A global community interested in systems science(s). Includes members of the International Society for the Systems Sciences.
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David Ing
owner

Discussion  - 
 
The documentary on Aaron Swartz, indicted by the feds for downloading from JSTOR, is on the Internet Archive at https://archive.org/details/TheInternetsOwnBoyTheStoryOfAaronSwartz .  Unfortunate prosecution in the U.S.  

> The Internet’s Own Boy told the story of the life and tragic death of Aaron Swartz, the leading geek wunderkind of his generation who was hounded to suicide at the age of 26 by a vindictive US administration. [....]  
> His downfall came when he turned his attention to JSTOR, a digital library of academic articles hidden behind a paywall. He devised a method of downloading large numbers of articles from JSTOR, using a computer hidden in a closet at MIT. He was arrested in January 2011 and pursued by federal prosecutors with a vindictive zeal, eventually being indicted on a raft of charges which carried a potential jail sentence of 35 years. Ground down by this, he hanged himself on 11 January 2013.  

"Aaron Swartz stood up for freedom and fairness – and was hounded to his death" | John Naughton | Feb. 7, 2015 | The Guardian at http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2015/feb/07/aaron-swartz-suicide-internets-own-boy

"The Internet's Own Boy: The Story of Aaron Swartz" | June 27, 2014 | Internet Archive at https://archive.org/details/TheInternetsOwnBoyTheStoryOfAaronSwartz
The Internet's Own Boy depicts the life of American computer programmer, writer, political organizer and Internet activist Aaron Swartz. It features interviews...
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David Ing
owner

Discussion  - 
 
Most post-2013 computers have Intel BootGuard, but @chrisbhoffman says Google Chromebooks come with Coreboot open source BIOS instead.  
> Modern UEFI firmware is a closed-source, proprietary blob of software baked into your PC’s hardware. This binary blob even includes remote management and monitoring features, which make it a potential security and privacy threat.  
> You might want to replace the UEFI firmware and get complete control over your PC’s hardware with Coreboot, a free software BIOS alternative—but you can’t in PCs with modern Intel processors, thanks to Intel’s Boot Guard and the “Verified Boot” mode PC manufacturers choose. [....]  
> This isn’t just some fringe free software project—all modern Chromebooks ship with Coreboot, and Google helps support it.

"How Intel and PC makers prevent you from modifying your laptop's firmware" | +Chris Hoffman | Feb. 13, 2015 | PC World at http://www.pcworld.com/article/2883903/how-intel-and-pc-makers-prevent-you-from-modifying-your-pcs-firmware.html

A pre-2013 laptop may be a better choice.  See advice from +ktgee via https://plus.google.com/+DavidIng/posts/ZbiD6QDmrcR
The UEFI firmware that boots up your PC is a closed, proprietary blob of code—and you can't change it out even if you wanted to. Here's why.
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David Ing
owner

Discussion  - 
 
By state, the most common job in 1978 was secretary; and in 2014 was truck driver.  As self-driving trucks rise, local economies will be impacted.  

> Truck drivers dominate the map for a few reasons.
> Driving a truck has been immune to two of the biggest trends affecting U.S. jobs: globalization and automation. A worker in China can't drive a truck in Ohio, and machines can't drive cars (yet).  
> Regional specialization has declined. So jobs that are needed everywhere — like truck drivers and schoolteachers — have moved up the list of most-common jobs.  
>  ... the government categorizes jobs [by lumping] together all truck drivers and delivery people, creating a very large category.

"Map: The Most Common* Job In Every State" | +Quoctrung Bui | Feb. 5, 2015 | Planet Money at http://www.npr.org/sections/money/2015/02/05/382664837/map-the-most-common-job-in-every-state 

> According to Morgan Stanley, complete autonomous capability will be here by 2022, followed by massive market penetration by 2026 and the cars we know and love today then entirely extinct in another 20 years thereafter.  [....]

> Take all of these estimates together, and we’re looking at a window of massive disruption starting somewhere between 2020 and 2030.

