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Some photo from Akbarnama.A book written by Abul Faizal.A Navratan of Akbar's royal court.
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 Hi frndz here r 30 unknown freedom fighters of India...!!

Our independence was hard fought. The British ruled over our lands for a long time. But then, there are heroes, aren't there? There are always heroes. The ones who stand up and fight. Some get the spotlight while some stay in the dark and contribute just as much as the others. This bodes true for India's freedom fighters as well. For those who fought equally hard but never got any share of the limelight, because they simply never cared. Their only focus was seeing an independent India. But as citizens of this country, we should know about some of them. Here are some freedom fighters you probably haven't heard of:

1. Matangini Hazra

Hazra was part of the Quit India Movement and Non-Cooperation Movement. During one procession, she continued to advance with the Indian flag even after being shot thrice. She kept shouting "Vande Mataram" .

2. Begum Hazrat Mahal

She was a vital part of the 1857 Indian Rebellion. After her husband was exiled, she took charge of Awadh and even seized control of Lucknow during the rebellion. Later, Begum Hazrat had to retreat to Nepal, where she died.

Source: tumblr

3. Senapati Bapat

As leader of the Mulshi Satyagraha, he got the title of Senapati. He got the honour of hoisting the Indian flag in Pune for the first time after independence. He had been jailed for public speaking as well as for vandalism, after which he turned himself in because as a satyagrahi,he was not supposed to follow the path of violence.

Source: motherandsriaurobindo

4. Aruna Asaf Ali

Few have heard of her, but when she was 33 years old, she gained some prominence as she hoisted the Indian National Congress flag during the Quit India Movement at the Gowalia Tank Maidan in Bombay, 1942.

5. Potti Sreeramulu

He was an avid supporter and devotee of Mahatma Gandhi. After seeing his dedication towards humanitarian purposes and the nation, Gandhi once said: "If only I have eleven more followers like Sriramulu, I will win freedom in a year."

Source: thehindu

6. Bhikaji Cama

Although there are numerous roads and buildings named after her around the country, only few know who she was and what she did. Not only was she a part of the Indian Independence Movement, she was also a figure for gender equality. She donated most of her personal effects to an orphanage for girls. She also unfurled the Indian flag at the International Socialist Conference at Stuttgart in Germany, 1907.

Source: artoflegendindia

7. Tara Rani Srivastava

Along with her husband, she led a procession in front of the Siwan Police Station. Though he was shot, she bandaged his wounds and kept going forward. By the time she returned, he had died. However, her will to go on was stronger still and she continued to fight holding the flag high.

Source: thehindu

8. Kanaiyalal Maneklal Munshi

Also known as Kulpati, Munshi was mighty active during India's freedom movement, especially the Quit India Movement. He was the founder of Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. The number of times he was arrested by the British regime showed his dedication and passion for an independent India.

Source: bhavanmangalore

9. Peer Ali Khan

He was one of the initial rebels of India. Khan was part of the 1857 freedom struggle and among the 14 people who were given capital punishment due to their role in the freedom movement. Even still, his work inspired many who followed. But generations later, his name just faded away.

(The image is for representational purpose only)

Source: iranhrdc

10. Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay

Kamaladevi was the first woman to run for a legislative seat in India and interestingly, she was also the first Indian woman to be arrested by the British regime. She played a very vital role as a social reformer and brought back handicrafts, theatres and handlooms to help in uplifting the socio-economic standard of the Indian women.

Source: iloveindia

11. Garimella Satyanarayana

He was an inspiration for the people of Andhra. As a writer, he used his skill to write influential poems and songs to motivate the people of Andhra to join the movement against the British.

Source: wikimedia

12. Tirupur Kumaran

Kumaran was the founder of the Desa Bandhu Youth Association. He was killed during a protest march against the colonial government on 11th January, 1932, for holding a flag of Indian nationalists that was banned by the British. Though he succumbed to injuries, he was found dead holding the flag.

