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Tirtha Dastider

Neuroscience  - 
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"...In this post, we’ll talk about the Turing Test, how computers are already augmenting human cognition, and what it may mean to the learning profession." #turingtest   #intelligence   #instructionaldesign  
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Satyr Icon's profile photoJuana Llorens's profile photo
 
Memory, and memory processing
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We are happy to announce the fourth edition of the Neurovation symposium on technological applications in neurocognition. Neurovation 2014 will be held on October 6 and 7, 2014 in Utrecht, The Netherlands and features four (single track) sessions on electrically measuring and stimulating the brain as well as on measuring and stimulating the brain using light. Keynote speakers are Prof. McDowell (Army Research Lab), Prof. Meier (University of Heidelberg), Drs. Stefan Reschke (Fraunhofer institute), and Prof. Tsjalling Swierstra (Maastricht). Amongst the invited presenters are Prof. Duco Jansen (Vanderbilt), Prof. Amiram Grinvald (Weizmann institute), Prof. Debener (university of Oldenburg), and Prof. Villringer (Max Planck Gesellschaft).

Please visit our website at neurovation.nl for a full list of speakers and to register for the symposium. Follow our Google+ page for updates on the symposium.

Neurovation intends to gather people with a variety of backgrounds who are active in the field of Brain and Cognitive Science on topics as diverse as sleep, healthy aging, mental wellbeing, light therapy, fundamental and applied research, clinicians, policy makers, and business opportunities. Its aim is to provide a bridge between fundamental and applied research to create opportunities for the application of research findings in future products. It does so by enabling interaction across research disciplines and methods in the context of existing or future applications, to discuss options for innovations based on Brain and Cognitive Science. Invited presentations of distinguished scientists and business visionaries will fuel discussion on the applications that are relevant for society at large, and foster the formation of an innovation community.
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http://www.psychometrica.in/
If your BOSS then share ..... your LEADER then Like 
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Serbian Irish

Linguistics  - 
 
I would like to present here the results of my research in the area of language origin, creation and development and disappearance.

I believe that the existence of languages is intrinsically connected with the existence of life. I also believe that the creation, sharing, propagation, evolution, replacement, preservation of languages are all governed by the same small set of simple naturally occurring mechanisms and systems in all living organisms. 

The language is the core building block of consciousness, self awareness and reality. Everything that exists in our reality is constructed by us. This doesn't mean that the world around us does not exist, only that we can not directly experience it. We have to rely on our senses to pass to us data describing observed changes in the outside world, and then we have to make sense of it, translate this data using a language entirely invented by us. The fact that we live in a stable reality is due to constant synchronization of our reality with realities of other reality builders around us with whom we communicate as part of our own reality building. You can read more here. I hope you find it Interesting.


http://oldeuropeanculture.blogspot.ie/p/un.html
I am here going to explain my understanding of what language is, how it works, how it is created, how it evolves and how it disappears.  I believe that the existence of languages is intrinsically connected with the existence ...
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Although a lot of this went over my head. I just wanted to say thanks for doing the research. The abstract is fascinating, but I had to leave it there. The more and more I learn about linguistics the more I understand how essential it is too the way in which we communicate and create concepts.
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Tharindra Galahena

Artificial intelligence  - 
 
Gender Identity of an Artificial Intelligence

Gender identity is the private sense, and subjective experience, of person's about their own gender. Dictionary.com define gender identity as,

“Person’s inner sense of being male or female, usually developed during early childhood as a result of parental rearing practices and societal influences and strengthened during puberty by hormonal changes.”

Gender identity is quite different from the sex which means the biological maleness or femaleness which is determined way before the gender identity. According to biology males have XY chromosomes and females have XX chromosomes. Sex is determined at the instant which a woman's egg is fertilized by a man's sperm. If an X sperm fertilizes an X egg, the fetus will be female. If a Y sperm fertilizes the X egg, the fetus will be male. But gender identity is developed through a psychological process which begins after the child’s birth. Also a person’s gender identity doesn’t have to be the same as that person’s sex.
 
For this article I try to ask some questions about the possibility of AI having gender identities. Will AI have gender identities? If so do all of them have same gender identity? Or will they have different gender identities? Will those gender identities be the same as human gender identities? Also what will the influence of humans to development of gender identities of AI?