"Self-Driving Trucks Are Going to Hit Us Like a Human-Driven Truck" | +Scott Santens | May 14, 2015 | Medium at https://medium.com/basic-income/self-driving-trucks-are-going-to-hit-us-like-a-human-driven-truck-b8507d9c5961
The imminent need for basic income in recognition of our machine-driven future
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David Ing
owner

Discussion  - 
 
After "The Nature of Economies", the idea of "import replacement" associated with Jane "Jacobs externalities", has continued after the 2006 passing of the original author.  
https://ingbrief.wordpress.com/2015/05/11/post-2008-articles-on-jane-jacobs-ideas-in-economics/
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David Ing
owner

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Not a citizen of a country where university tuition is free?  Maybe you might study abroad where you're welcomed.  

>  Dorothee Stapelfeldt, a senator in the northern city of Hamburg, said tuition fees "discourage young people who do not have a traditional academic family background from taking up study.  It is a core task of politics to ensure that young women and men can study with a high quality standard free of charge in Germany."  

"7 countries where Americans can study at universities, in English, for free (or almost free)" | Rick Noack | Oct. 29, 2014 | Washington Post at http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/worldviews/wp/2014/10/29/7-countries-where-americans-can-study-at-universities-in-english-for-free-or-almost-free/
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Come to Norway, and let me correct, the winters are not that bad...
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David Ing
owner

Discussion  - 
 
Newer PCs with UEFI and Secure Boot make a computer more vulnerable to hacking (including by the NSA) rather than "more secure".  I've been struggling with a Lenovo T440s with UEFI and Windows 8.1, beside a Lenovo T420s with BIOS and Ubuntu Linux (previously loaded with Windows 7).  

"BIOS Hacking" | +Bruce Schneier | March 23, 2015 | Schneier on Security at https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2015/03/bios_hacking.html  

"Windows 8 and Intel UEFI: the NSA front door" | Zoltan | Oct. 2014 | Tek Syndicate at https://teksyndicate.com/comment/1775376  

"2.4 UEFI... The Microsoft NSA Kill Switch" | David Spring | Sept 11, 2014 |  
Free Yourself from Microsoft and the NSA... at http://www.freeyourselffrommicrosoftandthensa.org/02-superbugs-and-cyber-wars/2-4-uefi-the-microsoft-nsa-kill-switch  

The change from BIOS to UEFI occurred in 2012, so older computers and Windows 7 are not affected.  See http://blog.fpmurphy.com/2012/09/lenovo-t430-t530-now-support-uefi-secure-boot.html
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David Ing
owner

Discussion  - 
 
Multigenerational households for millennials is a reinvention of traditions from the old world.  +Christine Romans interviewed by +Rob Carrick:

> You say that moving back home is the single best economic decision that young people can make. What does this tell us about the challenges facing young adults?  
> It tells us the economics are all upside down for them. The big lever they have for their finances – the only lever they have after they get a degree – is moving home and keeping the rent down.  [....]

> Is there an argument for moving home even if you’re working?  
> If your rent is more than 50 per cent of your income, you need to move home. I would like to see rent at 25 per cent of income.

"Millennials: Save your cash, move home and pay off debt" | +Rob Carrick | Apr. 15 2015 | Globe and Mail at http://www.theglobeandmail.com/globe-investor/personal-finance/household-finances/millennials-save-your-cash-move-home-and-pay-off-debt/article23973340/ .

> ... millennials [are] twice as likely to be living at home with mom and dad than shopping for real estate. In fact you've been out of the home-buying game since the Crash of 2008.  
> Only 13.2% of people aged 18 to 34 are homeowners, a record low number. An astonishing 31% of people aged 18 to 34 are still living with their parents. And men are more likely than women to still be living at home.  

"Money Guide for Millennials: Rent vs. buy vs. live with mom and dad" | +Christine Romans | March 23, 2015 | CNN Money at http://money.cnn.com/2015/03/23/pf/millennials-parents-home-mortgage/ 

> according to a Pew Research study ....  Nearly 28 percent of Asian-American families live with at least two adult generations in the same household, the study found. Vietnamese and Filipinos are most likely to live in multigenerational households, followed by Chinese, Indian, Korean and Japanese families, according to the study’s findings.  

