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The Effects of Tobacco And Smoking

Tobacco has dreadfully dangerous and deadly effects on our health. It harms us in such a way that not many other things do. So here, on the occasion of World Anti-Tobacco Day, we present before you The Effects of Tobacco And Smoking.

Tobacco Is among the most easily available but very harmful things of the world. Normal cigarettes contain about 3900 different chemicals, hundreds of which are very toxic, including tar, carbon monoxide and nicotine. It takes as harmful a chemical as nicotine only 10-15 seconds to spread throughout the body. Thus, tobacco affects you  almost instantly.

Tobacco has a multitude of effects on the body. Cigarette smoke contains thousands of chemicals, some of the most harmful being nicotine, tar and carbon monoxide. When a smoker inhales cigarette smoke, these chemicals enter the bloodstream and reach the brain in less than 10 seconds. It takes only 15 to 20 seconds for nicotine to reach every part of a smoker's body. At this speed, the effects of tobacco are felt almost instantly, causing damage in many different ways. Carbon monoxide binds to haemoglobin in red blood cells, preventing affected cells from carrying a full load of oxygen. This leads to a lot of respiratory disorders among smokers. Smoking is associated with higher levels of chronic inflammation, another damaging process that may result in oxidative stress. Toxic elements deposit themselves in the blood vessels, causing difficulty in blood flow.

After smoking cigarette, the heart rate of the smoker increase by up to 25 beats per minute. This means that the heart rate of an average adult can go from 70 bpm up to 100 bpm! In fact, blood pressure too increases by 7-10 points. Nicotine contributes to the stiffness of the aorta, the artery that distributes blood in the body, which leads to blood clots. Tobacco smoke leads to a large increase in mucus in the lungs. Due to this, respiratory disorders are caused which lead to diseases like emphysema. Tobacco also stains teeth, causes bad breath and decreases the ability to smell and taste. The tar that collects in the lungs also alters the DNA of cells negatively.

And now, the most dangerous disease caused by tobacco, irreversible and dangerous as anything. Yes, you guessed it, Cancer. Tobacco smoke contains more than 100 cancer-causing toxic substances. When this smoke enters your body, it spreads throughout it, and is bound to cause some disorder, very commonly cancer. These toxins also alter your DNA and this, too, causes cancer. About 83% off all cases of lung cancer are caused by smoking. Smoking also increases the risk of over a dozen other cancers including cancers of the mouth, nose, oesophagus, stomach, kidney, bladder, cervix, liver and pancreas.

Now is the time to understand that smoking isn’t, it never was, a compulsion. Smoking is only one bad (the worst) habit which needs to be left instantly. Of course it is not easy to give up smoking, but it is certainly worth a host of tries.  The number of negatives caused by smoking are not only the ones mention above but a whole lot more, but it does not have even a single positive. It causes not only physical, but also mental and behavioural changes. This causes an instant downgrade in the society. Are you willing to deal with all these negatives for only a few moments of dangerous pleasure ?

Leave smoking now and make your life long, fit and healthy!

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The Evolution Of The Periodic Table

The periodic table is one of the most iconic symbols of science. Over the years, it has evolved into the periodic table that we know today. Its history can be traced back to over 200 years ago. The Periodic Table has been altered, changed and redrawn into the modern Long Form Periodic Table. Here, +Yes! Knowledge  presents before you The Evolution Of The Periodic Table

The word periodic, comes as the periodic table contains elements following a periodic repetition of basic properties. The origins of the periodic table lie in a list of 33 known elements made by French scientist Antoine Lavoisier, Antoine Fourcroy, Louis-Bernard Guyton de Morveau and Claude-Louis Berthollet in 1787. In the earliest attempt to oraganise elements into fixed groups, German chemist Johann Döbereiner, in 1817, organised elements into groups of 3 called triads. He noticed that if the three members of a triad were ordered according to their atomic weights, the properties of the middle element fell in between those of the first and third elements. Also, Döbereiner showed that the atomic weight of the middle element is almost the average of the weights for the first and third members of the triad. Peter Kremers of Cologne also used the triad theory to suggest that certain elements could belong to two triads placed perpendicularly. He compared elements geometrically, a feature that later proved to be an important part of Mendeleev’s system.

In 1857 French chemist Jean-Baptiste- André Dumas turned away from the idea of triads and focused instead on devising a set of mathematical equations for increase in atomic weight among groups of chemically similar elements. But atomic weight is not the fundamental property of the elements, and so, he was not successful. English chemist John Newlands suggested in 1864 that when the elements were arranged in order of atomic weight, any one of the elements showed properties similar to those of the elements eight places ahead and eight places behind in the list- the Law of Octaves.

The first periodic table is said to have been drawn by Russian chemistry professor Dimitri Ivanovich Mendeleev and completed on the 17th February 1869. It included 63 elements in order of increasing atomic weight and also had spaces for elements proposed be undiscovered.