Complete Article at, http://tharindra-galahena.tumblr.com/post/89244015641/gender-identity-of-an-artificial-intelligence
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Does the human brain store all the images which it comes across in daily life ?
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I believe it's kept in short term memory until no longer used or useful, then it's discarded.
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Tirtha Dastider

Psychology  - 
 
The Value of Believing That People Can Change

We label people by the characteristics they show all the time.  We think of a particular person as being a bully, a nerd, a musician, or an athlete.  The label may be a reasonable reflection of who they are right now, but it also carries a belief that the behavior reflects a person’s essence.When you say that someone is a bully, you not only mean that they tend to bully other people, but also that—at their core—they are the kind of person who bullies others.If you use terms to describe people and you believe that they cannot change, then life can be stressful.  Every time that someone treats you badly, you take that as evidence that they are a bad person and not just that they did a bad thing.  So, if you are able to think about people’s personalities in a less fixed way, perhaps that would decrease your overall stress.

EXPERIMENTAL REVIEW FROM THE JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
One paper looked at simple correlations between beliefs and stress in high school students over the course of a school year.  At the start of the school year, ninth graders were given a brief questionnaire about whether they thought people’s personality could change.  They were also given a test of their reaction to social exclusion.  This test is called Cyberball.  In this game, participants sit at a computer and think they are passing a ball along with two classmates playing at other computers.  After the ball is initially passed to everyone, the participant is excluded for several minutes as they other players pass the ball only back and forth to each other.  After this exclusion, participants rated how stressful they found the game to be.  Finally, at the end of the school year, the students provided information about their stress level and their physical health.  The researcher also looked at the students’ grades at the end of the year.The more participants believed that personality can change, the less affected they were by being excluded while playing Cyberball.  In addition, the more that people believe that others can change, the lower their stress, the better their health, and the higher their grades at the end of the year.
This result raises the possibility that if people were trained to think that personality characteristics can change, then they might do better in school.  In two additional studies, the researchers used an intervention of this type.  One study was done in a fairly wealthy school district, while the other was done in a very poor district.  In each study, participants were ninth-grade students who were at risk for failing out of school.
At the start of the school year, participants in an experimental intervention condition read an article about how personality can change.  They also read stories that were supposed to have come from upperclassmen talking about how this knowledge helped them.  Then, students wrote their own stories that they were told would be used by future students.  Students in the control condition read about how athletic ability can be changed.  As in the study just described, all participants then played the Cyberball game.  In addition, their stress, health, and grades at the end of the year were measured.
Even though, this intervention was brief, it had a significant and lasting impact on participants.  Compared to students in the control condition, those who got the intervention reacted less strongly to the Cyberball game.  At the end of the year, they experienced less stress, had fewer health problems, and had higher grades than those in the control condition.  This effect was strongest for those students who did not already believe that personality could change over time.
Why does this intervention work?  Statistical analyses suggest that believing that personality can change leads to a smaller reaction to social exclusion (as measured by the Cyberball game).  Reacting less strongly to social exclusion has a cascade effect over time, and lowers stress levels while also having a positive impact on performance in school.
These studies fit with  the evidence of  the belief that people can change has many benefits.  Students who believe their own behavior and performance can change work harder in school to overcome academic difficulty.  People who believe that others can change are more likely to work with them to regain trust after they have a bad experience. 
Ultimately, it is important to realize that you should not completely define the people in your life by their current behavior.

(REF: ARTICLE BY  DR ART MARKMAN ,COGNITIVE SCIENTIST,UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS)
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Bill Brayman

Psychology  - 
 
Brain architecture seems to have some key properties, highly networked, modular, and hierarchically organized. In this paper it is suggested that brain modularity differences in people help explain the varying degrees and forms of "mentalism" and "mechanism" that characterize personality patterns. This researcher and theorist focuses on clinical issues such autism vs schizophrenia, but the general idea is interesting in itself. http://www.thegreatdebate.org.uk/MentalismCB.html
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Stephen Gibson

Psychology  - 
 
Thanks for lettin' me in the door folks. +Tirtha Dastider, I saw your post about the psychology of God, and thought it was awesome. Awesome. Awesome. I was exploring the issue from that of a different perspective, and yet came to the exact same conclusion you did.
In my own pantheon, all the gods can exist, but only so much as they exist within us, right? They only ever have as much power as we give them. Hardly ever do gods appear in any physical form of course, lest some witch be inv...
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About this community

Cognitive science (cogsci): a fusion of various disciplines, including linguistics, computer science, neuroscience, sociology, artificial intelligence, psychology, philosophy, anthropology, … In other words, we study thought, or analogues to thought, from many perspectives syncretically.
 