"Asian-Americans most likely to live in multigenerational households, study says" | +Jayna Omaye  | April 18, 2013 | Medill Reports at http://newsarchive.medill.northwestern.edu/chicago/news.aspx?id=220210
In her new book, Smart is the New Rich: Money Guide for Millennials, Christine Romans argues that moving home is economically necessary in many cases and a smart thing to do
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Great finds +David Ing​. Thank you 
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David Ing
owner

Discussion  - 
 
Phenomenon-based learning in Finland for 2016 will be student-centered and regionally decentralized.  Valerie Strauss corrects some sensationalism in recent reporting:  

> What will change in 2016 is that all basic schools for 7- to 16-year-olds must have at least one extended period of multi-disciplinary, phenomenon-based teaching and learning in their curricula. The length of this period is to be decided by schools themselves. [....]  

> You may wonder why Finland’s education authorities now insist that all schools must spend time on integration and phenomenon-based teaching when Finnish students’ test scores have been declining in the most recent international tests. The answer is that educators in Finland think, quite correctly, that schools should teach what young people need in their lives rather than try to bring national test scores back to where they were.  [....]  

> What most stories about Finland’s current education reform have failed to cover is the most surprising aspect of the reforms. NCF 2016 states that students must be involved in the planning of phenomenon-based study periods and that they must have voice in assessing what they have learned from it.  

"No, Finland isn’t ditching traditional school subjects. Here’s what’s really happening" | Valerie Strauss | March 26, 2015 | The Washington Post at http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/answer-sheet/wp/2015/03/26/no-finlands-schools-arent-giving-up-traditional-subjects-heres-what-the-reforms-will-really-do/
Children will look at broader topics and use multi-disciplinary modules, one expert says.
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David Ing
owner

Discussion  - 
 
Is economic growth unlikely in countries with declining populations? Finland's slump due to demographics and poor productivity growth could be a trend for Germany in coming decades, say Karl Whelan (UC Dublin) and Kieran McQuinn (ESRI Dublin).    

> ... Finland’s slump isn’t so complicated. In fact, it’s a simple story that you can expect to see played out in many of Europe’s countries, most notably Germany, in the coming decades. Two factors are driving Finland’s slump: Poor demographics and poor productivity growth.  

"Is Finland’s Slump A Glimpse Into Europe’s Future?" | Karl Whelan | March 19, 2015 | Medium at https://medium.com/bull-market/is-finland-s-slump-a-glimpse-into-europe-s-future-3ead34461dd3 

Working paper as "Europe’s Long-Term Growth Prospects: With and Without Structural Reforms" | Kieran McQuinn and Karl Whelan | March 25, 2015 at http://www.karlwhelan.com/Papers/McQuinnWhelanMarch2015.pdf
Poor demographics, poor productivity could be the new normal for Europe.
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Reminds me of the camper who was hurriedly putting on his shoes as a bear was coming. His companion said, "You can't outrun that bear." to which he replied, "I don't have to, all I have to do is outrun you."
Which means that any community that does not increase invention and innovation at the pace of the global norm is going to experience relative shortfalls.Many will complain that the 1% can run faster and want someone to carry them.  However, be clear that growth has two dimensions, one being new and novel usage of resources while the other is new and novel ways of avoiding waste of resources, i.e., sustainability. Then, not per worker but per citizen but not also per squatter or illegal immigrant.
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David Ing
owner

