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Wawel na widoku Krakowa, rycina w dziele G. Brauna i F. Hogenberda, Civitates Orbis Terrarum, rok 1617

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Wawel - Zamek Królewski i katedra, widok od północy

Dobry wieczór Grażynko ;) Dziękuję za zaproszenie
 "Powrócisz tu, gdzie nadwiślański brzeg,
Powrócisz tu zza siedmiu gór i rzek,
Powrócisz tu, gdzie płonie słońcem wrzos i głóg,
Gdzie cienie brzóz, piach mazowieckich dróg."

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Krakow (Lat. Cracovia) - a town in southern Poland on the Vistula River, the second in the country in terms of population [1] [5] and the area [1], the Polish capital for 1795. And the crown city and the necropolis of Polish kings, from 1000 has been continuously capital of the diocese of Krakow (one of five in Poland at the time), and in 1925 the archdiocese and metropolis, since independence in 1918. provincial town (since 1998. seat of the province of Malopolska), is also a center of metropolitan agglomeration of Krakow and the Krakow Metropolitan area. The historical record Krakow is considered the main city historical Malopolska. It lies in the area of ​​Cracow Gate, Nida Basin and the Carpathian Plateau.

In Krakow, there are headquarters .: Polish Academy of Sciences, the National Science Centre, the Polish Association of Synchrotron Radiation [6], the National School of Judiciary and Public Prosecution [7] command of Special Forces of Poland, which is also one of the few commands NATO special forces [ 8] [9] Operations Center Land - Land Component Command [10], Polish Ski Association [11]. The city has cultural institutions of the importance and status among national Old National Theatre, National Museum, National Pantheon [12] National Archives [13], Jagiellonian Library, Institute of Books [14] Center for Special Operations [15] The National Rugby Centre [16].

City with county rights acts as the administrative, cultural, educational, scientific, economic, service and tourism. Krakow is the second largest, after Warsaw, the market of modern office space [17], as well as one of the key road junctions and stations in Poland. The Balice is the second largest Polish airport of international importance.

Table of Contents

    1 Location
        1.1 Administrative divisions
    2 Environment
        2.1 Climate
        2.2 Structure of land use
        2.3 Nature
            2.3.1 Parks and nature protection
            2.3.2 Reserves and natural monuments
            2.3.3 Ecological
            2.3.4 Spas
            2.3.5 Air Pollution
    3 toponymy
    4 History
        4.1 The Middle Ages
        4.2 This modern (XVI-XIX centuries)
            4.2.1 Krakow after the transfer of the royal court
            4.2.2 Austria-Hungary and Galicia
        4.3 twentieth century
            4.3.1 The beginning of the twentieth century and interwar
            4.3.2 The Nazi occupation
            4.3.3 Recent history
        4.4 Calendar of contemporary events (XX-XXI century)
    5 Demographics
    6 Policy and Administration
        6.1 Cities
    7 Economy
        7.1 B2B Services: Outsourcing
    8 Transport
        8.1 Road
        8.2 Railway
        8.3 Collective urban transport
        8.4 Airport
            8.4.1 Airports
       International Airport Krakow-Balice
       Airport Krakow-Pobiednik Great
            8.4.2 Landing
       Landing Rakowice-Czyżyny
       Landing Sanitary
       Landing helicopter
    9 Architecture
    10 Public Safety
        10.1 Healthcare
    11 Education
        11.1 units nationwide
        11.2 The main research units and educational
        11.3 The main research units
            11.3.1 of Krakow in international organizations, research
        11.4 Commercialisation of scientific research
            11.4.1 Kraków Technology Park
            11.4.2 The Knowledge and Innovation EIT in Krakow
            11.4.3 Research Laboratory of the Max Planck Society
    12 Tourism
        12.1 Tourist traffic in Krakow
        12.2 The main tourist attractions of Krakow
        12.3 Tourist Routes in Krakow
    13 Culture
        13.1 Theatres
        13.2 Museums and galleries
        13.3 Libraries
        13.4 Music in Krakow
        13.5 Cinemas in Krakow
        13.6 Krakow traditions and cultural events
        13.7 Movies filmed in Krakow
            13.7.1 Videos
            13.7.2 Series
        13.8 Monuments in Krakow
    14 Media
        14.1 Press
        14.2 Radio Stations
        14.3 Television stations
    15 Religion
    16 Sports
    17 Persons connected with Krakow
    18 See also
    19 References
    20 Bibliography
    21 External links

