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Soyuz capsule suffered partial depressurization during April landing

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Researchers find shifting relationship between flexibility, modularity in the brain

A new study by Rice University researchers takes a step toward what they see as key to the advance of neuroscience: a better understanding of the relationship between the brain's flexibility and its modularity. Their open-access study appears in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. Scientists are only beginning to comprehend how brains are wired, both structurally and functionally. The latest in a series of studies by Rice scientists shows that the brain's flexibility and modularity – which researchers often study independently – are strongly related. The new study also presents a theoretical framework to explain the two processes. They found that flexibility, which relates to how much brain networks change over time, and modularity, which defines the degree of interconnectivity between parts of the brain responsible for specific tasks, are highly negatively correlated. In other words, people with highly modular brains that constrain tasks to the modules also show low flexibility, while people with high-flexibility brains that share tasks across the network show low modularity.

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Happy birthday to third year veteran, Simone! We hope you have an amazing day! Celebrate with Simone and leave her birthday wishes below. 🎉🎈🎁

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Even though the Google Pixel 2 XL has yet to hit consumers hands there is already a string of complaints regarding the colours on the display. Even though we thought the display on the Pixel 2 XL was “warm, it’s lush, and razor sharp” there are a lot of…

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Google Play lets you test drive Android apps before installing them

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Networks and Trust

From social media to political elections - the ability and pressure to hear what we only want to hear has never been greater.

“Anyone can now purport to be an expert, and consumer algorithms - news, search and other media - only show you the stuff you’re interested in, which tends to be stuff you already agree with.”


A post-truth world means new practical challenges - overcoming the ‘epistemic panics’ brought on by our new communication capabilities.


[ Information Freedom ]

What’s characteristic of the last, let’s say 5-10 years, is the phenomenon of people choosing their sources and their experts systematically in such a way that they only hear from those experts what they want to hear.

And if that’s what you end up doing, then your preferences determine the testimony you receive, rather than your testimony telling you what the world is like, and then you trying to figure out how to navigate that independent reality.

[ Reciprocal Breakdown ]

So I think the biggest problem in a post-truth world is the problem of the breakdown between a notion of independent reality that has some pushback to it - that can tell you that you are wrong, and people’s wish-fulfilling approach to communication: 

Communication in terms of what they put out into the world –people are willing to say things they know are false. As well as what they’re receiving –they don’t in many cases care that what comes into them is true, so much as whether it’s coming from a source that they trust, or a source that perceive to share their values.


[ Non-Certified Experts ]

I think that it’s got supercharged by technology, so people have been able to choose their sources to a large extent for years, or even probably for millennia, but with the internet and the fragmentation of media, you can now find someone who purports to be an expert to tell you literally anything.

[ Corporate Algorithms ]

And on top of that, with the rise of personalized search results, you end getting things that at least Google’s algorithm tends to think that you’ll find interesting- which means mostly things you already agree with.


[ Study of Knowledge ]

One branch of philosophy is what we call epistemology - which is the study of knowledge - and that means the study both of the nature of knowledge, as well as the ways in which knowledge can be acquired.

[ Reliance on Others ]

One very plausible way that we can acquire knowledge, is by just directing interacting with the world - so you open your eyes, you look around - but it’s a big place, and we know things about many countries that we couldn’t possibly have learned within 100 lifetimes. And what that in terms suggest is that, we’re never going to learn what we need to know, just by going out and checking for ourselves, and we really do take ourselves to know things that we got second-hand, third-hand, even forth-hand.


[ Testimonial Transfers ]

What that I means is I think, is that we need an epistemology that recognises that there are testimonial transfers of knowledge. That I can know something based on your experience, or I can know something based on the experience of someone you talked to. And if that’s the case, then we need to start thinking about the chains that transmit this kind of knowledge, and probably not think of them as simply linear chains, but rather as networks. So if I hear the same thing from two different people, who have never spoken to each other in their lives, that’s worth a lot more than hearing the same thing from both of them after they’ve coffered about what to tell me. 

[ Bot Amplification ]

Because if you take yourself to be in a network where five people are independently telling you the same thing, when in fact it’s actually just one person who is getting amplified by four different bots that just retweet everything they say, that’s a situation in which the content is not the main problem, it’s the structure of the network that’s the problem.