Discussion  - 
 
The Aqueduct Project by the @WorldResources Institute has interactive maps showing global drought risks.  @Co.Exist writes: 
> The project, created with an alliance of companies including GE, Goldman Sachs, Shell, and Procter & Gamble, is the highest high-resolution map of global water stress available today. It’s also the first water-risk mapping tool to include a layer for groundwater data. WRI’s free map uses 2010 data (the most current data available) to measure a number of categories of water risk around the world: physical risk; variability in available water from year to year, which looks at flood occurrences (how often and how intense); severity of droughts (how long and how severe), groundwater stress, pollution pressure, demand for water treatment, media coverage about water issues (meaning how much attention is given to water in a given area), and more.  [....]  
> [Betsy Otto, Director of Aqueduct for WRI] discovered a number of striking things while putting together the map. Places that haven’t traditionally had high water risks—the East Coast of the United States, the upper Midwest, Europe—now have medium to high water risk. This is because of changes in water demand, withdrawal patterns, weather, and water-supply patterns. At the same time, places where there’s already high competition for water (i.e. India) are at serious risk when combined with annual variability in water. "When thinking about resilience in the face of risk, it’s not just baseline stress, but what the disruptions are that could really wreak havoc," explains Otto. 

"An Incredibly Detailed Map Shows The Potential Of Global Water Risks" | +Ariel Schwartz | Nov. 13, 2014 | Fast Company Co.Exist at http://www.fastcoexist.com/1681298/an-incredibly-detailed-map-shows-the-potential-of-global-water-risks  

The +World Resources Institute (WRI) maps can be found at http://www.wri.org/our-work/project/aqueduct 
A new tool from the World Resources Institute lets you see all the bad things that might stem from water, from droughts to floods and beyond.
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About this community

The International Society for the Systems Sciences (ISSS) is among the first and oldest organizations devoted to interdisciplinary inquiry into the nature of complex systems, and remains perhaps the most broadly inclusive. Originally founded as the Society for General Systems Research, the initial purpose of the society was "to encourage the development of theoretical systems which are applicable to more than one of the traditional departments of knowledge," with the following principal aims: to investigate the isomorphy of concepts, laws, and models in various fields, and to help in useful transfers from one field to another; to encourage the development of adequate theoretical models in areas which lack them; to eliminate the duplication of theoretical efforts in different fields; and to promote the unity of science through improving the communication among specialists. In the intervening years, the ISSS has expanded its scope beyond purely theoretical and technical considerations to include the practical application of systems methodologies to problem solving. Even more importantly, it has provided a forum where scholars and practitioners from across the disciplinary spectrum, representing academic, business, government, and non-profit communities, can come together to share ideas and learn from one another.

David Ing
owner

Discussion  - 
 
Idealized design of a doctoral degree for the 21st century at Philadelphia U., by the Systems Wisdom team:  

> We imposed two project requirements.  First was the adoption of a systems thinking framework or mindset including expansion rather than only reduction thinking.  A new doctoral program, we posited, is a social system contained within the university system.  [....]

The second related requirement was that the expert knowledge for the design was presumed to reside in many places and with many people beyond the customer and consultant.  To create the design for a new doctoral program, therefore, requires direct involvement by internal and external communities, stakeholders, and users.   For this project, the consultants would be process experts; the customer, stakeholders and users would be the content experts who would directly incorporate their own interests and values resulting in a program “designed by” the customer, stakeholders and users.

"Designing an Ideal Doctoral Degree" | +Larry Starr | May 11, 2015 | Systems Wisdom blog at http://systemswisdom.typepad.com/my-blog/2015/05/designing-an-ideal-doctoral-degree.html

See also Reports and Papers at http://www.systemswisdom.com/papers
In 2014, Philadelphia University (PhilaU) a 130 year old institution with a mission to develop the model for professional university education in the 21st century asked Systems Wisdom to design ( we provided project leadership[i] and facilitation[ii]) a new kind of professional doctorate for their institution. Based on their deep...
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David Ing
owner

Discussion  - 
 
Animated lecture of "tree of knowledge" to "web of life" rhizomatic networks @mslima +Manuel Lima, an 11-minute cartoon derived from the 18-minute lecture.