Krakow commons, the view from the Mound

Krakow is located in southern Poland, in the central-western part of the province of Malopolska on the Vistula; it boasts the mouth of the Vistula River tributaries: Beluga whales (lower gear Prądnika), Ore Mountains, Dłubnia, Taunts Long and Wilga. Krakow is located at the confluence of several geographical regions: Gate of Krakow, Oswiecim Valley, the Sandomierz Basin, the Carpathian Plateau, Krakow-Czestochowa Upland. Location of Krakow makes it a base for excursions in the Polish mountains, or trips to the picturesque Jura.

From Krakow adjacent municipalities Igołomia-Wawrzeńczyce, Kocmyrzów-Luborzyca, Koniusza, foxes, Michałowice, Mogilany, Niepołomice, Skawina, Świątniki top, Wieliczka, Great Mountain, Zabierzów, Zielonka. These municipalities belong to three neighboring districts of Cracow: Cracow, Wieliczka and Proszowice.
An administrative division
Districts Krakow

     Main article: Districts of Kraków.

In the fourteenth century. Kraków were 22 streets, in 1866, already in the city and in the suburbs - 113, in 1880 - 135, 1909 - 161 and 1926 - 457 Street.

From March 27, 1991 Kraków is divided into 18 local areas marked with Roman numerals. Since 2002, the Krakow City Council a resolution decided to formally assigned (next digits) the names of Krakow districts (eg. District I Stare Miasto) These names apply to this moment colloquially.
Town Hall d. The town of Kazimierz, (1578, 1876).

Widely used is the historical division of the city in the years 1951-1975 6 administrative districts: the Old Town, Zwierzyniec Kleparz, Grzegórzki, Podgórze, Nowa Huta or division into 4 districts, in force since 1975: Downtown, Old Town, Krowodrza, Nowa Huta.

In Krakow, the names of districts come mostly from the names of towns, villages, jurisdictions, farms, settlements, etc., Make up once a separate settlement units, and over the centuries incorporated in the administrative boundaries of the city.

In terms of local Krakow and the neighboring village formed Cracow agglomeration. In regional terms, it speaks of Kraków Metropolitan Area (KMA), while in terms of supra-regional growth pole Krakow is affecting the neighboring province - śląskie, świętokrzyskie and podkarpackie [18].
Natural environment

Extended latitudinal axis represents the city Vistula valley. Vistula river network forms, the right tributary of the Wilga and the tributaries of the left: Rudawa, Beluga, Dłubnia, Sanka and others.

(To be developed: water conditions, topography, geology, climate)

Record heat: 38.4 ° C (30 June 1833)

Record cold: -32.7 ° C (10 February 1929) [19]

Record rainfall: 313 mm (July 1903) [20]

The mean values ​​for the next months of the year:
The average temperature and precipitation for Krakow [hide] Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Annual
Average daily temperatures [° C] 2.9 7.8 13.5 1.0 19.2 21.7 23.4 23.4 18.5 13.5 6.4 2.4 12.8
The average daily temperature [° C] -0.7 3.5 8.3 -2.3 13.6 16.4 18.1 17.9 13.7 8.9 3.1 -0.6 8.3
Average temperatures at night [° C] -4.2 -0.9 3.1 -5.5 8.0 11.1 12.7 12.3 8.8 4.3 -0.2 -3.5 3.8
Precipitation [mm] 29.7 35.1 50.1 34.7 73.7 94.0 81.3 76.2 59.9 49.4 40.3 37.9 622.3
Average number of days of precipitation 15 14 14 14 14 15 15 13 12 12 15 16 169
Source: World Meteorological Organization [21]
The structure of land use
A view of the Vistula River and the bridge Dębnicki and boulevards from Wawel Hill
The structure of land use (2005) [22] Type of area%
Farmland 10 345 ha 31,65%
Forests and forest land 1,172 ha 3.59%
Other land and wasteland 21 167 ha 64.76%
Total (Σ) 32 684 ha 100%
Farmland in the city (2005) [22] Type of area%
Arable 8272 ha 79.96%
Meadows 1,500 hectares 14.50%
Pastures 370 ha 3.58%
Orchards 203 ha 1.96%
Farmland (Σ) 10 345 ha 100%

Parks and nature protection

     Main articles: Parks in Krakow, Krakow boulevards and swimming in Krakow.