[ Surreptitious Exploitation ]

I think it’s more about a fragmentation than a breakdown of trust. So if we were in a situation with just a complete breakdown of trust, nobody would be following the media, even their preferred sources. But we’re actually in a situation right now where the media companies are making lots of money, it’s just that people choose the media that is most likely to tell them what they already believe, or is in-line with their values or their identity. And so if these platforms are optimised for engagement, that’s surreptitiously a way of optimising them for confirmation bias, for only telling people what they want to hear, or what you think they want to hear.

[ Competence / Benevolence ]

I’m attracted to the account of trust involving at least two things; if I trust you in some area, then I take you to be competent in that area. So if I trust you to drive me somewhere, I believe you know how to drive, if I trust you to fly me somewhere, then you’re a competent pilot and so on, and trusting someone’s testimony is taking them to be competent in acquiring knowledge in whatever domain they’re talking about. And the other piece of it has to do with believing that the person that your trusting is sensitive to your dependency on them.

[ Breakdown in Social Trust ]

Trust involves both of these things: an attribution of confidence, and an attribution of sensitivity to someone’s dependence. The kind of problem we’re running into is where people either start to assume that media they disagree with is produced incompetently, or it is produced by someone with a bad will, someone who wants to deceive them.


[ Astroturf Politics ]

I think that we’re going to be seeing pressure on tech companies to arrive at some kind of technical solution to this, in fact Google and Facebook have already come up with a number of solutions, for instance, right before the election in France, a few months ago they identified approximately 50,000 accounts which they determined were extremely likely to be bots, basically just algorithms that would retweet propaganda, and they deactivated all of them. Those bots in most cases were also used during the American presidential election last year, and during the Brexit campaign.

[ Automated Censorship ]

So it seems like, there’s a lot of pressure right now, on tech companies to find ways of eliminating at least that kind of automated propaganda that destroys trust in communicative networks. 

But it doesn’t seem likely to me that’s going to be sufficient for a number reasons, one is that if certain kinds of technical solutions are imposed, there could be a backfiring effect, where people say, who is Facebook or Google to tell me what’s true, I’m gonna go just find a source directly, and not pay attention to them anymore.


[ Complex Interactions ]

Networks are important because while dyadic (1-to-1 communication) relationships are the basic building blocks of them, if we don’t think about the more complex structures that emerge when 5, or 10, or a 1000 people involved, we’re going to miss some important things.

[ Excessive Trust ]

For instance, I could think that you’re a perfectly reasonable person, that you would never lie to me intentionally, but also I would neglect to notice that you’re a bit gullible, so that you then go and tell me something and I think ‘Elonor is very trustworthy, she has no reason to lie to me’, I accept this thing that you’ve just told me. The problem is not that your not trustworthy, or at least not directly, the problem is that you’re too trusting. And that means that I need to track not just what you have to say, and whether you’re are inclined to deceive me, but whether you apply critical scrutiny to what people say to you, whether you seek out good sources or are easy taken in by propaganda or click bait or whatever it might be.

[ Networks Affects ]

And even something that simple shows that we need to think about not just two people, one talking to the other, but the structure of a chain and potentially even of a network. What I’m learning from you, the validity of that, or the reliability of that, depends not just on you, but on the sources that you’ve learned from.

[ Canonical Interpretation ]

This is something that goes back all the way to at least Avasnea and interpretations of the Hadith traditions in the Islamic world.

So Hadith are meant to be sayings of the prophet, and there are thousands and thousands and thousands of alleged Hadith, but only a few of them are actually accepted as canonical, and these are the ones where the complete chain of transmission from one of the prophets companions, to the person they told it to, to the person they told it to, to the person they told it to, to us, has been verified. And if any step in that chain breaks down, then it’s treated as just hearsay. And that’s the sort of attention to the structure of the network and the dispositions of the nodes within that network that I think social epistemology is in a position to help out with.


[ Epistemic Panics ]

I think there’s tendency for a lot of people, perhaps in the media and also in universities to be caught up something of an epistemic panic. They’ve suddenly realised that there’s all these new sources of information and that anyone can talk to each other, they’ve suddenly realised that a lot of this new information will be false.

[ Printing Press Panic ]

And they’re right about that, but I think if you compare the current situation to an analogous situation, namely, in the 15th Century Europe, when print technology was first emerging, there was a similar kind of panic, especially amongst church officials and government officials and so on, and the same sort of thought was going on. People have access now to a lot more information, a lot more assertions anyway, and a lot of it is going to be false, and it needs to be controlled. And I think we can look back on that now and see their concerns as rather quaint.