One of the most important features of the Mendeleev table was that it showed periodicity among elements, a feature that had been observed in 1862 by French geologist Alexandre- Emile Béguyer de Chancourtois. He positioned the elements according to increasing atomic weight along a spiral inscribed on the surface of a cylinder and inclined at 45 degrees from the base. The spiral started from oxygen and the first full round was completed at sulphur and so on.

Chemist Julius Lothar Meyer of Breslau University in Germany in 1868 produced a periodic table that turned out to be remarkably similar to Mendeleev’s famous 1869 version. But it did not come out until 1870 because of a publisher’s delay, a factor that contributed to a dispute that ensued between Lothar Meyer and Mendeleev. Had it not been for that publisher, we might have been reading Lothar Mayer’s name instead of Mendeleev’s (it’s easier to learn anyways!).

In 1894, William Ramsay of University College London and John William Strutt discovered the element argon over the next few years, Ramsay dicovered four other elements—helium, neon, krypton and xenon.In 1913 Dutch physicist Anton van den Broek suggested arrangement principle for the periodic table should be the nuclear charge of each atom. This fundamental quantity is now known as atomic number.

The modern periodic table has been designed in such a way that the position if elements directly corresponds with the position of electrons in the atomic electron shells. In 1924 physicist Wolfgang Pauli set out to explain the length of each row in the table. As a result, he developed the Pauli Exclusion Principle, which states that no two electrons can exist in exactly the same quantum state.

In the last 30 years too, researchers have tried to make alterations to the periodic table. Fernando Dufour has developed a three-dimensional periodic table, which displays the fundamental symmetry of the periodic law. In 1980 Ray Hefferlin devised a periodic system for all the diatomic molecules that could be formed between the first 118 elements. In a similar effort, Jerry R. Dias of the University of Missouri at Kansas City devised a periodic classification of a type of benzenoid aromatic hydrocarbons.

Still, the Periodic Table remains the most iconic chemistry symbols. After so much of evolution, we finally have perhaps the most perfect table ever.

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Did You Know ?

Einstein is probably the greatest scientist of all time .
But did you know that Albert Einstein refused an offer to become President of Israel in 1952 !

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The Solar System: Our Powerhouse - The Sun

The Solar System is our home. The earliest place we can map life to have begun is the solar system, when the planets broke apart from one central sun. So here, we start our series of articles about the Solar System. In the first of this series of articles, we describe for you the grandfather of the solar system – The Sun.

The sun lies at the very heart of the solar system. It is a medium- sized star which formed about 4.6 billion years ago (‘not very long ago’ in the universe!). But compared to even the largest planets of our solar system, it is way, way bigger. It has a diameter of about 1.38 million kilometers which is more than 110 times greater than that of the Earth. Despite being made fully of gases, its weight is more than 300,000 times that of the Earth.
The sun formed from a huge cloud of gas and dust which was pulled together by gravitation, like all other stars. The early solar system was a huge cloud of rocks and dust which has blasted off from the sun after its formation. Large chunks of rock pulled other particles together to form deformed bodies. These bodies later became planets and moons. These, bodies, which were moving randomly at high speeds, slowed down by the effect of the sun’s gravity and slowly can under its control and started moving around it. They were very hot due to volcanoes for a long time and cooled down to form the solar system as we know it today.

The sun is mainly composed of gases Hydrogen and Helium 92% Hydrogen and 8% Helium). At its center, the temperature may reach as high as 14,000,000 °C, hot enough for atoms to smash into each other to generate energy. This process is called nuclear fusion and the main energy produced by it is heat and light. It also involves the generation of helium atoms from hydrogen. In the sun, about 661 billion tons of hydrogen is converted into 657 billion tons of helium, which is used up gradually by conversion into 4 billion tons of energy. The heat and light of this energy reach up to great distances, heating even mars and lighting up bodies beyond Pluto. The surface temperature of the sun is about 5500 °C.

So this was the sun for you. It generates 99% of the energy of the solar system and is an absolute powerhouse. Our origins lie in the sun too. Our indebtedness to it is infinite, isn’t it?

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Did You Know ?

China has the world's highest - altitude bridge, the Sidu River Bridge, which stands at a height of 900 m above sea level !

France has the world's tallest bridge, the Millau Viaduct, which is 343m high !

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Kepler 76b : The Einstein Planet

Einstein's special theory of relativity now has another feather in an already coveted hat, it has been used to discover an alien planet around another star.

The new planet –Kepler 76b- nicknamed "Einstein's planet" by the astronomers who discovered it is the first to be found through the relativity theory. The new Einstein-based works mainly for larger worlds, and is currently incapable of finding Earth-sized planets. Still, it offers some benefits, as it does not require high-precision measurements of a star's velocity. This method was first proposed by Dr Avi Loeb of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and Dr Scott Gaudi from Ohio State University in 2003.

The astronomers mainly focussed on very delicate effects predicted by Special relativity, such as the effect through which light from the parent star brightens as it comes closer to the planet by its planet’s effect, and dims as the planet pulls it away.