Planty - the city park in Krakow, the surrounding Old Town
Cracow valleys
Lagoon Zakrzowek

In Krakow, there are 43 parks, which occupy a total of approx. 397 ha [23] which is a little over 1% of the total area of ​​the city.

In Krakow, there are 5 nature reserves with a total area of ​​48.6 ha (0.15% of the city) [24]. In the city of Krakow are small green areas forming part of the Jurassic Landscape Parks. This team deals with the protection of sites Jura, among others, fragments park Bielańsko-Tyniecki, Tenczyński and valleys of Cracow, along with their pipe coverings. In addition, natural refuge Jura part of the program Corine biotopes due to its flora, fauna, geomorphology and landscape.

The western part of Krakow is called. The area of ​​Cracow and is subject to Polish ecological network, and part of the city is located within the ecological corridor of the Vistula River. Rivers, valleys and bodies of water are some of the most interesting from the environmental point of view places in Krakow. In the southern slopes of limestone hills they offer conditions for plant growth thermophilic grasslands and scrub grasslands.
Reserves and natural monuments

     Main article: Natural monuments in Krakow.

The name of the reserve area Object of protection
Bielańskie Rocks 1.73 ha spontaneous processes of succession forest biocoenoses on the rocky, formerly devoid of forest area
Bonarka 2.29 hectare geological reserve, geological and tectonic faults, abrasive surfaces, exposed pieces Jurassic, Cretaceous
and tertiary
Maiden Rock 6.41 ha Jurassic gorge with outcrops of limestone, natural beech forest and hail.
Rocks Przegorzalskie 1.38 ha rock with xerothermic vegetation
Skołczanka 36.77 hectares of rustic limestone hill with diverse biocenozami, position fauna environments grasslands, including
rare and endangered species of insects

In Krakow, there are 260 natural monuments, most of them are tree [25]. Source Midsummer in Tyniec and the erratic boulder Street Spółdzielców are monuments of inanimate nature.
ecological areas
Kosciuszko Mound and Krakow's Blonie, in the background Las Wolski

    Uroczysko in Rzaska - the area partially located in the municipality of Krakow, and partly in Zabierzow, occupies about 59 hectares. The purpose of creation was to protect the use of violet swamp - endangered species, which in 2001 was inscribed on the list of Polish Red Book of Plants. Use also protects the residue of forest ecosystems and water in the area.
    Meadows Nowa Huta - an area of ​​about 57 hectares. Use was adopted in 2003 by the Council of the City of Krakow, it is situated near Central Square. It was created in order to protect semi-natural plant communities (wet meadows) in the Vistula valley.
    Dąbski pond - an area of ​​2.53 hectares. Use was adopted in 2010 by the Council of the City of Krakow [26], is located in the Dabie, near Krakow Gallery Plaza. The main object is to protect the ecosystem of the pond with rare species of animals, for example. Swan mussel (Anodonta cygnea) and bitterling (Rhodesus sericeus) - symbiotic species of mussels and fish listed in the Polish Red Book of Animals.
    Prądnika Valley - an area of ​​14.145 ha created by resolution of the City Council No. LX / 782/08 of 17 December 2008. [27] It is located along the river Prądnik from the street. Górnickiego to the borders of the city of Krakow. The main purpose of establishing the use is to preserve the natural meandering of the river Prądnik, along with habitat, among others, 19 species of mammals (including the great moth, beaver and otter) and 51 species of birds (including the wagtails mountain - only found a place of occurrence in Cracow).
    Pond Street. Marsh marigolds - an area of ​​0.82 ha, established by resolution of the City Council of 19 December 2007. It is a pond located in the valley of the river Dłubnia in Nowa Huta - Bieńczyce. It was established to protect the refuge dozens of species of birds, butterflies, mięczaków.Ochronie subject to the pond and its surroundings.
    Spillage stream Rzewnego - an area of ​​2.77 hectares, was established by resolution of the City Council of 19 December 2007. It was created for the protection of the three types of habitat: forest (mixed forest and alder), meadow and rush vegetation. This area is a refuge for many bird species, among which are a large group of birds of prey and owls. It is located between the cemetery in Borek Falecki and ul. Jeleniogórska and includes part of the valley of a small brook Rzewnego.
    Uroczysko Kowadza - an area of ​​1.82 hectares, was established by resolution of the City Council of 17 December 2008. It was created to protect xerothermic fauna rare species of insects. It is located in Tyniec ul. Midsummer.
    Forest Vítkovice.


