Meadows around  Image Lake.Photo: 52.     Evening at Image Lake. A proposed Kennecott open pit copper mine will  be located at  its nearest point, about one-half mile to the left of this picture.Photo: 57.    A picture of the Kennicott [sic] open pit copper mine at Bingham, Utah. This is a mine of the same type which  is proposed  by this company to be placed on Miner's Ridge. This would require the build­ing of  an access road, transmission lines, mill  site, town site, and tailing dumps, all in the very heart of the Glacier Peak Wilderness. As  long as the mining  laws operate,  no wilderness place under Forest Service management  is safe. Mining and prospecting are not permitted in national parks.Photo: 58.     View of Suiattle River VaIley,  arcing off to headwaters on Glacier Peak (off the picture to the  right)  from Miner's Ridge. This picture  is taken from the approximate site of the proposed Kennecott open pit copper mine.Photo: West Side Valleys Not In Glacier Peak Wilderness:
 
It is the logging of these valleys under Forest Service manage­ment that has sparked the drive for a North Cascades National Park. Conservationists believe that scenic and wilderness values are far higher   in these  valleys than timber values. They have demonstrated that even the  largest possible North Cascades National Park, which would  include these valleys, would reserve from cutting only 8/10 of 1% of all  the timber now cut in the State of Washington. The effect on the local economy would be extremely slight;  the gain to the nation  and to the  state would  be great.

59.     View of the West Side Valley country,   looking east toward the Glacier Peak Wilderness.Photo: 60.     Suiattle River Valley, outside of the Wilderness, showing typical forested scenery.    Conservationists believe that the magni­ficent northwest forests are just as much a part of the scenery as the rock and ice. They provide a unique experience all  their own, and offer a setting for the high country.Photo: 61.     In the depths of the northwest forest, Suiattle River Valley. This type of forest  is found nowhere else on earth.Photo: 62.     Forest trail, Suiattle River, outside of Glacier Peak WiIderness.Photo: 63.     Typical old  growth Douglas fir  in Buck Creek Valley, a tributary to the Suiattle River. The valley was omitted from wilder­ness protection by the Forest Service which claimed "it had too much timber".  The Forest Service has stated its intent to  log this valley if it is not protected by a National  Park or Wilderness status.Photo: 64.      De facto wilderness forest along the Whitechuck River, outside of the Glacier Peak Wilderness. This area too will be logged unless  included  in the Wilderness.Photo: 65.      Goat Lake, inside the boundary of the proposed conservation­ists National Park. The Forest Service has recently conducted heavy logging sales within  a mile of  this lake.Photo: 66.     Boulder River, and Rain Forest. This valley is scheduled for Iogging in 1969.Photo: 67.     Mt. Index and Persis Ridge,  from Stevens Pass highway, south of Glacier Peak Wilderness.Photo: 68.     Cooper Lake, looking  into proposed Alpine Lakes Wilderness, just east of Seattle. The Forest Service has recently conducted a heavy logging sale just above this lake.Photo: Maps
69.     This map is intended to illustrate the commercial timber in the North Cascades Region. A dark black line in a rough oblong indi­cates the boundaries of the 1.3 million acre national  park embodied in HR.12139.  Note that the main commercial timber in this area  is in what are known as narrow valley "stringers".  Very little substantial tracts of timber are  involved. Note that the main bodies of commer­cial timber, all in green, are outside of any proposal. Again, note that all  the timber which could be cut  in this proposed park would amount to about 8/10 of 1% of all  the timber cut in the State of Washington.Photo: 70.     This map illustrates the commercial  timber available in the Administration Proposed Park.    An  infinitesimal amount of timber is involved,  barely enough to calculate in the state's annual  cut. The new administration legislation proposes even to omit the narrow valley stringer just above and to the right of the word "highway" on the map.  Some cynics have called this "The Loggers Park", because it has hardly any timber in it.Photo: Logging  in The North Cascades:
71.      Forest Service clearcut logging on south slopes of Mt. Baker. It is this sort of insensitivity to scenic values which has sparked conservationist's efforts to put management of the superlative North Cascades country  into the hands of another agency more sensitive. The Park Service has yet to log its first virgin forest, mine its first ridge, dam its first river valley.*

*[Hetch Hechy Valley in the Sierra Nevada was dammed after it became part of Yosemite National Park. However the Park Service did not dam the river, the City of San Francisco did so, via an act of Congress in 1913. Since then no dams have been built in National Parks. -ed]Photo: 72.      Forest Service logging in Marble Creek, tributary to the Cascade River. This logging is in the Eldorado Peaks country, inside the boundary of the area proposed by conservationists for national park status. The clearcut method  is typical  of  logging practices in the Northwest.Photo: 73.      Logging on private lands at west end of Cascade River Valley.  An example of erosion and destruction caused by this type of logging practice.Photo: 74.      This picture, and the one which follows, were taken about a mile apart. This picture  is taken on the drive toward Mt. Rainier National  Park,  as one passes through a State Park.*
[*This would be Federation Forest State Park. -ed]Photo: 75.      A "Tree Farm", just a mile away from the other [previous] picture. This picture was taken approximately 15 years after logging. Many places  in the North Cascades look  like this now. In many places, the soils are so steep that it is difficult for trees to grow back after they have been cut.    Conservationists would like to see a halt to this sort of practice in the scenic parts of the North Cascades. This is why we want a National Park.