"RSA Animate - The Power of Networks" | Manual Lima | Oct. 23, 2013 | Visual Complexity Blog at http://www.visualcomplexity.com/vc/blog/?p=1125  

"RSA Animate - The Power of Networks" (11 minutes) | Manuel Lima | May 22, 2012 | RSA at https://www.thersa.org/discover/videos/rsa-animate/2012/05/rsa-animate---the-power-of-networks/ 

"The Power of Networks: Knowledge in an Age of Infinite Interconnectendess" (18 minutes) | Manuel Lima | Dec. 8. 2011 | RSA at https://www.thersa.org/discover/videos/event-videos/2011/12/the-power-of-networks-knowledge-in-an-age-of-infinite-interconnectedness/
About two years ago, in November 2010, I wrote a post stating I much I enjoyed and admired the “remarkable examples of visual storytelling” produced by the Royal Society of Arts (RSA) and CognitiveMedia in their enticing RSA Animate series. Earlier this year I received an email from RSA telling ...
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David Ing
owner

Discussion  - 
 
Strategy consulting as Porter's 1979 competitive advantage is dead, with Drucker's 1973 dominant force of customers enduring.  The demise of Monitor Group in Nov. 2012 is explained by +Stephen Denning.

> Porter began his publishing career in his March-April 1979 Harvard Business Review article, “How Competitive Forces Shape Strategy”, with a very strange sentence: “The essence of strategy is coping with competition.” Ignoring Peter Drucker’s foundational insight of 1973 that the only valid purpose of a business is to create a customer, Porter focused strategy on how to protect businesses from other business rivals. The goal of strategy, business and business education was to find a safe haven for businesses from the destructive forces of competition.  [....]
> There was just one snag. What was the intellectual basis of this now vast enterprise of locating sustainable competitive advantage? As [Matthew] Stewart [author of The Management Myth, 2009] notes, it was “lacking any foundation in fact or logic.” Except where generated by government regulation, sustainable competitive advantage simply doesn’t exist.  [....]
> Although Michael Porter, the human being, appears to be a well-meaning man of high personal integrity, his framework for the discipline of strategy “isn’t just an epistemological black hole; in its essence, it’s antisocial, because it preserves excess profits, and it’s bad for business, because it doesn’t work. It accomplishes the unlikely feat of goading business leaders to do wrong both to their shareholders and to their fellow human beings.” [....]
> The “profit potential of an industry” turned out to be, not a fixed quantity with the only question of determining who would get which share, but rather a highly elastic concept, expanding dramatically at one moment or collapsing abruptly at another, with competitors and innovations coming out of nowhere. As Clayton Christensen demonstrated in industry after industry, disruptive innovation destroyed company after company that believed in its own sustainable competitive advantage.

"What Killed Michael Porter's Monitor Group? The One Force That Really Matters" | Steve Denning | March 20, 2012 | Forbes at http://www.forbes.com/sites/stevedenning/2012/11/20/what-killed-michael-porters-monitor-group-the-one-force-that-really-matters/ 

"Even Monitor Didn't Believe In Five-Forces Analysis!" | Steve Denning | Nov. 24, 2014 | Forbes at http://www.forbes.com/sites/stevedenning/2012/11/24/even-monitor-didnt-believe-in-the-five-forces/  

"It's Official! The End Of Competitive Advantage" | Steve Denning | June 2, 2013 | Forbes at http://www.forbes.com/sites/stevedenning/2013/06/02/its-official-the-end-of-competitive-advantage/

"The Management Myth" | Matthew Stewart | June 2006 | The Atlantic at http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2006/06/the-management-myth/304883/

"The Management Myth: Debunking the Modern Philosophy of Business" | Matthew Stewart | W.W. Norton & Co. 2009 at http://mwstewart.com/books/the-management-myth/
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Reminds of patent trolls...
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David Ing
owner

Discussion  - 
 
Systems thinking in technologies and organization is strong in a free "Building an Optimized Business" O'Reilly 2015 ebook anthology.  Includes chapters that reflect agile, lean and devops.  