     Main article: Spas in Krakow.

In Krakow with 2 spas (both are parks):

    In Swoszowice - on its territory there are two sources of healing water Main Spring and Napoleon, which provide unique mineral waters rich in sulfate anion, bicarbonate anion, calcium cation, magnesium cation. The sulfur content in waters classified Swoszowice ranked 5th in the world and 4th in Europe. The spa also treats rheumatic diseases through bath with the use of sulfur water and mud.
    The spa treatments are performed Mateczny wellness spas.

Air pollution

The geographical location of the city makes it difficult ventilation, which envelops them smog, especially during the heating season. Krakow is among top European cities with the most polluted air. Krakow air pollution is primarily dust PM10 and PM2.5 and toxic benzo (a) pyrene. The result of dust contamination, in addition to the obvious health consequences, is a noticeable reduction in the transparency of the air [28].

The source of contamination are primarily stoves on solid fuels (34%) and the influx of dust from outside the city (36%), but also the local industry (17%) and cars (13%) [29]. Heating furnaces are also responsible for 68 percent. emissions of carcinogenic benzo (a) pyrene, which - according to calculations Krakowski Alarm Smogowego - inspired by Krakowian amount in a year is the same as in the case of burn approx. 2,500 cigarettes [30].

According to a study by researchers at Jagiellonian University Medical College and Columbia University in New York showed that the residents of Krakow, which during pregnancy were exposed to PM2.5 above 35 mg / m³, give birth to children with birth weight lower by an average of 128 grams, less length body and smaller on average 0.3 cm circumference of the head. In winter, the residents of Krakow recommended to shorten the residence time in the open air and is reborn exercise, such as running [31].

The city has increased the budget for the fight against smog, also passed a provision prohibiting the burning of coal in heating furnaces. The ban was to come into force in 2018. However, in August of 2014. Was repealed by the Regional Administrative Court in Krakow.

For the full title of the city is as the Royal Capital City of Krakow. Despite the growing cosmopolitanization, Krakow remains the depositary Polish emblem [style to improve]. As the only city in Poland has the right to use the coat of arms emblem of the Polish State. Such a possibility, according to the heraldic symbolism, has only capital cities and regions [32].

Author of the first sources of literate, in which 966 appears Krakow is Ibrahim ibn Jakub. In Latin documents the 973 is in the form Cracoua.

The linguist Jerzy Nalepa argues that the core crack means a branch of the river. [33]

According to legend, saved at the end of the twelfth century by Vincent Kadłubka name Krakow comes from the name of Prince Krak, while in Czech legends there is a figure of Prince Krok.