Source: rightmantra

13. Raj Kumari Gupta

She and her husband worked with Mahatma Gandhi and Chandrashekhar Azad and she player a crucial role in the Kakori case as well. She was in charge of supplying revolvers to those involved in the operation. Raj Kumari hid the firearms in her undergarment and went to deliver them, with her 3 year old son alongside. Ironically though, on being arrested, she was disowned by her marital home.

Source: youtube

14. Lakshmi Sahgal

She was an officer of the Indian Army and was also referred to as Captain Lakshmi. Lakshmi was a World War II veteran and spent time as a prisoner in Burma. When she heard that Bose was recruiting women soldiers as well, she gave her name. She was ordered to form a female regiment called Rani of Jhansi Regiment, where she got the rank of Captain.

Source: thehindu

15. Birsa Munda

He was born on a Thursday and therefore, named after it. Though he died at the young age of 25, he had some remarkable achievements in his short time. The most notable one being heading the Millenarian movement that inspired the tribal belt of modern day Bihar and Jharkhand to go against the British Raj in the late 19th century.

Source: eodisha

16. Durgabai Deshmukh

Durgabai led numerous Satyagraha movements and was a member of the Constituent Assembly of India and the Planning Commission of India. She played a prominent role in Indian freedom movement. At the Khadi exhibition in 1923, she was in charge of ensuring that all visitors had proper tickets before entering. She even forbade Pandit Nehru from entering until the organizers gave him a ticket and she let him pass.

Source: iseeindia

17. Ke Mammen

There is very little known about Ke Mammen, apart from the fact that he was a young freedom fighter back in the day, a pacifist and a Gandhian. He celebrated his 94th birthday in 2014 despite being under treatment for 6 months. A show of true grit and courage.

Source: thehindu

18. Sucheta Kriplani

She was the first woman to become the Chief Minister of an Indian state (UP) and was also the founder of the All India Mahilla Congress in 1940. She was a Gandhian and worked with him during the partition riots as well as the independence movement. On 15th August, 1947, she sang Vande Mataram in the Constituent Assembly.

Source: indiat10

19. Abadi Bano Begum

Born in 1852, she was one of the first few Muslim women to join the fight. Abadi Bano Begum addressed a political gathering from behind a purdah and was one of the first women to do it.

(The image is for representational purpose only)

Source: vananne

20. Parbati Giri

Parbati Giri was only 16 but actively in the forefront of all freedom activities, especially the Quit India Movement. She was also imprisoned for 2 years for taking part in such activities. Giri served the public socially post independence and was also known as the Mother Teresa of Western Orissa.

Source: eodisha

21. Alluri Sitarama Raju

He lead the ill fated "Rampa Rebellion" in 1922-1924 with the support of other local tribals. For his bravery and valour, he was nicknamed 'Manyam Veerudu'(meaning 'Hero of the Jungles').

Source: mvinayraj

22. N.G. Ranga

He was a prominent figure of the Indian Peasant Movement. Ranga was a Gandhian and led the riot agitation in 1933. The brave heart is considered the champion of peasant rights.

Source: monoramaonline

23. Velu Nachiyar

She was the first queen to wage a war against the British and gave them a good run for their money. The former princess of Ramanathapuram opposed the British rule even before the Sepoy mutiny.

Source: blogspot

24. Kanneganti Hanumanthu

Kanneganti was a brave soul and was killed by the British at the age of 30. Up until then, he played a vital role in the freedom struggle and gained recognition for leading the Palnadu Rebellion against tax. He was arrested several times for his work as well, but never gave up.

Source: profilebeans

25. Khudiram Bose

He was one of the youngest revolutionaries in the Indian Independence movement. He was 18 years, 8 months and 8 days old when he was hanged.

26. The trio of Benoy Badal Dinesh

Benoy Basu, Badal Gupta and Dinesh Gupta were 22, 18 and 19 years old respectively when they wore European outfits and entered the Writer's Building. Their target was the brutal Inspector General of Police, Colonel NS Simpson. They succeeded in killing him but were outnumbered by the pose. Benoy took a cyanide pill while the other two shot themselves to avoid capture. It takes more than guts to pull off something like this.