> The ebook includes excerpts from the following books:
Designing Delivery (Jeff Sussna): Chapter 1. From Industrialism to Post-Industrialism
Lean Enterprise (Jez Humble, Joanne Molesky, Barry O'Reilly): Chapter 6. Deploy Continuous Improvement
DevOps in Practice (J. Paul Reed): Chapter 2. Nordstrom
User Story Mapping (Jeff Patton): Chapter 3. Plan to Learn Faster
Lean Enterprise: Chapter 9. Take an Experimental Approach to Product Development
Lean UX (Jeff Gothelf, Josh Seiden): Chapter 7. Integrating Lean UX and Agile
Designing for Performance (Lara Callender Hogan): Chapter 8. Changing Culture at Your Organization
Creating a Data-Driven Organization (Carl Anderson): Chapter 1. What Do We Mean by Data-Driven?
Human Side of Postmortems (David Zwieback)
Lean Enterprise: Chapter 15. Start Where You Are

"From Industrialism to Post-Industrialism" | +Jeff Sussna | Designing Delivery, excerpt at http://radar.oreilly.com/2015/04/from-industrialism-to-post-industrialism.html via @branderlog
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David Ing
owner

Discussion  - 
 
Designing experiences and products at Ikea is based in research, including anthropology and a focus on maintaining low prices. Despite being a globally appreciated brand, the Ikea catalog is localized regionally within nations.  

> Even surveying 8,292 people doesn’t always get you the right answer. The problem is that people lie. Ydholm puts it more delicately. “Sometimes we are not aware about how we behave,” he says, “and therefore we can say things that maybe are not the reality. Or it could be that we consciously or unconsciously express something because we want to stand out as a better person. That’s very human to do it like that.”  
> One way Ikea researchers get around this is by taking a firsthand look themselves. The company frequently does home visits and—in a practice that blends research with reality TV—will even send an anthropologist to live in a volunteer’s abode. Ikea recently put up cameras in people’s homes in Stockholm, Milan, New York, and Shenzhen, China, to better understand how people use their sofas. What did they learn? “They do all kinds of things except sitting and watching TV,” Ydholm says. The Ikea sleuths found that in Shenzhen, most of the subjects sat on the floor using the sofas as a backrest. “I can tell you seriously we for sure have not designed our sofas according to people sitting on the floor and using a sofa like that,” says Ydholm.  [...]  

> There’s an internal nickname for products that take too long to put together. “Sometimes,” Dickner says, “we call it a ‘husband killer.’ ”  
> It may not be noticed by everyone, but in recent years Ikea has been killing far fewer husbands. The company has accomplished this modest feat in large part through improving its product design. As much as it has doubled down on market research and logistics, Ikea has been relentless in its focus on design.  

"How Ikea took over the world" | Beth Kowitt | March 15, 2015 | Fortune at http://fortune.com/ikea-world-domination/ .
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BioCoder Spring 2015

Bioinformatics for Aspiring Synthetic Biologists

by

Edgar Andrés Ochoa Cruz, Sayane Shome, Pablo Cárdenas, Maaruthy Yelleswarapu, Jitendra Kumar Gupta, Eugenio Maria Battaglia, Alioune Ngom, Pedro L. Fernandes, and Gerd Moe-Behrens​

"For a synthetic biologist or biohacker to be able to hack, design, create, and engi- neer biological systems, the ability to work with biological data is essential. Basic bioinformatics skills will be required in order to read, interpret, write, and gener- ate files containing DNA, RNA, protein, and other biological information. In this article, we will show the path you need to follow to implement a biological func- tion using online data. As a case study, we are using Imperial College’s 2014 iGEM project, which focused on the optimization of bacterial cellulose production for use in water filtration."

free download can be found here:
http://oreil.ly/WfVCzh
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David Ing
owner

Discussion  - 
 
Full-time MBA programs in 2015 are less popular across North America, and GMAT writers are down.  

> Applications from Canadian students were in decline following the economic crisis, and competition for the smaller pool of students was raging with hundreds of other MBA schools across the continent.  [....]  

> Last year, about 87,000 Americans wrote the Graduate Management Admission Test, or GMAT, an aptitude exam generally required as part of an application to MBA programs. That compares with 127,000 in 2010, according to figures complied by the Graduate Management Admission Council, which administers the test. In Canada, 5,926 people took GMAT tests in 2013, a 23-per-cent fall from 7,737 in 2010, GMAC data show.  