The planet is about 25 percent larger than Jupiter and weighs about twice as much, putting it in a section of planets known as "hot Jupiters." It is located some 2,000 light-years from Earth in the constellation Cygnus.

Also, gravitational tides from the orbiting planet caused its star to stretch slightly into a football shape, causing it to appear brighter when its wider side faces us. The planet itself also reflects a small amount of starlight. The planet is tidally locked to its star, always showing the same face to it. As a result, Kepler-76b broils at a temperature of about 3,600 degrees Fahrenheit. 

The researchers used data from NASA's Kepler spacecraft, which provided the very detailed observations.

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The Moon - Geography and Tourism

We at +Yes! Knowledge  are back after a rather long gap, with, as promised, our article- The Moon - Geography and Tourism

The most remarkable feature of the moon that can distinctly be seen with the naked eye are the dark Maria or ‘spots’. The most remarkable thing about these Maria is that all but one of them lie on the same side of the moon (the one facing the Earth)! Crater, too, are present on the moon. The moon was probably heavily bombarded by meteorites for a long period of time with led to the creation of these craters and the Maria. But along with carters formed by meteorites, there are also possible volcanic craters. An example of such a crater is Astarchus. Gases have been found to have emerged from it occasionally and it also has a clear peak. The geography of the moon is quite dull in a way, but in detail, it is really very interesting. In fact, poles of the moon have also yielded signs of water !

The moon was visited a large number of time by humans and machines between 1960 and 1975. The first organization to visit the moon was the Soviet Union, with its series of Lunik satellites, in 1959. In 1959 Lunik-2 crashed into the moon. And Lunik-3 orbited it. It was only in 1966 that Lunik-9 made a soft landing on the moon. NASA’s first aircrafts to visit the moon were the Rangers, in 1964 and 1965, crashing into it. Ranger 7 and 9 sent images of never-before seen areas of the moon, 1200 time better than could be seen with the best Earth telescope then. From 1966 to 1967, NASA launched Lunar Orbiters, which orbited the moon and took images from close, studying its surface. The first NASA crafts to land on the moon were the Surveyor series crafts, attaining a soft landing on the moon. Surveyor 5 even made advanced tests of the lunar surface. This helped us conclude the chemical nature of the moon’s surface, deducing it to be like basalt. During the 1970s, the Soviet Union continued sending its soft-landing probe vehicles to the moon, also sending two-wheeled Lunakhods 1 and 2, which were moved on the lunar surface by remote controls on the Earth.

In 1961, the Apollo mission was inaugurated, aiming to send man on the moon. In 1968, a series of Apollo missions sent astronauts to the moon, and in July 1969, Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin became the first humans to step on the moon. The brought home samples of the  lunar surface and also took photographs before returning. Apollo- 17 was the last manned mission to the moon.

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The Moon (In A Nutshell)

The Moon is the only natural satellite orbiting the Earth. It orbits the Earth due to the gravitational pull exerted by the Earth on it and in turn, exerts such a pull on the Earth too, thereby causing tides.
Since time immemorial, the moon has been a topic of mystery for all, first due to its regularly changing shape and then due to its very composition. It has been used a calendar by civilizations and viewed as a God by societies. 1609 was the year when the moon first came to be viewed as an object of real scientific interest, when Galileo first viewed it through his telescope. He identified distinct craters and mountains, which he called Maria, the Latin word for sea.
The moon is nearly spherical, with diameter 2,163 miles. The Earth and moon have among the lowest planet to satellite size ratios among the planets of the solar system, with the moons of Pluto the only ones with a lesser ratio. The distance of the Earth from the moon is about 240,000 miles, with it pulling away at 1.5 inches a year. The mass of the moon is about 1/82 that of the Earth, with its volume being 1/49 of it, meaning it is less dense than our planet.
The moon shines with the light reflected from the sun, called albedo. This is only about 7 per cent of the light that actually falls on it. When the moon is directly in line between the sun and the Earth, it is referred to as the new moon. When the sun makes a right angle with the moon, it forms a half moon. When the sun and moon are in a line again, with the Earth between them, it forms a fully illuminated moon, called the full moon. Between the half and full moon, the shape is called a gibbous, while between the half and new, moon, the shape is a crescent. The faded line between the dark and light portions of the moon is called the Terminator.
There is more than one kind of lunar month. The first is a synodic month, the interval from one new moon to another: 29.5 days. The other is a sidereal month, the time taken by the moon to orbit the Earth: 27.3 days.

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The Next Article: The Moon- Geography And Tourism

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1922 knowledge VS 2012 knowledge

What do you think we will know 90 years from now?

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Travelling Across Space

Travelling in a jet is a rather fast way to go, but not fast enough for even small cosmic distances. The speed of light is 186,000 mps. Astronomers use light years to describe really large distances in space. A light beam can travel 5.88 Trillion miles in a year! The value of jet speed is taken to be 600 mph, and though it helps travel within countries in a matter of hours, it’s just a bit too slow for space. Here is a comparison based on the time taken to travel to popular ‘nearby’ destinations across space, travelling a light speed and jet speed:

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