Source: flickr

27. Tirot Sing

Also known as U Tirot Sing, he was the chief of the Khasi people. He was a hero among his tribe as he died fighting the British during their attempt to take over the Khasi Hills.

Source: likethewheels

28. Bhogeswari Phukanani

She was brutally shot down by the British for launching the revolutionary mass program, the 'Bharbhuj'.

Source: blogspot

29. Kanaklata Barua

She too was shot down in a procession during the Quit India Movement in 1942 for proudly holding up the national flag.

Source: assaminfo

30. Kushal Konwar

The President of Sarupathar Congress Committee was an Indian Tai-Ahom freedom fighter from Assam. He is the only martyr who was hanged in the last phase of the Quit India Movement of 1942-43.

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पृथ्वीराज चौहान

पूरा नाम – पृथ्वीराज चौहान
जन्म – 1149
जन्मस्थान – अजमेर
पिता – राजसोमेश्वर चौहान.
माता – कमलाद

वसंत पंचमी का दिन हमें पृथ्वीराज चौहान की भी याद दिलाता है। उन्होंने विदेशी हमलावर मोहम्मद गौरी को 16 बार पराजित किया और उदारता दिखाते हुए हर बार जीवित छोड़ दिया, पर जब सत्रहवीं बार वे पराजित हुए, तो मोहम्मद गौरी ने उन्हें नहीं छोड़ा। वह उन्हें अपने साथ अफगानिस्तान ले गया और उनकी आंखें फोड़ दीं।

इसके बाद की घटना तो जगप्रसिद्ध ही है। गौरी ने मृत्युदंड देने से पूर्व उनके शब्दभेदी बाण का कमाल देखना चाहा। पृथ्वीराज के साथी कवि चंदबरदाई के परामर्श पर गौरी ने ऊंचे स्थान पर बैठकर तवे पर चोट मारकर संकेत किया। तभी चंदबरदाई ने पृथ्वीराज को संदेश दिया।

“चार बांस चौबीस गज,
अंगुल अष्ट प्रमाण
ता ऊपर सुल्तान है,
मत चूको चौहान”॥
पृथ्वीराज चौहान ने इस बार भूल नहीं की। उन्होंने तवे पर हुई चोट और चंदबरदाई के संकेत से अनुमान लगाकर जो बाण मारा, वह गौरी के सीने में जा धंसा। इसके बाद चंदबरदाई और पृथ्वीराज ने भी एक दूसरे के पेट में छुरा भौंककर आत्मबलिदान दे दिया। (1192 ई) यह घटना भी वसंत पंचमी वाले दिन ही हुई थी।

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जय शिवप्रताप।

चक्रवर्ती सम्राट अशोक

अशोक महान (304 ईसा पूर्व से 232 ईसा पूर्व) : अशोक महान पूरा नाम देवानांप्रिय अशोक मौर्य (राजा प्रियदर्शी देवताओं का प्रिय)। पिता का नाम बिंदुसार। दादा का नाम चक्रवर्ती सम्राट चन्द्रगुप्त मौर्य (शासनकाल : 322 से 298 ईपू तक)। माता का नाम सुभद्रांगी था जिन्हें रानी धर्मा भी कहत थे। #Ashoka_the_great . ..........................................................................................आओ हम जानते हैं महान सम्राट अशोक के जीवन से जुड़े उनके 9 रहस्यमय रत्नों के बारे में पाँच तथ्य।....................................................

(1).पहला रहस्य…. #First_Fact

सम्राट अशोक के 9 रहस्यमयी सलाहकार : 9 रत्न रखने की परंपरा की शुरुआत सम्राट अशोक और उज्जैन सम्राट प्रथम राजा विक्रमादित्य से मानी जाती है। उनके ही अनुसार बाद के राजाओं ने भी इस परंपरा को निभाया। अकबर ने अपने दरबार में 9 रत्नों की नियुक्ति सम्राट अशोक के जीवन से प्रेरित होकर ही की थी।

