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Castillo San Felipe de Barajas

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Castillo San Felipe de Barajas
Cartagena, Colombia 
62 - Carthagène - Décembre 2008.jpg 
Castillo San Felipe de Barajas 
 
 




Castillo San Felipe de Barajas is located in Colombia 

Castillo San Felipe de Barajas


Site history


Built
1536–1767 

In use
1536–present 

Built by
Antonio de Arévalo 


Battles/wars
Raid on Cartagena (1697)
Battle of Cartagena de Indias (1741) 

José de Herrera y Sotomayor (1739–41) 
 

The Castillo San Felipe de Barajas is a fortress in the city of Cartagena, Colombia. The castle is located on the Hill of San Lázaro in a strategic location, dominating approaches to the city by land or sea. It was built by the Spanish during the colonial era. Construction began in the year 1536, and it was originally known as the Castillo de San Lázaro, It was expanded in 1657.
History

The fortress was begun in 1536. It was significantly expanded in 1657. It was built in a triangular shape on top of the hill, with eight guns and a garrison of 20 soldiers and 4 gunners. Its name was given in honour of Philip IV of Spain.Another expansion was made to the fortress in 1763 by Antonio de Arévalo.

In the 1697 raid on Cartagena, during the War of the Grand Alliance, the castle fell to the French privateer Baron de Pointis. The castle was repaired by José de Herrera y Sotomayor in 1739. British Admiral Edward Vernon attacked the fortress in the 1741 Battle of Cartagena de Indias, an important conflict of the War of Jenkins' Ear. Vernon's forces were repelled by the Spanish admiral Blas de Lezo. By mid-1815 a large Spanish expeditionary force under Pablo Morillo had arrived in New Granada. Cartagena fell in December, and by May 1816 the royalists had control of all of New Granada.
#castillo   #cartagena   #colombia  
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The Zenú Gold Museum Cartagena, Colombia 

Centro, Cra 4, 33-26, Plaza de Bolivar, Cartagena, Colombia Free 

Housed in a charming colonial house on the Plaza Bolivar rescued by Colombia's central bank, the Zenú gold museum boasts a priceless insight into the pre-Colombian culture of the Caribbean.

Fortunately plenty of the pre-Colombian bling that fuelled the Spanish land-grab through the Americas in the 16th century slipped through the sloppy Conquistadores fingers and some of the best examples of intricate gold-work survived their indiscriminate plundering.

Two main exhibits celebrate the intricate metallurgical and ceramic arts of the Zenú indigenous population that have inhabited the area between the Sinu and Magdalena Rivers for more than 2,000 years.

Displays explore the traditions of the Zenú and other tribes throughout the country focusing in particular on the traditional methods of burying their dead in mounds that resemble the stomachs of pregnant women and the advanced drainage systems used to cultivate the lands to the north of the country.

Gold has been central to the city's development since it was founded in 1533 and it was Cartagena's founder father, Pedro de Heredia that headed the first expedition up the River Sinú in search of the gold of the 'Mogote graves'.

The plundering of Zenú graves along the Sinú and in the San Jorge and Cauca valleys was so successful, and the region was so rich in indigenous labour and cultivated products, that these financed local government in the city for decades.

http://www.ticartagena.com/en/things-to-do/sights-attractions/a-golden-opportunity-to-learn-about-the-zen%C3%BA/
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Colonial Period  
The Inquisition in Cartagena
CARTAGENA: Torture at the Inquisition Museum  
History of Cartagena de Indias - The Inquisition in CartagenaThe King Philip III introduced in 1610 the Tribunal de Penas del Santo Oficio de la Inquisición in the city.

The Inquisition was created during the Middle Ages (1223); it was a religious tribunal dedicated to "rescue" from the claws of the furious people all those persons that attempted against the Catholic faith (heretics) to judge them as they deserved. From the ample expansion in all the christian countries in Europe, the Inquisition in Spain had somehow deviated from the primary objectives.

Apart from applying the justice in religious terms, it was an instrument of the Spanish Crown to exert political pressure and influence in all the sectors, almost independently from the Vatican.

Due to the particular way of judging and sentencing of the accused (torments, tortures), a wrong concept of the mentality of the inquisitors was formed, who were not only very passionate about their job, but also very convinced with what they were doing and abused their appointment and committed cruelties in pro of religious ideas.

Many torments to draw out a confession were applied in Cartagena, among them were the water pitcher, the water drop, the colt, the cord,etc. One of the most prosecuted crimes was witchcraft, which was widely practiced. 

