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Neuronal activity in the prefrontal cortex represents every experience as “novel.” The neurons adapt their activity accordingly, even if the new experience is very similar to a previous one.
That is the main finding of a study conducted by researchers from MedUni Vienna’s Division of Cognitive Neurobiology and recently published in the leading journal Nature Communications.
As far as the brain is concerned, every experience is unique, no matter how similar it is to an earlier one. The neurons in the prefrontal cortex will be active each time, just as if the experience was entirely new explains study author Hugo Malagon-Vina from the Division of Cognitive Neurobiology at MedUni Vienna’s Center for Brain Research.
Potential neuronal activity “mismatching” during this process might lead to the phenomenon of déjà vu, explains Malagon-Vina.
This has now been demonstrated by the MedUni Vienna researchers for the first time, using an animal model. They recorded and analysed the activity of around 300 neurons.

Nothing is ever perceived in the same way twice
Of course, there is memory says Malagon-Vina. But the brain needs flexibility, so that it can constantly adapt. This is achieved by each event being perceived as new.
From a philosophical perspective, says the MedUni Vienna researcher, an analogous explanation is provided by a quote from the old Greek philosopher Heraclitus: No man ever steps in the same river twice, for it’s not the same river and he’s not the same man. Malagon-Vina explains that He (Heraclitus) was referring to the ambiguity that deliberate actions and plans are never perceived in the same way, no matter how similar they were to each other.
At the same time, this flexibility, and the experience of uniqueness, allows people to experience feelings of joy or surprise or the so-called “wow” effect, says Malagon-Vina.
The results also show that the brain is able to perceive lifelong experiences as something new, so long as the neuronal activity is not impaired by a disease.
According to the MedUni Vienna brain researcher, this is an argument in favour of staying mentally active into old age. Neurons are always ready to “adapt” in the face of new knowledge and to process new experiences as unique.

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Both Robert Mueller and Donald Trump attended elite all-male private schools, were accomplished high school athletes and went on to Ivy League colleges. Yet Mueller and Trump, born 22 months apart in New York City, also can seem to come from different planets.

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Bella Hadid is the best super model of current era

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Iridium Browser: A Browser for the Privacy Conscience
Brief: Iridium is a web browser based on Chromium project. It has been customized to not share your data and thus keeping your privacy intact.

Google Chrome is one of the most popular web browsers in use today. People like it because it is quick and highly customizable. However, many people are leery of using it because Chrome tends to send lots of user information home to the massive Google servers. (You didn’t think that Google built these huge data centers to store cat videos, did you?) Thankfully, there is an alternative for those who are privacy conscious.

Suggested read

Mozilla Says It is Raising Privacy Awareness By Violating Privacy of Users

What is Iridium?

Iridium Browser is a browser based on the Chromium project. This is the same project that Google Chrome is based on. The difference is that the Iridium team modified the code to make it respect your privacy.

Iridium is not a fly-by-night project. It is backed by the Open Source Business Alliance. According to Iridium, the OSBA has around 190 members.

Here is a list of the many enhancements the project made to the Chromium code.

Increase RSA keysize to 2048 bits for self-signed certificates

Generate a new WebRTC identity for each connection instead of reusing identities for 30 days

Generate a new ECDHE keypair for each WebRTC connection instead of reusing them for multiple connections

Disable using system-provided plugins (i.e. Java, Flash, etc.)

Disable “Use a web service to help resolve navigation errors”

Disable autocomplete through prediction service when typing in Omnibox

Always send “Do-Not-Track” header

Network/DNS prediction is disabled by default

Block third-party cookies by default

Fetch plugins list from where it will be updated regularly

Site data (cookies, local storage, etc.) is only kept until exit, by default

Passwords are not stored by default

Input form autofill is disabled by default

For IPv6 probes, use a DNS root server instead of Google

The default search provider is Qwant

Load “about:blank” on new tabs instead of the currently set search engine and/or promotions.

Don’t report Safe Browsing overrides.

Don’t use autofill download service.

Disable cookies for safe browsing background requests.

Disable the battery status API.

Disable background mode

Disable EV certificates, so they are shown just like “normal” certificates

Disable Google cloud printing

Disable Google hot word detection

Disable Google experiments status check

Disable Google translation service

Disable Google promotion fetching

Disable Google Cloud Messaging (GCM) status check

Disable Google Now

Disable automatic update check

Disable profile-import on first run

Network/DNS prediction is disabled by default

Let user confirm downloading translation dictionaries from Google

Always prompt for download directory

Don’t ask to send settings to Google by default on profile reset

Show all extensions (including internals) in chrome://extensions.

Since Iridium is based on Chromium, you can make use of any of the plugins on the Chrome Web Store.

Suggested read

Tutanota: Encrypted Open Source Email Service for Privacy Minded People

Iridium is available for Windows, macOS, Debian, Mint, Ubuntu, openSUSE, Fedora, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, and CentOS. They offer both an installer and a portable version for Window. Iridium is not available for any mobile operating systems.

