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உண்மையில் ஆன்லைனில் சம்பாதிக்க நினைக்கும் எண்ணம் கொண்டார்கள் மட்டும் இதனை பயன்படுத்திக்கொள்ளுங்கள். இது 100% உண்மை அரசாங்கத்தால் அங்கீகரிக்கப்பட்ட கம்பெனி champcash Pvt Ltd. முதலீடு இல்லாமல் தினமும் 1hr work செய்தாலே ₹50000க்கு மேல் சம்பாதிக்க முடியும். நீங்கள் இதில் சேர விரும்பினால்.. playstore லிருந்து champcash money free appயை install செய்ய வேண்டும் refer ID கேட்கும் இடத்தில் 15600789யை கொடுக்க வேண்டும்.
மேலும் இதில் 7 முதல் 9 appகளை install செய்ய வேண்டும். குறைந்தது 6 appsயாவது பதிவிறக்கம் செய்ய வேண்டும். இப்போது உங்களுக்கென ஒரு refer ID கிடைக்கும். உங்கள் refer IDயை பயன்படுத்தி நீங்கள் மற்றவர்களை சேர்க்க வேண்டும் இது தான் வேலை. இனி எப்படி பணம் சேறும் என்று பார்ப்போம். Pointsன் அடிப்படையில் பார்போம்.. 1000 (100%) points என்பது 1$ ஆகும். 500 (50%) points 0.5$. 10% என்பது 100 points. நீங்கள் இணைந்தவுடன் உங்களுக்கு 1$ கிடைக்கும். உங்களுக்கு கீழே நீங்கள் நபர்களை சேர்பதால் 50% வரை points சேரும். இது உங்களுக்கு 1st level ஆகும். உங்களுக்கு கீழே உள்ளவர்கள் அவர்கள் தங்களுக்கு கீழ் சேர்க்கும் பட்சத்தில் உங்களுக்கு10% கிடைக்கும் இது 2 முதல் 5 level வரையில்​ கிடைக்கும். 6, 7 வது levelல் தலா 5% கிடைக்கும். உதாரணமாக உங்களுக்கு கீழே 10 பேர்கள் இருப்பதாக கருதுவோம். 10 * 500 points அதாவது 5$ (5000 points). இந்த 10 பேரும் தங்களுக்கு கீழ் 10, 10 பேர்களை சேர்த்தால் 100 * 10% (100 points) ஃ 10000 points 10$ இந்திய ரூபாயின் மதிப்பில் ₹60 என்றால் கூட ₹600. இவ்வாறாக எண்ணுகையில்.. உங்கள் உழைப்பையும், வருமானத்தையும் நீங்களே முடிவு செய்துகொள்ளலாம்.

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Dear World's Friends.. this community create purpose is (Mission)

1. Save the Natures
2. Water management development (water source)
3. Development of forest
4. by these above will protect our home (World).
And mainly focus vision in plantation development in the cities..

Based on these above mission, leave yours ideas/comments that, how to development our nature.. so give your hands..

Thanks,
Karthic RJ
Protect the Nature.

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Explain Atomic Force Microscopy.
“Atomic force microscopy is a member of the microscopic techniques together known as scanning probe microscopy (SPM). The working principle of scanning probe microscopes is very different from those underlying light and electron microscopy. An SPM is used to study the surface properties of materials by scanning a very fine pointed probe over the surface. SPM is a relatively new technique and emerged with the development of the first working SPM by Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer in 1981. The first SPM was a scanning tunnelling microscope”
The AFM consists of a cantilever with a sharp tip (probe) at its end that is used to scan the specimen surface. The cantilever is typically silicon or silicon nitride with a tip radius of curvature on the order of nanometers. When the tip is brought into proximity of a sample surface, forces between the tip and the sample lead to a deflection of the cantilever according to Hooke's law. Depending on the situation, forces.
The AFM has three major abilities: force measurement, imaging, and manipulation.
In force measurement, AFMs can be used to measure the forces between the probe and the sample as a function of their mutual separation. This can be applied to perform force spectroscopy.
For imaging, the reaction of the probe to the forces that the sample imposes on it, can be used to form an image of the three-dimensional shape (topography) of a sample surface at a high resolution. This is achieved by raster scanning the position of the sample with respect to the tip and recording the height of the probe that corresponds to a constant probe-sample interaction (see section topographic imaging in AFM for more details). The surface topography is commonly displayed as a pseudocolor plot.
In manipulation, the forces between tip and sample can also be used to change the properties of the sample in a controlled way. Examples of this include atomic manipulation, scanning probe lithography and local stimulation of cells.
Simultaneous with the acquisition of topographical images, other properties of the sample can be measured locally and displayed as an image, often with similarly high resolution. Examples of such properties are mechanical properties like stiffness or adhesion strength and electrical properties such as conductivity or surface potential. In fact, the majority of SPM techniques are extensions of AFM that use this modality.
The probe in a scanning tunnelling microscope is a very fine metal tip at a high voltage. The tip is brought in a close proximity of the surface and scanned across the surface in a raster pattern. The quantity that is measured is the tunnelling current flowing between the sample and the surface. The instrument can operate either in constant current mode or in constant height mode. In constant height mode, the tip scans the surface and current is recorded at each point. In a constant current mode, the current flowing between the tip and the sample is kept constant through a feedback loop that causes the sample stage to move closer to or farther from the tip; the signal obtained in constant current mode therefore is the distance between the tip and the specimen. An intrinsic limitation of scanning tunnelling microscopy is its inability to study the non-conducting surfaces. This led to the development of other types of microscopes including atomic force microscope.
Applications
The AFM has been applied to problems in a wide range of disciplines of the natural sciences, including solid state physics, semiconductor science and technology, polymer chemistry and physics, surface chemistry, molecular biology, cell biology and medicine.
Applications in the field of solid state physics include (a) the identification of atoms at a surface, (b) the evaluation of interactions between a specific atom and its neighbouring atoms, and (c) the study of changes in physical properties arising from changes in an atomic arrangement through atomic manipulation.
In cellular biology, AFM can be used to (a) attempt to distinguish cancer cells and normal cells based on a hardness of cells, and (b) to evaluate interactions between a specific cell and its neighbouring cells in a competitive culture system.
In some variations, electric potentials can also be scanned using conducting cantilevers. In more advanced versions, currents can be passed through the tip to probe the electrical or transport of the underlying surface, but this is a challenging task with few research groups reporting consistent data (as of 2004).
Advantages
AFM has several advantages over the scanning electron microscope (SEM).
Unlike the electron microscope, which provides a two-dimensional projection or a two-dimensional image of a sample, the AFM provides a three-dimensional surface profile.
While an electron microscope needs an expensive vacuum environment for proper operation, most AFM modes can work perfectly well in ambient air or even a liquid environment.
AFM can provide higher resolution than SEM. It has been shown to give true atomic resolution in ultra-high vacuum (UHV) and, more recently, in liquid environments.
High resolution AFM is comparable in resolution to scanning tunneling microscopy and transmission electron microscopy.
Disadvantages
A disadvantage of AFM compared with the scanning electron microscope (SEM) is the single scan image size.
SEM can image an area on the order of square millimetres with a depth of field on the order of millimetres, whereas the AFM can only image a maximum scanning area and maximum height.
The scanning speed of an AFM is also a limitation.
Traditionally, an AFM cannot scan images as fast as a SEM, requiring several minutes for a typical scan, while a SEM is capable of scanning at near real-time, although at relatively low quality.
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