The historic function of Krakow refers to his full name [34] - Royal Capital City of Krakow legally recognized by the Council of Ministers, and previously by the supreme state authorities of the Second Republic, which used the name in his legal acts [35] [36]. Also abbreviated name, ie .: st. King. the city of Krakow, the city of Krakow or the table. king. The city of Krakow. Some of these laws apply today [37] [38]. On the international Krakow is perceived as a "spiritual and scientific Polish heart" [39].
Panorama of the city center at night
Panorama of the city center at night
Privilege Krakow 1257
View of Cracow in the Chronicle of Hartmann Schedel, 1493
Panorama of Wawel Castle in the late sixteenth century. Illustration in Civitates Orbis Terrarum by Braun and Hogenberg.
The oath of Tadeusz Kosciuszko on the market in Krakow - March 24, 1794. - Picture Francis Smuglewicz
The arrival of Joseph Poniatowski in Krakow - July 14, 1809 r. - Michael picture Stachowicza
Jan Matejko Square was built in the nineteenth century. During the period of modernization and reconstruction of the city
Krakow in 1912 on one of the first color photographs in Polish history.

     Main articles: History of Krakow, Calendar history of Krakow and the Benedictines świętokrzyscy in Krakow.

Krakow is one of the oldest Polish cities, with many valuable architectural objects. It acts in many institutions and cultural establishments accumulating priceless monuments. In the past, the city belonged to the Hanseatic League uniting the most important commercial centers in Europe.

1795. Krakow was formally the Polish capital, and 1611. Seat of the rulers of the Polish state. In the years 1596-1795, which is the third partition of Polish, as the capital of the Republic [40] functions share capital of Warsaw, which became the city rezydencjalnym King [41] [42]. He was a royal city of the Crown of the Polish Kingdom [43]. The town had the right to participate actively in the act of choosing the King [44].
Middle Ages

The oldest settlement center was among Castle on the defensive and was one of the strongholds in the tribal state Vistulans. Vistulans lands could be for some time under the reign of the Great Moravian. In X in. (Most likely in the years approx. 960 - approx. 986) Krakow came in dependence on the Czech Republic, ruled by the first rulers of the Premyslid. It was a loose relationship, the nature of tributary and left clearer traces in historical tradition, and some historians have questioned at all Czech rule over Krakow during this period. About 990 city became part of the Piast state, becoming one of the main headquarters of the kingdom (Latin. Sedes regni principalis) [45]; trying to determine the exact time of the incarnation of the Piast state oscillate between 987 and 989. The first reliable written mention of Krakow comes from a document Dagome iudex of approx. 992. On the Vistula River next to Wawel Castle, a small hill from Jurassic limestone, according to legend, he was once a pagan temple on site which then they built the church Romanesque church. St. Michael the Archangel. At least from 1000 in Krakow was the seat of a bishopric, and during the reign of Casimir the Restorer Krakow became the main ducal seat.

During the disintegration Krakow was the seat of the Duke senior, but over time the princes of Krakow lost the actual supremacy over other Piast rulers. In 1241 the city was destroyed during the Mongol invasion. It could decide on the failure of the first location of Krakow, which was probably planned at the beginning of the thirteenth century. On June 5, 1257, following the example of Wroclaw, [46], Prince Boleslaw V Chaste, his mother and wife Grzymisław St. King gave the privilege based on Magdeburg Law in Kopernia near Pińczów. Zasadźcami were three mayors: Gedko Stilvoyt, Jakub from Nysa and Dytmar Wolk from Wroclaw. The newly delineated the city was inhabited mainly by immigrants from Silesia and Germany, which explains the fact that the use of the German language by the townspeople of Krakow to the sixteenth century. He then created a distinctive chessboard layout of the city, in which fitted preserved elements of the earlier (ul. Grodzka, St. Mary's Church). Between Krakow and Wawel existed settlement Okół, the former borough, which was incorporated to Krakow by King Ladislaus the Short after the rebellion mayor Alberta.

In 1320 Wawel cathedral was the coronation of Ladislaus the Short, symbolically ending a period of disintegration. Since then, until 1734, Krakow was the place of coronation of Polish kings.

In the fourteenth century on the outskirts of Krakow, there are two more cities: the southern Kazimierz (1335) and the North Kleparz (1366).

As the capital of one of the European powers in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries., Krakow developed architecturally, commercial, craft, cultural and scientific. Wawel castle complex was rebuilt and expanded in the Renaissance style. Renovated formed in 1364. University. It was built in the Barbican with the circle of the city walls.
The history of modern (XVI-XIX centuries)
Krakow after the transfer of the royal court

After the Polish-Lithuanian union and the creation of the Republic of Two Nations Krakow he found himself on the sidelines great state. Diets and Elections of new monarchs were held in Warsaw, located roughly halfway between the capitals of the Crown and Lithuania.