> The reverse is happening elsewhere, particularly in Asia. Last year, 57,783 Chinese citizens wrote the GMAT tests, a 91-per cent-increase in four years.   

"Canada’s MBA problem: How business schools are fighting to stay relevant" | Janet McFarland | Apr. 4, 2015 | Globe and Mail at http://www.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/careers/management/canadas-mba-problem-the-cutthroat-industry-of-business-schools/article23793772/
The MBA field has a decidedly non-academic air of marketing and product experimentation, with universities battling to woo students with shorter degrees, novel programs, alluring opportunities for foreign travel, and new high-tech buildings
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Delia MacNamara
moderator

Discussion  - 
 
The International Society for System Sciences (ISSS) Conference in Berlin this year has early bird discounts ending 30 April.   This year, the conference is "Governing the Anthropocene: The greatest challenge for systems thinking in practice?"
  SAVE UP TO 18% on Early Bird Registration Discounts available now for the #ISSS2015 Berlin Meeting with prices going up on the 1st May 2015.   The registratio...
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David Ing
owner

Discussion  - 
 
Not enforcing copyright and shifting to experience goods, says @grok_ +Kate Darling, is the economic path primarily chosen by adult entertainment producers. 

> ... the porn industry doesn’t seem that interested in pursuing copyright violators. Intellectual property scholar Kate Darling studied how the industry was responding to piracy, and it turned out that — by and large — adult entertainment creators ran the numbers and found that it simply cost more from them to fight copyright violators than it was worth.

"RB 214: CopyrightXXX" | +Daniel Jones | Dec. 15, 2014 | Berkman Center for Internet & Society at http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/mediaberkman/2014/12/15/rb-214-copyrightxxx/

> “What Drives IP without IP ... is It’s actually a play on words, a description of a type of research that has become increasingly popular in legal scholarship, which is Information Production Without Intellectual Property. And there have been a number of studies looking at how industries deal with a lack of, or a reduced set of, Intellectual Property protections, particularly if they’re creative industries and they’re producing creative work.  

"Porn, the Internet, and Intellectual Property" | +Leora Kornfeld | Nov. 11, 2014 | De-mass'd at http://demassed.blogspot.ca/2014/11/porn-internet-and-intellectual-property.html 

> “You can steal the feed, but you can’t steal the experience.”  [p. 750]  
"IP Without IP? A Study of the Online Adult Entertainment Industry" | Kate Darling | Nov. 2, 2014 | Stanford Law Review at https://journals.law.stanford.edu/stanford-technology-law-review/online/ip-without-ip-study-online-adult-entertainment-industry
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David Ing
owner

Discussion  - 
 
Figs have their flowers inside the fruit.  How do they get pollinated?  

> The common fig is a member of the genus Ficus. Ficus is a large genus with some 2000 tropical and subtropical tree, shrub and vine species distributed around the whole world. The fruit of all ficus species is the syconium, an enlarged, fleshy and hollow peduncle bearing closely massed tiny flowers on its inner wall. The true fruits are tiny drupelets which develop from these flowers. The problem is these flowers are borne on the inside of the syconium. They never open to the outside world like respectable roses, cabbages and oak trees. How do they get pollinated?  
>  That's their weird sex life. Hold on for this is complicated. F. carica and some closely related species come in two basic forms: edible figs and caprifigs.   

"The Weird Sex Life of the Fig" | Ray Givan | 2013 at http://www.raysfigs.com/figsex.html  

For a video on the caprifig and wasp (and not the edible fig!) see also "The Strange Sex Life of Figs" | Hemi Weingarten | Sept. 6, 2014 | Fooducate at http://blog.fooducate.com/2014/09/06/the-strange-sex-life-of-figs/
The Weird Sex Life of the Fig. The common fig is a member of the genus Ficus. Ficus is a large genus with some 2000 tropical and subtropical tree, shrub and vine species distributed around the whole world. The fruit of all ficus species is the syconium, an enlarged, fleshy and hollow peduncle ...
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