Can Collective Behavior of AI Agents Create Consciousness?

The collective behavior is a common type of behavior among humans as well as animals. The collective behavior is defined in Dictionary.com as,

“The spontaneous, unstructured, and temporary behavior of a group of people in response to the same event,  situation,  etc.”

But for this article, we only consider the behavior of a set of machines or AI agents which behave individually according to their inputs and their internal factors and rules. These inputs can come from the environment which they are part of as well as from their fellow agents. Also for this article both structured and unstructured behaviors are being considered.

Collective behavior in machines isn’t a new idea. Swarm intelligence which is introduced by Gerardo Beni and Jing Wang in 1989,  study  the collective behavior of decentralized, self-organized, natural or artificial systems. And this concept mostly used in the field of artificial intelligence.
These kind of studies is mostly focused on intelligence. But when it comes to consciousness, it is not that clear. The purpose of this article is to see whether this structured or unstructured collective behavior of AI agents can produce consciousness.

Complete Article at, http://tharindra-galahena.tumblr.com/post/91062789126/can-collective-behavior-of-ai-agents-create
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Our brain and body work together to give us the complex experience of emotions: a stud in PNAS draws bodily maps of emotions, similarly to the corresponding brain maps
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Secret to Success...
"If you are Happy and most of the people are happy with you then you are successful"

Yeah...that's my theory about being happy but I certainly believe that it is the meaning of success.The method is simple and I learnt this secret during my Masters ,when i studied Petroleum Management .First you have to identify the type of person and then manage him/her .Every body in the world belongs to a certain type of personality ...what I learnt there are 13 Types of People in the World and below is the description that how every type of personality is being handled.

Read Complete article: http://whentalhaspeaks.blogspot.com/2012/11/secret-to-success.html
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This is probably one of the better scientific presentations I’ve seen explaining the concepts and possibilities of a Global or Collective Consciousness that I’ve seen in a long time. 

http://www.theoryserum.com/scientific-case-collective-consciousness/
This is probably one of the better scientific presentations explaining the concepts of a Global or Collective Consciousness that I've seen.
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Selina Kyle

Psychology  - 
 
"It's a little troubling, given that Myers and Briggs were a mother (Katharine Briggs) and daughter (Isabel Myers) who studied the works of psychologist Carl Jung a hundred years ago, particularly his book "Psychological Types." Myers and Briggs weren't social scientists themselves. Briggs was a housewife with a deep interest in Jung; before she wrote a survey that served as a prototype of Myers-Briggs personality tests, Myers wrote mystery novels." 

Personally I've taken the test more than once and always get different results each time lol

Have you taken it?
 
And yet people become so attached to the results and make it a core part of their identity. It's stupid.
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David Yewdineh

Neuroscience  - 
 
Is anyone able to explain why the colors will eventually blend to white when you stare long enough to one point at this picture without blinking.
Iam studying my first year of applied physics so it would be nice if there would be a biological/scientific substantiation.
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David Yewdineh's profile photoMark Baldwin's profile photo
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+Mark Baldwin thanks man! 
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I am pleased to announce a Proposers' Day conference for IARPA's Machine Intelligence from Cortical Networks (MICrONS) program.  The conference will be held on Thursday, July 17, 2014 in the College Park, Maryland metropolitan area.  A brief summary of the program and its goals is copied below; the full announcement is available at https://www.fbo.gov/notices/9b5c9fedae00bd2f2b3f4a1770451596.  Hope to see you there!

Program Description and Goals

For many information processing tasks, the brain employs algorithms composed of multiple instances of a limited set of computing "primitives" arrayed in a multi-stage processing architecture. Neurons in these primitives operate in parallel and communicate with their neighbors above, below, and laterally within the network to make sense of the complex environments in which we live. Today's state of the art algorithms for machine learning take a similar form, but deviate significantly in the details of implementation. Presumably, a significant part of the performance gap separating artificial and biological computing today is due to these deviations. The MICrONS program is predicated on the notion that it will be possible to revolutionize machine intelligence if we can construct algorithms that utilize the same data representations, transformations, and learning rules as those employed and implemented by the cortical computing primitives.