Since 1596 began the process of transferring the royal court of Sigismund III Vasa from Krakow to Warsaw, ending approx. 1611. Warsaw it obtained the title of town have a residential His Majesty, and Cracow to the last partition of Polish remained the formal capital of the Republic [47] [48] [41] [42]. Wawel Cathedral remained the place of coronation and burial of Polish kings, and Krakow - the capital and royal city, which functioned other institutions such as the capital. Royal Treasury. Even in later times Turkish vizier Kara Mustafa, wrote in correspondence to related Wilanow Jan III Sobieski: "I will destroy your Krakow ...".

With the fall of the Republic began in the fall of Krakow. War destruction greatly tarnished the city's position and hampered its development. For the first time Krakow was destroyed by foreign troops in 1655 during the "Swedish Deluge" (suburbs suffered heavily, but already in 1587, while attempting to conquer the city by the Habsburg Archduke Maximilian III). In the years 1656-1657 was another siege, defended at the time by the Swedes.
Austro-Hungary and Galicia

In the eighteenth century. Kraków was conquered by the Prussian army, the Swedish, Austrian and Russian. March 24, 1794 at the Krakow market oath Nation made the head of Tadeusz Kosciuszko thereby starting the uprising.

June 15, 1794 r. To Cracow entered the Prussian army. The Prussians occupied the Wawel Castle and had established military warehouses. Then it made the robbery of Polish jewels and insignia from the treasury of the Crown, which have been transported to Berlin, and then partially incorporated into the Prussian treasury and melted or encashed at war needs. Prussians left Cracow in 1795 [49].

After the third partition of Polish Krakow occupied Austria. Alexander Rożniecki - cavalry commander participating in Austrian-Polish war, ranging from Raszyn, with branch - outpost, reached Krakow, July 14, 1809 r. (The day before Father. Poniatowski) and broke the last resistance of the Austrians before entering the victorious prince.
Map Free City of Cracow (1815-1846)

October 14, 1809 r., Under the Treaty of Schönbrunn, Krakow and Podgórze were annexed to the Duchy of Warsaw as the capital of the department. In the years 1815-1846 was the capital of a small surface, formally an independent state - the Republic of Cracow. During this period began a thorough modernization and reconstruction of the city, which still lay in the medieval urban layout. Demolished most of the city walls, the moat was filled on site which was created park - Planty. After the founding of Krakow, organized against Austrian domination, but actually against three occupying powers at a time (ie. "Welfare states" Republic of Cracow), the city was in 1846. Annexed by Austria, which borders remained until 1918. The name of the Republic of Cracow was replaced new: Grand Duchy of Cracow. Since then, the Austrian emperor used the title Grand Duke of Krakow.

In 1850 a great fire destroyed approx. 10% of the city.
twentieth century
The beginning of the twentieth century and interwar
New Town Hall (Magistrate) d. The city foothills, which for 1,915 years was an independent town.

In the years 1910-1915 were announced and partially implemented regulatory plan of the Great Krakow, under which included the administrative boundaries of Krakow located in the vicinity of the city, settlements and villages.

In 1915 it merged with Podgórze Krakow, a city founded in 1784, on the opposite bank of the river.

August 6, 1914. Set out from Krakow, I Cadre Company of Jozef Pilsudski at the helm. It was the first Polish military since the Polish partitions. I crossed the border Band of Congress with the intention of the liberation of the rest of the Republic.

