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São Tomé island

The entire island of São Tomé is a massive shield volcano that rises from the floor of the Atlantic Ocean, over 3,000 m (10,000 ft) below sea level. It formed along the Cameroon line, a line of volcanoes extending from Cameroon southwest into the Atlantic Ocean. Most of the lava erupted on São Tomé over the last million years has been basalt. The youngest dated rock on the island is about 100,000 years old, but numerous more recent cinder cones are found on the southeast side of the island.
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How do waterfalls form?

Waterfalls commonly form where water rushes down steep hillsides and quickly erodes the rocks. The height and number of waterfalls along a stream or river depends upon the type of rocks that are being eroded by the water. Some types of rocks (shale, for example) wear away more easily than others (such as sandstone or limestone).

As the river or stream wears away the weak rocks, they travel across the surface of stronger rocks. These more resistant rocks become the capstones to waterfalls. The number and thickness of these stronger rock units in a vertical sequence of rocks controls how many water falls there are and how much vertical drop there is on each waterfall.

Taughannock (tu-GANN-ic) Falls, pictured above, is the highest single-drop waterfall (70.5 meters, or 215 feet) in the northeastern United States. There are two reasons for this:

The creek that flows over Taughannock Falls has to drop many hundreds of feet to reach the water level of Cayuga Lake, which it empties into.
There is a thick layer of weak shale rocks between the strong sandstones at the top and the stronger limestones.
The water easily wore away the shale and left one big drop between the capstones.
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