[ Human Filter Concern ]

I think two points have to be made to allay those concerns. It’s true that when people have access to more information, they going to have access to more falsehoods. One thing to keep in mind is that avoiding falsehoods isn’t the only thing that matters, and it’s possible to be overly concerned with this. And the second point of course, is just because there’s a lot more false information out there, doesn’t mean it’s just going to be automatically believed. It’s up to people whether they believe them or not.

[ Human Bias Concern ]

Its always been the case that we sort out information from people who we thought were reliable sources of information, that is people who intended to agree with our view, our worldview, we did that whenever we decided which newspaper to buy, or which newspaper to believe for that matter, or who to talk to, and so, and so I don’t think anything fundamental has changed with the technology, and I think it’s a mistake to blame the technology for this universal feature of human beings.


[ Distrust of Experts ]

I think it’s to a large extent a result of those who had expertise, or at least appeared to have expertise, and were proven dramatically wrong. The most obvious case perhaps was the experts on Iraq and the weapons of mass destruction, where we were told that Iraq was about to attack us with all these weapons of mass destruction, and that we had to invade it immediately. And the experts were proven wrong, or the people who were presented to the general public as experts were all proven wrong. And there’s been a number of cases since, another pretty clear case is the global financial crisis, which was largely not picked up by prominent economists at the time, and these cases where there’s been a failure of expert opinion, has not gone unnoticed.

[ Reliance on Experts ]

But we should, we have to, place reliance in experts, we have to trust experts on all kinds of matters, that’s always been the case, but it’s more the case now when human knowledge is so much more extensive it has been in the past, and requires specialised knowledge in all kinds of areas, and it’s very important that we do this.

[ Skeptical Trust ]

At the same time I think a lot of the appeal to the authority of expertise has had a distinctly anti-democratic tone to it, and I think that’s regrettable. So I think we need to find a mean between the two extremes of just referring to experts on everything all the time, and on the other hand being utterly skeptical of what experts tell us.


[ Guided Democracy ]

There is a concept that use to be popular in Indonesia called ‘guided democracy’, and it’s basic idea is that it’s perfectly okay to let people vote, indeed vote freely, so as long as the information on which they base their vote controlled by some small group within society, an elite if you like. And I take it as obvious, that something like guided democracy is an oxymoron, guided democracy is not democracy at all. And it should contrast with deliberative democracy where people’s votes are the results of discussion with each other, informed debate with each other, and not controlled.

[ Rumors / Control ]

The many ways of understanding what rumours are, but one way of understanding them is that they’re communication which are passed on without official verification, so it’s unofficial communication if you like. And these I think are absolutely vital to democratic debate, and it’s not surprising given that institutions are opposed to rumours that in various ways, especially powerful institutions which want to set the terms of discussion, or control the information, and they tend to dismiss rumors as unreliable, and I think this is where philosophers need to look at empirical work, and it’s striking that a lot of empirical work on rumors suggest that they’re not unreliable at all, and that certain kinds of rumors at least, can be strikingly reliable, and even more striking in some ways, they become more reliable as they spread.

[ Natural Peer Review ]

And the reason for this I think, and if you reflect on it it’s not that surprising, because a rumour spreads from person to person, and at least on my account the further it spreads the more it becomes truly a rumour, it’s in effect going through a process of peer review. If people along the links of rumour don’t like, or if they think it’s not true, they simply won’t pass it on. 


[ Information Education ]

It’s about giving young people the skills to verify what the sources are that start a particular chain of information, and not so much on whether it’s true or false, but what their motive is, what their bias is, what their perspective is. So allowing people to triangulate are there other sources of information that verify this, or shut it down, to understand whether it’s from this particular source then it’s not likely to be as reliable as if I’m hearing from multiple sources, from different ideological perspectives.

[ Digital Natives Fallacy ]

The digital natives description is not entirely accurate, because yes we have a bunch of children and young people who are growing up within a more technologically saturated society, but they haven’t necessarily the technological skills and literacy that make them experts. So the digital native description pits young people against the older generations and says the young people are the experts, but empirically it’s 35-44 year old professionals that make the greatest use of technology and have that expertise.

[ Little Digital Education ]

So while our young people are digitally saturated, they don’t necessarily have the skills they’re assumed to have, and they certainly haven’t always got the educational skills, or that kind of critical literacy around what sources of information are reliable. So part of the work that schooling and education needs to do, is to ensure that they develop those skills. And I do think education is behind on this, schools are so concerned around protecting children that they’re missing out on the more new and radical dimensions that are going on online.