Although a significant body of neuroscience data has been collected over the past 100+ years, the majority of what is known about the brain is about its microscale (one or a few neurons) or macroscale (hundreds of thousands or millions of neurons) operation. Much less is known about the detailed structure and function of the mesoscale cortical microcircuits (hundreds to tens of thousands of neurons) that embody the cortical computing primitives, because until recently there have been few tools available to interrogate the brain at the requisite resolution (nanometers) and scale (millimeters). MICrONS seeks to use emerging technologies in high-resolution and high-throughput brain mapping-such as serial electron microscopy and volumetric calcium imaging-to address this gap in our understanding of cortical computation and to exploit the findings to enhance machine intelligence.

The overall and specific goal of the MICrONS program is to create a new generation of machine learning algorithms derived from high-fidelity representations of cortical microcircuits to achieve human-like performance on complex information processing tasks. To achieve this goal, multidisciplinary teams will:

• Propose an algorithmic framework for information processing that is consistent with existing neuroscience data, but that cannot be fully realized without additional specific knowledge about the data representations, computations, and network architectures employed by the brain;

• Collect and analyze high-resolution data on the structure and function of cortical microcircuits believed to embody the cortical computing primitives underlying key components of the proposed framework;

• Generate computational neural models of cortical microcircuits informed and constrained by this data and by the existing neuroscience literature to elucidate the nature of the cortical computing primitives; and 

• Implement novel machine learning algorithms that use mathematical abstractions of the identified cortical computing primitives as their basis of operation.

It is anticipated that algorithms created under MICrONS will be validated through their performance on complex auditory or visual scene parsing tasks, and will also demonstrate capacity for generalization to abstract, non-sensory data.
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What do emoticons mean to you?
 
A study published in Social Neuroscience shows how emoticons register in our brains.
 
Emoticons have become so engrained in our society that most of us accept them as an acceptable and appropriate way to show emotion within text. Emoticons have become part of our daily language, but how does our brain perceive them compared to traditional faces? Does the orientation of the emoticon matter (sideways vs upright)? A research team from the University of South Australia and Flinders University investigated these questions.
 
The research team conducted an experiment where they presented 20 participants with upright and sideways faces and emoticons along with lines of random computer characters. The researchers found that the upright facing emoticons were processed in a similar manor to actual faces. However, when the emoticons were processed sideways, the brain processed them differently than sideways faces. This data suggests that an upright emoticon registers in a similar way to a real face showing emotion. The brain uses the same areas in the occipitotemporal cortex to recognize the upright emoticon as a face.
 
Journal article: Emoticons in mind: An event-related potential study. Social Neuroscience , 2014.
 
Read the full text here: http://goo.gl/U1ZpYi
 
Image: Happy Smiley, Wikimedia Commons
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How does the human recognize the object with vision ? e.g., whether the object is a chair or a table or a fan etc..
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Stephen Gibson

Psychology  - 
 
Holy effing cripes, this is the exact group I have been seeking an answer from, and I didn't even know t'was existent until now. Okay, okay. I'm excited. I've brought this up into a handful of different communities, with relatively predictable, if not wholly unsatisfying results. Some groups have outright blocked me, seemingly for this question alone, bless their hearts. 

Little background, I'm pagan minded, and indulge in calling myself a witch nowadays. Just because. That's important, because it reveals the structure of my filters, see? I have pagany beliefs, they shape my neuro-circuits, and so I perceive the universe to be all pagan-like. I guess. I'm being silly about it, because the question I pose has become serious at times.

Then my question...what is a "god"? More specifically though, is there yet a truly scientific analysis, and language, to functionally explain what is happening to the nervous system when it experiences a connection to some "mystical" intelligence, or "divine" inspiration, "spirits" that seem to tell them things they did not know before, or "beings" that show them things they feel like they could never have fathomed? WTF is that all about, fer realz? It seems to happen to a lot of different people (including myself), in a lot of different ways. And it's often framed in religious terms.

So then my question, again. What IS a "god"? When a mythology becomes "alive" within a person, what, exactly, is happening?

Robert Anton Wilson explained the phenomena to himself as his "right-brain talking to his left-brain", and it seemed to satisfy him at least part of the time. But today's science doesn't really support that notion at all. I would like to know, what do you fine folks think about this rabbit-hole? Is that all it is, a rabbit-hole? Or is there a better explanation? 
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Earl Schmidt's profile photoRichard Mankiewicz's profile photo
6 comments
 
+Stephen Gibson  Please read "Does God exist?" by Hans Kung.
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