अकबर ने अशोक की लगभग सभी नीतियां अपनाई थीं जिसके चलते उन्हें महान घोषित किया जा सकता था। इतिहासकारों ने ऐसा किया भी। हालांकि अकबर ने किसी अन्य धर्म को अपनाने के बजाए खुद ही एक नया धर्म चलाने का प्रयास किया और वे उसके संस्थापक बन बैठे। किसी की नकल करके कोई कैसे महान बन सकता है?
कुछ लोग कहते हैं कि अशोक के साथ ऐसे 9 लोग थे, जो उनको निर्देश देते थे जिनके निर्देश और सहयोग के बल पर ही अशोक ने महान कार्यों को अंजाम दिया। ये 9 लोग कौन थे इसका रहस्य आज भी बरकरार है। क्या वे मनुष्य थे या देवता?

(2).#दूसरा रहस्य… #Second_Fact

9 रत्नों की गुप्त पुस्तक : अब सवाल यह उठता है कि सम्राट अशोक के साथ वे कौन 9 लोग थे जिनके बारे में कहा जाता है कि उनमें से प्रत्येक के पास अपने-अपने ज्ञान की विशेषता थी अर्थात उनमें से प्रत्येक विशेष ज्ञान से युक्त था और अंत में सम्राट अशोक ने उनके ज्ञान को दुनिया से छुपाकर रखा।

वे ही लोग थे जिन्होंने बड़े-बड़े स्तूप बनवाए और जिन्होंने विज्ञान और टेक्नोलॉजी में भी भारत को समृद्ध बनाया। कहा जाता है कि उनके ज्ञान को एक पुस्तक के रूप से संग्रहीत किया गया था। जिस पुस्तक को किसी विशेष व्यक्ति को सुपुर्द किया गया, उसने पीढ़ी-दर-पीढ़ी उस पुस्तक या उसके ज्ञान को आगे फैलाया। हालांकि यह रहस्य आज भी बरकरार है।

(3).#तीसरा रहस्य… #Third_Fact

नौ रत्नों का कार्य : ऐसा माना जाता है कि सम्राट अशोक ने प्रमुख 9 लोगों की एक ऐसी संस्था बनाई हुई थी जिन्हें कभी सार्वजनिक तौर पर उपस्थित नहीं किया गया और उनके बारे में लोगों को कम ही जानकारी थी। यह कहना चाहिए कि आमजन महज यही जानता था कि सम्राट के 9 रत्न हैं जिनके कारण ही सम्राट शक्तिशाली है।

इन रहस्यमय 9 लोगों का कार्य ऐसी जानकारियों की विद्या को बचाकर रखना था, जो अगर किसी के हाथ लग जाए तो सृष्टि का विनाश कर सकती है।
बहुत से लोगों का मानना था कि सम्राट अशोक की यह रहस्यमय संस्था धरती पर मौजूद अन्य किसी भी संस्था से ज्यादा शक्तिशाली थी जिसमें बेहतरीन वैज्ञानिक और विचारक शामिल थे।

(4).#चौथा रहस्य… #Fourth_Fact

अशोक का निधन कहां हुआ? : यह तो पता चलता है कि सम्राट अशोक का निधन 232 ईसा पूर्व हुआ था लेकिन उनका निधन कहां और कैसे हुआ यह थोड़ा कठिन है।

तिब्बती परंपरा के अनुसार उसका देहावसान तक्षशिला में हुआ। उनके एक शिलालेख के अनुसार अशोक का अंतिम कार्य भिक्षु संघ में फूट डालने की निंदा करना था। संभवत: यह घटना बौद्धों की तीसरी संगीति के बाद की है। सिंहली इतिहास ग्रंथों के अनुसार तीसरी संगीति अशोक के राज्यकाल में पाटलिपुत्र में हुई थी।