Experiencing Iridium browser

Overall, I had a good experience with Iridium. I was able to install all four of the extensions that I use. I did not have any trouble visiting the page that I wanted to look at. A yellow notification flashed up a few times while I was in the Chrome Web Store to show me where I was being redirected to. Since I was in the Chrome Web Store it was not a problem.

One cosmetic issue that I noticed was that the branding was inconsistent. Some places said Iridium while others said Chromium. Whenever I see this on a forked project, I think to myself “I wonder if the devs ever heard of find & replace”.

I was also surprised by the fact that there was an option to sign into your Google account. So I tried to take advantage of backing up my passwords and bookmarks from Chrome.

But here’s a catch! The option to sign in to Google account is there but it doesn’t work. It never really signs into. You are not linked to Google account at all. I wonder why the developers kept this option because it is sure going to confuse people.

Useless Sign in option to Google account

A word on Chrome extensions. I know that the Tor Browser recommends against adding extra extensions because they may be sending your information to other parties. I think the same is the case with Iridium which cannot do much against the third party extensions you add on your own.

Suggested read

Librem 5 is a Security and Privacy Focused Smartphone Based on Linux

Final thoughts on Iri…

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For the last decade, the mobile market has been under complete lockdown. Unless you were Android or iOS, you didn't stand a chance at making much of a run at success. Canonical failed miserably with the Ubuntu Phone. Blackberry had to resort to their own take on Android. Firefox OS couldn't even get off the ground.
And yet, thanks to the Purism Librem 5, there's another attempt at creating an open source mobile platform on the horizon. Many of us prognosticators and pundits have been ansty to see what's to come for this platform, and finally someone has made some headway, and that's KDE. The platform is Plasma Mobile. From the looks of it, KDE is on to something.
I'm going to preface this by saying I worked with Plasma Mobile on a VirtualBox VM, which is obviously not the target environment. Couple that with the fact this is a very early release and you have one unstable operating system.
However unstable Plasma Mobile may be at the moment, it offers a glimpse into what is in store for the platform, and it's pretty impressive. Where Canonical attempted and failed miserably to complete reinvent the wheel, Plasma Mobile uses what KDE does best and reworks it into a metaphor that functions very well for the mobile space. Of course, by "functions very well" I can only assume that it's not very useful at the moment.

How to test
KDE released the first-ever ISO image of Plasma Mobile. You can download the image here, and then create a standard virtual machine. I will say, after a quick IRC conversation, the developers warned me VirtualBox is not the best environment to use for this image (due to Wayland issues).
To get the most out of the image, it's best to use QEMU/KVM. Since VirtualBox is my VM tool of choice, I'm going to stick with that and offer up a cursory glance at what Plasma Mobile has to offer. What I saw was enough to tell me that the KDE development team has created something that could seriously make some noise in the mobile landscape.
I will add that installing the ISO image onto a dedicated laptop offered a much better experience, although still far from ready for prime time.
Let's take a look.
The Plasma Mobile desktop
What KDE has done is reform the Plasma Desktop into an edition that would function well on smaller, touch-centric hardware. They offer a simple homescreen, that offers a notification shade, a straightforward dock, and quick access to an app drawer.
Swipe up or, if you're running Plasma Mobile in a virtual machine, scroll down, to reveal the app drawer...
As you might expect, within the app drawer, you have access to all the installed applications, which isn't many at the moment. Should you not find what you want, click on the Discover app and install an app from the standard repositories.

What's to like?
There's a lot here to like. First and foremost, this is a Linux platform, not Android running on top of a Linux kernel. Plasma Mobile allows for you to install full-blown desktop applications. For anyone in need of getting serious work done, when a mobile device is the only option, Plasma Mobile could wind up being the ideal solution. If you're a developer on the go, you'd have everything you need.
Second, the KDE team has done an outstanding job of migrating KDE to a mobile interface. It works very well outside of the usual alpha-release hurdles. Getting to and starting applications is seamless. The pull-down notification shade gives you quick access to everything you need, and applications, when they do run, work exactly as you would expect. What we have here is exponentially better than Ubuntu Scopes (which, I believe, was the primary reason the Ubuntu Phone was never going to succeed).
What's most impressive about Plasma Mobile, however, is the simple fact that the developers have managed to take a Linux desktop, reframe it around mobile hardware, and make it work quite well. That's a feat of note, one that hasn't seen much success to date. There is absolutely no question that this interface will be as user-friendly as those found on either Android or iOS.

What's not to like?
This section should be listed with a huge asterisk. Why? Because the not to like are all brought about by two issues:
Plasma Mobile is very much an alpha-level product
My testing was done on either a laptop or virtual machine (neither of which are the target platforms)
That being said, Plasma Mobile has a very long way to go before it's ready. Applications either don't run, or do run and then crash the desktop (which, again, is a product of running a Wayland platform on VirtualBox).
I was also never able to get the installer Calamares to successfully run, so I was always testing from a live instance of the platform. Launching Calamares on either a VM or on dedicated hardware did nothing more then spin its wheels.