[ Self-Taught Basics ]

A lot of children are developing these skills in their own time, at home with their friends, creating online spaces, because when you speak to them they can say ‘don’t click on links that you don’t know’, ‘don’t give any personal information’, and so they’ve found ways of being able to exist online, that obeys all the rules and yet they’re free to have unobserved conversations and practices amongst themselves, creating their own digital culture.


[ Speedy Reflection ] 

One of the in-built mechanisms of our social media is that it speeds everything up, there is not a lot of encouragement and reward for slowing down and reading properly, and actually thinking about and reflecting on the ideas we’re presented with. The nature of social media is to like and share very quickly, to comment almost without thinking. And this seems to be more of a risk to us fact-checking and checking what we actually believe.

[ Faith vs Enlightenment ]

This is where we have to be educated properly in it’s use, and one of the great things thats happened with the internet, is that we’re now provided with the evidence for the claims that people make, or we can much more easily access the evidence for claims people make. So in the old days you’d simply read your local newspaper and you’d either believe what it said or not, it was basically very much an act of faith. These days you can click on the link and you can go to source, you can find out what other people said about the source, and so on, and make a judgement in the light of that.


[ Market Acceleration ]

So I don’t think there’s anything about the technology that essentially stops us from engaging in deep-thought or reading lengthy things, it’s just an unfortunate feature of the culture that’s grown up along it, that mindful thought has been discouraged.

[ Social Infrastructure ]

I think that in many ways, the functions of Facebook and other social media outlets, are simply too important to be left to the marketplace. I think information, especially political information, is a public good, and it should be treated like healthcare, as something that the public have an interest in, so I think there should be public options for these things as well.

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Me podéis regalar cualquier cosilla, os lo agradeceré igual

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Voter Suppression May Have Won Wisconsin for Trump

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The US ambassador to the UN, #NikkiHaley, has raised the stakes in Washington's war of words against Russia, describing its unproven “meddling” in the 2016 election as #warfare, just as the head of the #CIA said it had no effect on the vote.

"When a country can come interfere in another country’s elections, that is warfare," Haley declared during a conference held by the George W. Bush Institute in New York City.

Election meddling, according to Haley, is #Russia's "weapon of choice and we have to make sure we get in front of it."

And it's not just the US the Kremlin is waging war against, Haley said. It's "everywhere," she claimed, without bothering with specifics.

“We didn’t just see it here. You can look at France and you can look at other countries. They are doing this everywhere.”

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The only "blues" we have today is that we're not back in Bimini with Jinelle!

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A bow shock near a young star

The Hubble Space Telescope continues to reveal various stunning and intricate treasures that reside within the nearby, intense star-forming region known as the Great Nebula in Orion. One such jewel is the bow shock around the very young star, LL Ori, featured in this Hubble Heritage image.


NASA/ESA and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA)

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#Throwback to last year's #ColorRush game. We can't wait for Sunday's game against the Falcons. Will we see you there? 🏈💙


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Tesla hit with another lawsuit, this time alleging anti-LGBT harassment -via Flynx

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"Woebot: AI for mental health." "While a software chatbot will never replace a human therapist, Woebot makes it possible to inexpensively deliver counseling to millions. Woebot delivers a mood management program based on Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT). A Stanford University randomized controlled trial showed that Woebot reduced symptoms of depression and anxiety in 2 weeks."

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Bench mark
(Lahore, Anarkali bazar: August,13th ,2017)

#pakistan #blackandwhite #blackandwhitephotography #monochrome #monochromephotography 
#portrait #portraiture #portraitphotography #street #streetphotography
+ShowYourBestWork +Britta Rogge +Promote Photography#promotephotography +Edith Kukla
#hqspportraits +HQSP Portraits curated by +Heiko Köster +Christian Madsen
#hqspStreetDoc for +HQSP Street & Documentary
#hqspmonochrome for +HQSP Monochrome
+Street Photography Saturday curated by +Sunny Wu
+BTP Editors' Choice (Top Photo page) +BTP Monochrome Pro +BTP Street PRO

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Mjeldvika engeløya

Steigen commune northern norway

#Landscape #nature #norway #visitnorway #mountains #nordland #autumn2017 #nikon #cold #sky #PhotoOfTheWeek #ocean #clouds #northnorway #fjord #Corona #nightphotography #northernlights #aurora #auroraborealis #Borealis #Nordlys #Night