(5).#पांचवां रहस्य… #Fifth_Fact

भारत की अर्थव्यवस्था : नोबेल पुरस्कार विजेता अर्थशास्त्री डॉ. अमर्त्य सेन के अनुसार ‘सम्राट अशोक के काल में दुनिया की अर्थव्यवस्था में भारत की भागीदारी 35% थी और सम्राट अशोक के काल में भारत जागतिक (ग्लोबल) महाशक्ति था।’ जब मुगल और अंग्रेज आए, तब तक भारत की भागीदारी 23% थी और जब 1947 में अंग्रेज देश छोड़कर गए तब 4 फीसदी थी। दोनों ने ही भारत को लूटकर अरब और यूरोप को समृद्ध बनाया और आज भारत में अफ्रीका के बाद सबसे ज्यादा गरीब लोग रहते हैं।

औपनि‍वेशि‍क युग (1773-1947) के दौरान ब्रि‍टि‍श भारत से सस्‍ती दरों पर कच्‍ची सामग्री खरीदा करते थे और तैयार माल भारतीय बाजारों में सामान्‍य मूल्‍य से कहीं अधि‍क उच्‍चतर कीमत पर बेचते थे जि‍सके परि‍णामस्‍वरूप स्रोतों का द्धि‍मार्गी ह्रास होता था। इस अवधि‍ के दौरान वि‍श्‍व की आय में भारत का हि‍स्‍सा 1700 ई. के 22.3 प्रति‍शत से गि‍रकर 1952 में 3.8 प्रति‍शत रह गया।
अशोक के काल में भारत में जातिवाद नहीं था। उस काल में जनसंख्या भी कम थी तो जातिविहीन शील- संपन्न गुणों से उच्च आदर्श विचारों का समाज था। गुप्तकाल में इस तरह के समाज को और बढ़ावा मिला। हर्षवर्धन के काल तक यह सिलसिला चला। फिर भारत के सीमावर्ती क्षेत्र में युद्ध, घुसपैठ और आक्रमण के लंबे दौर के बाद संपूर्ण भारत को तुर्क, अरब, ईरानी आदि लोगों ने रणक्षेत्र बना दिया और 7वीं सदी से ही भारत का पतन होना शुरू होने लगा, जो आज तक जारी है।
सम्राट अशोक को अपने विस्तृत साम्राज्य के बेहतर कुशल प्रशासन तथा बौद्ध धर्म के प्रचार के लिए जाना जाता है। अशोक के काल में बौद्ध धर्म की जड़ें मिस्र, सऊदी अरब, इराक, यूनान से लेकर श्रीलंका और बर्मा, थाईलैंड, चीन आदि क्षेत्र में गहरी जम गई थीं। लेकिन इस्लाम के उदय के बाद हिंसक दौर में सबसे ज्यादा नुकसान बौद्ध धर्म को ही झेलना पड़ा।

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maharana pratap's life

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महाराणा प्रताप के बारे में कुछ रोचक तथ्य

1.महाराणा प्रताप एक ही झटके में घोड़े समेत दुश्मन
सैनिक को काट डालते थे।
2.जब इब्राहिम लिंकन भारत दौरे पर आ रहे थे तब
उन्होने अपनी माँ से
पूछा कि हिंदुस्तान से आपके लिए क्या लेकर अाए| तब
माँ का जवाब मिला ” उस
महान देश की वीर भूमि हल्दी घाटी से एक मुट्ठी धूल
आना जहाँ का राजा अपनी प्रजा के
प्रति इतना वफ़ादार था कि उसने आधे
हिंदुस्तान के बदले अपनी मातृभूमि को चुना ”
बदकिस्मती से उनका वो दौरा रद्द
हो गया था | “बुक ऑफ़ प्रेसिडेंट यु एस ए ‘ किताब में
आप ये बात पढ़ सकते है |
3.महाराणा प्रताप के भाले का वजन 80
किलो था और कवच का वजन 80
किलो कवच , भाला, ढाल, और हाथ में तलवार
का वजन मिलाये तो 207 किलो
4.आज भी महाराणा प्रताप की तलवार कवच
आदि सामान उदयपुर राज घराने के
संग्रहालय में सुरक्षित हैं |
5.अकबर ने कहा था कि अगर राणा प्रताप मेरे सामने
झुकते है तो आधा हिंदुस्तान
के वारिस वो होंगे पर बादशाहत अकबर
की ही रहेगी |
6.हल्दी घाटी की लड़ाई में मेवाड़ से 22000 राजपूत सैनिक थे
और अकबर की ओर से
100000 मुगुल सैनिक युद्ध में सम्मिलित हुए |
7.राणाप्रताप के घोड़े चेतक का मंदिर
भी बना जो आज हल्दी घाटी में सुरक्षित
है |
8.महाराणा ने जब महलो का त्याग किया तब उनके