At the beginning of 1918. Intensified in Krakow sentiment for independence, as evidenced by the manifestation of dn. 20th January. The situation worsened announcement on February 11 of the Treaty of Brest. The demonstrations began on February 12 from zdemolowania consulate of Prussia, and February 18 was a great manifestation of protest on the Main Market. The strike took railroad workers who stayed in the area Chrzanowa train with troops sent to the city by the concerned Austrian authorities. On the fence of the lot on the corner of Market and Main Street. St. John and trees along the line A-B appeared posters with inscriptions affecting the occupant, which was removed only at gunpoint. October 12, in response to the manifesto of the Regency Council, the Krakow City Council held a formal sitting during which fully supported its content. October 15 Polish delegates in the Vienna parliament made a statement that henceforth consider themselves as citizens of a free and united Polish. National Division convene the next in Krakow and parliamentary deputies to the State Council, who on October 28 took counsel espousing the Polish lands within the former Austrian monarchy belong to the Polish State, and that for these lands, a Commission on Liquidation [50].

28 October 1918 was established in Krakow, Poland Liquidation Commission of Vincent Witos headed and took over full authority in the city. Krakow, as a result of mass action disarm Austrian soldiers became the first (next Tarnow) free of power possessive city of the Republic. October 31 afternoon appeared in the city of Krakow posters informing about this happy fact. [51]

In the interwar period, just after regaining independence, the Polish central authorities recognized the Wawel castle by building a representative of the Republic, inaugurated the Head of State, and then the President of the Republic - the resolution of the Polish Sejm of 1921., Urban complex Wawel became one of the official residence of the Polish President. To this day, preserved apartment Polish President Ignacy Moscicki.
The oldest part of the pre-war building of the Jagiellonian Library (1931-1939), created in 1364
Pilsudski Mound (1938.) - The largest of the four existing today Krakow's mounds, erected in the years 1934-1937

In autumn 1923, as a result of the deteriorating economic situation and the social conflicts took place in Krakow to bloody clashes. November 5 proclaimed a general strike. November 6 under the building Sickness House (Workers) Street. Dunajewski pm. 9:00 were the first clashes with the police (20 police officers were injured). Later, armed mob attacked a cordon of police and military officers pushing toward the street. Szewskiej. It came to the environment and disarmament company of soldiers. Armed with weapons acquired demonstrators and militants moved ul. Szczepańska Market and seized the Planty. In the morning, there was already a regular walk with the use of firearms. Was fired Lancers squadron sent to the area of ​​ul. Dunajewski. From the windows of houses and behind the pillars of the Cloth fired another squadron, standing in the Market Square next to the guardhouse. Military command of the city sent to fight three armored cars. One of them, deprived of the support of infantry, was captured by the demonstrators. Around noon, the shots started to fade. The entire western part of the city fell under the control of the strikers. The building Sickness Funds held as prisoners disarmed and wounded soldiers. In conditions of chaos and lack of information the authorities have instructed the army and police to cease fire and withdraw from the streets. They began to negotiate. The strikers they ground a gas plant and a power plant, and as a result already in the chair. 17:00 city began to sink into complete darkness. Fighting in Krakow, called the rise of Krakow caused the death of 14 officers and soldiers; the wounded were 101 military and 38 police officers. On the side of the demonstrators also fell 14 killed. They killed a 4 random civilians, and dozens were injured. In addition, 61 horses were killed and 70 wounded [52].
The Nazi occupation

     Main articles: Krakow Ghetto and the Plaszow.

German troops occupied the town six days after the start of World War II. During the Nazi occupation (1939-1945) it functioned as the capital of the General Government. In March 1941, the German occupier closed in the Krakow ghetto about 60 thousand. persons recognized as Jews by the racist Nuremberg laws (25% of all the inhabitants of Cracow). The prisoners of the ghetto were murdered in the course of the liquidation (13 - 14 March 1943) and the concentration camps in Plaszow, Belzec and Auschwitz. As a result of the extermination campaign after World War II survived about a thousand Jews of Cracow [53].

Deported to Germany many works of art, many of which did not return to the country.


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Czesław Niemen - "Sen o Warszawie".......*)

Serdeczne  podziękowania  Grażynce  za  utworzenie  pięknego  portalu  społecznościowego  -  ""MOJE  MIASTO".

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                      PARK UJAZDOWSKI  - Warszawa 1910 r.

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Muzeum Kolei Wąskotorowej w Sochaczewie

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Warszawa zima 78/79 tzw.zima stulecia
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