#btplandscapepro +BTP Landscape Pro Rinus Bakker ,owned by Nancy Dempsey #hqsplandscape +HQSP Landscape +HQSP Post of the Day +HQSP Night curated by olivier nelis, Volker Seifarth, Francisco H Camach, Peter Marbaise and me #promotephotography
#showyourbestwork #breakfastartclub #naturelovers #naturephotos #myfavpicoftheday #europeanphotography #bellesphotos #photomanianorway #landscapephotography #mothernature #europeanphotography #naturephotography #Amazingphotography #PhotoOfTheDay #Noorwegen #nordiclandscapes #hqsplandscape #norwegen #stunningmoment #europeanPhotography #arcticcircle #steigen
#LandscapePhotography +LANDSCAPE Photos +Landscape Photography Show +Landscape Photography Show +Landscape Photography Community +Landscape Photography +Landscape Photography

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Orange cloud

My rugby portraits

#macrophotography #hqspmacro #hqspflowers #fotomaniaitalia #ilovephotography

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Fans got to experience #StarWars in a whole new way at this year's #NYCC...

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LeBron James still trying to get into playing shape: LeBron James nearly recorded a triple-double in Tuesday's win over the Celtics but he is not satisfied with his current playing shape.

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VEON app is warmly welcomed in Pakistan bringing the app on top of the Play Store and App Store free category within a week....

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Commentary: George W. Bush's unmistakable takedown of Trumpism — and Trump

For the last nine years, George W. Bush has largely stayed out of presidential politics; he declined to criticize his successor, Barack Obama, and he chose not to endorse but largely ignored President Donald Trump. While Mitt Romney and others spoke out publicly against Trump, Bush stayed above the fray.

That changed in a big way Thursday.

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She heats up the beach. Karrueche Tran sets Miami Beach ablaze in high-cut swimsuit:

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Here is a great Art App you can find in the Google-Play Store Free. Along with others and it will let you do a time lapse every time you save and at the end you just push play. Here some of the paintings I did. Nothing too special but a great free and fun app!

Kaleidoo Android App Found 100%Free in the Google Playstore For Download.This Android Art App/Art Application will allow you to do a step by step by pressing play and you can watch and save each digital portrait/painting on your phone.

Click the video to see an example of how cool the App is. I was using basic App settings and loved it there are more shapes and colors perfect for IPAD preferably a big one would be awesome. This Android App is perfect especially for children and the playback setting I personally think is Awesome.

Thanks for watching!

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Trump interfering with his own prosecution

President Donald Trump has personally interviewed at least two potential candidates for U.S. attorney positions in New York, according to two sources familiar with the matter — a move that critics say raises questions about whether they can be sufficiently independent from the president.

The Southern District of New York is an especially notable position since it has jurisdiction over Trump Tower. Preet Bharara, the former U.S. attorney there, has said he had been told that Trump would keep him on despite the change in administrations. Yet he was among those abruptly fired by Trump in March.

“It is neither normal nor advisable for Trump to personally interview candidates for US Attorney positions, especially the one in Manhattan,” Bharara tweeted Wednesday.

It is rare for a president to interview candidates for the 93 U.S. attorney jobs. Former President Barack Obama never interviewed a U.S. attorney candidate during his two terms, according to Matthew Miller, who served as Justice Department spokesman under the Obama administration.

"To be very blunt, these three jurisdictions will have authority to bring indictments over the ongoing special counsel investigation into Trump campaign collusion with the Russians and potential obstruction of justice by the president of the United States,” Sen. Richard Blumenthal (D-Conn.) said in an interview Thursday. “For him to be interviewing candidates for that prosecutor who may in turn consider whether to bring indictments involving him and his administration seems to smack of political interference."

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The brain requires nutrients just like your heart, lungs or muscles do. But which foods are particularly important to keep our grey matter happy and healthy?

Here are 5 choices you can make today for better brain health.

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Our unboxing and first look at the Google Pixel 2 XL. Will this be your next smartphone?

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The brain requires nutrients just like your heart, lungs or muscles do. But which foods are best for brain health? Check this list to see what you should eat to optimize your brain power.

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Watch: Enrique Hernandez crushes Cubs' World Series hopes with NLCS Game 5 grand slam: Enrique Hernandez's second home run of the game, a grand slam, gave the Dodgers a 7-0 lead in the third inning.

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First neutron star merger confirmed through gravitational waves
- scientists are very you would expect....hear the full story in SpaceTime with Stuart Gary S20E81 #podcast

#science #space #astronomy #astrophysics #technology #news +audioBoom

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The Pixel 2 XL's display is cruddy and horrible and blah blah blah...

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Photography by Paul Cloud, Rob Hawthorne, and Adam Bratten


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