साथ लुहार जाति के

हजारो लोगो ने भी घर छोड़ा और दिन रात

राणा कि फौज के लिए तलवारे

बनायीं इसी समाज को आज गुजरात मध्यप्रदेश और

राजस्थान में गड़लिया लोहार

कहा जाता है नमन है ऐसे लोगो को |

9.हल्दी घाटी के युद्ध के 300 साल बाद

भी वहाँ जमीनों में तलवारें पायी गयी।

आखिरी बार तलवारों का जखीरा 1985 में

हल्दी घाटी में मिला |

10.महाराणा प्रताप अस्त्र शस्त्र की शिक्षा जैमल

मेड़तिया ने

दी थी जो 8000 राजपूतो को लेकर 60000 से लड़े थे।

उस युद्ध में 48000 मारे गए

थे जिनमे 8000 राजपूत और 40000 मुग़ल थे

11.मेवाड़ के आदिवासी भील समाज ने

हल्दी घाटी में अकबर की फौज को अपने

तीरो से रौंद डाला था वो राणाप्रताप

को अपना बेटा मानते थे और

राणा जी बिना भेद भाव के उन के साथ रहते थे आज

भी मेवाड़ के राजचिन्ह पर एक

तरफ राजपूत है तो दूसरी तरफ भील |

12.राणा का घोडा चेतक महाराणा को 26 फीट

का दरिया पार करने के बाद

वीर गति को प्राप्त हुआ | उसकी एक टांग टूटने के

बाद भी वह दरिया पार कर

गया। जहा वो घायल हुआ वहीं आज

खोड़ी इमली नाम का पेड़ है

जहाँ मरा वहाँ मंदिर है |

13.राणा का घोडा चेतक भी बहुत ताकतवर था उसके

मुँह के आगे हाथी की सूंड

लगाई जाती थी यह हेतक और चेतक नाम के दो घोड़े थे

14.मरने से पहले महाराणा ने खोया हुआ 85 % मेवार फिर से जीत लिया था *सोने चांदी और महलो को छोड़ वो 20 साल मेवाड़ के जंगलो में घूमे |

15 महाराणा प्रताप का वजन 110 किलो और लम्बाई  7’5” थी दो मियां वाली तलवार और 80 किलो का भाला रखते थे हाथ में |

16.मेवाड़ राजघराने के वारिस को एक लिंग जी भगवन का दीवान माना जाता है |

17.छात्रपति शिवाजी भी मूल रूप से मेवाड़ से तलूक रखते थे वीर शिवा जी के पर दादा उदैपुर महा राणा के छोटे भाई थे |

18.अकबर को अफगान के शेख रहमुर खान ने कहा था अगर तुम राणा प्रताप और जयमल मेड़तिया को अपने साथ मिलालो तो तुम्हे विश्व विजेता बन्ने से कोई नहीं रोक सकता पर इन दोनों वीरो ने जीते जी कबि हार नहीं मानी