The Inquisition worked in Cartagena de Indias until the revolution on November 11th of 1811, coming back in 1816 with the pacifier Pablo Morillo and then was finally exiled in 1821 when Cartagena de Indias was liberated by the patriot army.
 http://www.cartagenacaribe.com/en/history/colony/inquisicion.htm
#cartagena   #inquisition   #spain   #colombia  
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Annette Kapple
moderator

general Discussion  - 
 
Let the Dr. Oz show know how you feel about this blog post and show segment. I think some of the criticism was very unfair. You can comment at the blog or write to the show. 
We all want to be fit, healthy and happy. And we work hard at it. But could our success or failure be pre-determined by our DNA? That’s the claim made by companies that sell home DNA test kits for everything from your family history to your ideal die
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Annette Kapple
moderator

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I finally finished watching Dr. Janzen's session about segments from Jamboree. I also just finished listening to him again at the 23andme hangout. He feels testing 2nd cousin's can give you the most bang for your testing buck. 
I had not been able to finish watching the last half hour of the Jamboree Webinar I purchased until last week. For some reason (maybe the fact I use Wifi?) I kept losing the video signal half an hour into it, and could never ...
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Annette Kapple
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The AncestryDNA surname and place search still has bugs. New tools are coming out sometime this years. I'm hoping they include new search tools also?
Watch live streaming video from ancestry at livestream.com This weekend I listened to The Barefoot Genealogist's Livestream video titled "DNA Bio Connections". I had heard information, coming out of NGS, that new tools we...
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WikiTree

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For those interested, we're introducing a great new tool to help connect DNA and Genealogy!

http://www.wikitree.com/blog/wikitree-announces-dna-ancestor-confirmation-aid/
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Annette Kapple
moderator

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Thanks for the promotion :)! 
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Dirk Schweitzer
owner

general Discussion  - 
 
 
This is so cool: Brazil 2014: Visualising ancestral and
international connections between teams

This is an attempt to map ancestral (parent, grandparent) and international (born abroad and dual citizenship) connections at the 2014 World Cup. Of all 32 teams, each team has at least one connection to another country with the exception of Ecuador, Honduras and South Korea.
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About this community

Welcome to the Genetic Genealogy Community at Google+. Reconnect with lost close relatives. Learn about the migration paths your ancestors took. Make new friends worldwide by testing your own DNA, and those of your parents, and comparing the test results to those of others. Everybody is welcome to post constructive entries, for example: what have you learned so far? Want to discuss the history of a specific haplogroup? Have technical questions? Share a relevant news story? Please feel free to promote the group, invite your G+ & (still at) FB friends to join it.
Planet Earth
 
 
Humans were building in the Amazon before the rainforest existed, according to a new study of the ancient ecology of northeastern Bolivia. Mysterious earthen ditches were made when the region was a savanna.
Humans were building in the Amazon before the rainforest existed, according to a new study of the ancient ecology of northeastern Bolivia. Mysterious earthen ditches were made when the region was a savanna.
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WikiTree

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One week from tonight Peter Roberts will talk about DNA in general but also on how we are incorporating it into WikiTree.  Here's the link to the G+ Hangout if anyone is interested! 

https://plus.google.com/u/0/b/114501519056827303829/events/cpubtc6suhe8uuun1iqs7ijhs88
Peter J. Roberts, a prominent member of the WikiTree DNA project who has been instrumental in the advancement of DNA tools on our site, will give a general overview of DNA and discuss these tools and their benefits. He will also be answering questions submitted by our members. Peter s an associate professor and archivist at Georgia State University. He has an undergraduate degree in art history from Emory University and a graduate degree in muse...
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Dirk Schweitzer
owner

archaeology news  - 
 
 
What lies beneath: new discoveries about the Jericho skull: The so-called Jericho skull is among the oldest human remains in the British Museum collection. Thought to be between 8,500 and 9,300 years old, it is one of seven Neolithic plastered human skulls found together by Kathleen Kenyon during excavations at Jericho in 1953. The site is now located in the modern State of Palestine.

More: http://blog.britishmuseum.org/2014/07/03/what-lies-beneath-new-discoveries-about-the-jericho-skull/

Photo: The Jericho skull shown with face forwards. The eyes are made from shell. British Museum.
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This is a very fascinating Q&A with international leading scientist Dr. Mae-Wan Ho to discuss the new science of epigenetics, structured water and meditation 
A very fascinating Q&A with international leading scientist Dr. Mae-Wan Ho to discuss the new science of epigenetics, structured water and meditation
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WikiTree

general Discussion  - 
There is a significant amount of confusion about DNA matching and which ancestors and ancestral lines can match in which way. To review, there are 4 different kinds of DNA that we can utilize for g...
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Ana Oquendo Pabón
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Annette Kapple
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I do wonder if Ancestry does take your surnames into consideration along with DNA when assigning your matches?
A few weeks ago I said that I thought I may had found an Ancestry.com match relating to my Thurman family line. It was a very low confidence match and this person traced their Thurman line back to a Baze Thurman. I looked thi...
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A close view at Why Hasn't Clinical Genetics Taken Off?
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