This could be something special
Having much else to say about Plasma Mobile is challenging, as it's nearly impossible to truly kick the tires without it being on the necessary target hardware. Even so, getting a glimpse into what the developers are doing, in preparation for the Librem 5, is a sight to behold. Major kudos to the KDE team. If the Librem 5 does make it to final production, and Plasma Mobile is either the default or easily installed, this could be something special.
We are long overdue for a complete desktop operating system on mobile hardware. If that OS happens to be Plasma Mobile, we'll certainly have a winner on our hands.

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Having armed teachers roaming school hallways isn’t an answer but try convincing Trump, a man who likes firearms, Heather Mallick writes.

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Samsung is copying Apple again, but this time not for features.

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Shocking Real Age of 14 Young Bollywood Actresses | Latest Updates. Bollywood adorable young Bollywood actress they come in the film industry at very early age.

Watch the Video To Know All Young Bollywood Actresses Real Age !!

Bollywood Young actress like Alia Bhatt, Jhanvi Kapoor, Sara Ali Khan, Kriti Sanon, Bhumi Pendekar are doing well in Bollywood movies. Audience are die Hard fan of these Young Bollywood actress but very few people know about their real age. Let’s take a look of All Bollywood actresses Real Age.

#Bollywood #BollywoodActress #RealAge #BollywoodStars #ShraddhaKapoor #AliaBhatt #JhanviKapoor #SaraAliKhan #SonamKapoor #DishaPatani #KritiSaron #BhumiPendekar #BollywoodNews #BollywoodUpdates #BollywoodLatestNews #BollywoodLatestUpdates

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#NewVideoAlert : How To Install #Linux Inside Windows Using Virtual Box:

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The area behind Alexanderplatz station in morning light and color. Not the most pleasant place.

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Humanity is the biggest religion
“Sometimes the Bible in the hand of one man is worse than a whisky bottle in the hand of (another)... There are just some kind of men who - who're so busy worrying about the next world they've never learned to live in this one, and you can look down the street and see the results.”
― Harper Lee, To Kill a Mockingbird

#pakistan #blackandwhite #blackandwhitephotography #monochrome #monochromephotography    #street #streetphotograph #homeless #poverty
#hqspStreetDoc for +HQSP Street & Documentary
+Street Photography Saturday curated by +Sunny Wu
#hqspmonochrome for +HQSP Monochrome
#linklens +LinkLens
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+BTP Editors' Choice (Top Photo page)

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Bitten by a fairy?

Fly agaric (Amanita muscaria)

Svartskog, Norway

This otherwise perfect specimen has lost a chunk that will never be repaired and makes this mushroom look rather mutilated. Yet this is more the norm than not, which makes finding a perfect specimen difficult and requiring on a lot of luck.

This is from a ravenous slug having had a feast in the dark of night, which makes this frustrating as during the day they are nowhere to be seen and you can locate a beautiful specimen only to find it completely demolished the next morning.

Thus, as with life as a whole, never postpone. Never wait for a tomorrow, as now is when you have all the opportunities in the world to harvest what is available.

That said, I do find this artistic and beautiful as it is a beautifully carved bite and often a mushroom is crisscrossed with holes like a Swiss cheese and looking like a complete mess. This one is for a brief moment a piece of art.

This was shot in the very last minutes of daylight and I assume the slugs were already on their way to gnawing off another piece of the mushroom, making it much less of art and more of a disaster.

Image Copyright © 2017 +Morten Ross
Image Capture Date: 08 September 2017 18:22
Altitude: 51 meters

#fungi #mushrooms #autumn #svartskog #norway

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On the way to the Aoraki/Mount Cook National Park for some night shooting. I couldn't resist stopping off at Peters lookout, for that famous postcard shot :-)

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Chandrayaan-1 and NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter reveal that water is widely distributed on the moon's surface- Technology News, Firstpost

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This is how Samsung's iPhone X Killer looks.

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Rather than wait for viruses like Ebola, SARS and Zika to become outbreaks that force the world to react, a new global initiative seeks to proactively identify, prepare for and stop viral threats before they become pandemics.

"We now have the ability to understand viral threats before they cause outbreaks," said Dr. Jonna Mazet, the paper's anchor author and Executive Director of the One Health Institute at the University of California, Davis, School of Veterinary Medicine. "It is time to move from reactionary mode, chasing the last horrible virus, to a proactive one. We can and will finally be able to identify future threats and take the steps necessary to prevent the next pandemic."

Prevention less costly than reaction

Preventing outbreaks can cost less than reacting to one. For instance, the global economic impacts of the 2003 SARS epidemic was an estimated $10 billion to $30 billion. Yet, the cost of identifying the viruses in advance and preparing for them remains a significant challenge.

The Global Virome Project estimates that discovering most of the remaining viral threats and characterizing their risk of spillover would cost less than 10 percent of responding to just one major outbreak, like the West African Ebola epidemic.

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Italy Scrambles to Fight Misinformation Ahead of Its Elections
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