19.मेवाड़ राजघराना आज भी दुनियाका सबसे प्राचीन राजघराना है

10. Maharana Pratap:
He was a Hindu Rajput ruler of Mewar, a region in north-western India in the present day state of Rajasthan. Known for his gallantry and magnanimity, Maharana Pratap opposed the Mughals, particularly Emperor Akbar. Chittor was conquered by the Mughals; Maharana Pratap won back most of his territory except his cherished Chittor. He had pledged to sleep on the floor and live in a hut until he won Chittor back from the Mughals which unfortunately he never accomplished in his life time.
9. Chandragupta I:
He was a major king in Indian history and also the founder of the Gupta Dynasty. He is believed to have formed several alliances with powerful houses through marriages into those families. He was the Gupta Emperor from 320–335 CE and called himself Maharajadhiraj which means king of kings to show his superiority over others. He ruled over territories like Prayag (Allahabad), Saket (Oudh) and Magadh (south Bihar).
8. Samudragupta:
He was the successor of Chandragupta I belonging to the Gupta Dynasty and was the greatest king of that dynasty. Samudragupta is the ruler who is known to have ushered in the Golden Age of India. A great warrior, a connoisseur of art and a generous ruler, Samudragupta was chosen for succession by his father inspite of him not being the eldest of his sons. Another quality that he is remembered for is his tolerance and patronage for other religions.
7. Ranjit Singh:
Ranjit Singh was the founder of the Sikh Empire based in Punjab in the early half of the 19th century. During his rule he brought the whole of the central Punjab from the Sutlej to the Jhelum under his sway. His empire was based on the foundations of the Khalsa with opportunities for accession to commanding positions not restricted only to the Sikhs. He was a tolerant king and was also known as the “Maharaja of Punjab”.
6. Prithviraj Chauhan:
Prithvi Raj III was a king of the Hindu Chauhan dynasty. He ruled the kingdom of Ajmer and Delhi after succeeding to the throne at the young age of 20 and ruled much of present-day Rajasthan and Haryana. His elopement with the daughter of Jai Chandra Rathod of Kannauj, Samyukta , is a popular romantic tale of Indian history. But he is more importantly remember for having defeated Muhammad Ghori in the First Battle of Tarain in 1191 and later killing him during an archery show when blinded and imprisoned by the latter in 1192.
5. Kanishka:
Kanishka, also known as Kanishka the Great, was an emperor of the Kushan Dynasty. His empire extended from Turfan in the Tarim Basin to Pataliputra on the Gangetic plain. With Pataliputra as his main capital, his reign was famous for its military, political, and spiritual achievements. He also had regional capitals as far as present-day Bagram in Afghanistan. Kanishka was a great patron of Buddhism and is still today considered as one of the greatest Buddhist Kings of India.
4. Shivaji:
Shivaji Bhosale was the founder and the greatest king of the Maratha Empire. Hailing from the Bhosle Maratha clan, he created an independent Maratha kingdom with Raigad as its capital. He was crowned as Chhatrapati for leading the struggle against the Adilshahi sultanate of Bijapur and the Mughal Empire. He is remembered as a great warrior and a hero who united most of India against the Mughals. Shivaji is also known for pioneering the guerilla warfare methods using geography, speed, and surprise for attacks against more powerful and larger enemies.
3. Ashoka:
Ashoka is also known as Samraat Chakravartin. He belonged to the Maurya Dynasty and ruled from ca. 269 BCE to 232 BCE. He reigned over most of the Indian subcontinent from the modern Iranian provinces of Khorasan, Sistan and Balochistan (unpartitioned), through the Hindukush Mountains in Afghanistan, to the Indian state of Assam in the east, and as far south as northern Kerala and Andhra Pradesh. He is attributed to the global spread of Buddhism and the emblem of modern India is derived from the Lion Capital of Ashoka.
2. Akbar:
Akbar was the Mughal Emperor from 1556 until his death. The third ruler of the Mughal Dynasty, he succeeded Humayun at a very young age. He went on to become one of the greatest rulers in Indian history and the greatest Mughal Emperor, too. His empire included nearly all of the Indian Subcontinent north of the Godavari river and he consolidated the same using marriage alliances and diplomacy. Akbar is known to have been a liberal ruler who believed in cultural integration.
1. Chandragupta Maurya:
Chandragupta Maurya was the founder of the Mauryan Empire and believed to be the first Emperor to have united India into one state. The Mauryan Empire under Chandragupta Maurya was the largest empire in Indian history up until that time. With his chief advisor Chanakya, he built a strong central administration and economy. He is undoubtedly one of the greatest rulers in Indian history known to have conquered Alexander the Great’s easternmost satrapies.
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