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Kolberg Art & Science Club
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Full Genomes Corporation  - 
 
https://www.fullgenomes.com/ 

Novogene Partners With Full Genomes to Offer Whole-Genome Sequencing Ancestry Test 
Jan 29, 2016
"NEW YORK (GenomeWeb) – Novogene said this week that it has inked an agreement to offer Rockville, Maryland-based Full Genomes' whole-genome sequencing-based ancestry test in China. Novogene, which is headquartered in Beijing, will run the $895 test, GenomeGuide, on its Illumina HiSeq X Ten. Customers will get back the raw data BAM file, variant summary reports from SnpEff and VEP that are compatible with third-party tools, autosomal and X-chromosomal variant identification VCF files, and mitochondrial and Y chromosome reports. GenomeGuide is sold as a research-use-only test. According to +Justin Loe, CEO of Full Genomes, GenomeGuide will be "the most comprehensive ancestry test on the market today." Full Genomes entered the ancestry testing market in 2013 with a Y chromosome sequencing service. The firm now also offers RUO whole-genome sequencing at varying levels of coverage in addition to its Y-chromosome sequencing test and GenomeGuide." 
https://www.genomeweb.com/sequencing-technology/novogene-partners-full-genomes-offer-whole-genome-sequencing-ancestry-test @ +GenomeWeb 
Novogene will run the GenomeGuide RUO ancestry test on its Illumina HiSeq X Ten in Beijing. 
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Kolberg Art & Science Club
moderator

ancient DNA Discussion  - 
 
 
New discoveries concerning Ötzi's genetic history

The Iceman's maternal genetic line originated in the Alps and is now extinct

A study was published 08 Jan 2016 on the DNA of Helicobacter pylori, the pathogen extracted from the stomach of Ötzi, the ice mummy who has provided valuable information on the life of Homo Sapiens; new research at the European Academy of Bolzano/Bozen (EURAC) further clarifies the genetic history of man who lived in the Eastern Alps over 5,300 years ago. In 2012 a complete analysis of the Y chromosom (transmitted from fathers to their sons) showed that Ötzi’s paternal genetic line is still present in modern-day populations.
In contrast, studies of mitochondrial DNA (transmitted solely via the mother to her offspring) left many questions still open. 

[...] Ötzi's paternal lineage, G2a, is part of an ancient genetic substrate that arrived in Europe from the Near East with the migrations of the first Neolithic peoples some 8,000 years ago. Additional migrations and other demographic events occurring after the Neolithic Age in Europe then partially replaced G2a with other lineages, except in geographically isolated areas such as Sardinia. In contrast, the Iceman's maternal branch originated locally in the eastern Alps at least 5,300 years ago. The same migrations that have replaced only in part his paternal lineage caused the extinction of his maternal lineage that was inherited in a small and demographic stationary population. The groups from the eastern Alps in fact significantly increased in size only from the Bronze Age onwards, as evidenced by archaeological studies conducted in the territory inhabited by the Iceman.[...]
Read the full story>>
http://www.eurac.edu/en/news/news/Pages/newsdetails.aspx?entryid=115141

► Read the study "Whole mitochondrial DNA sequencing in Alpine populations and the genetic history of the Neolithic Tyrolean Iceman", published in Scientific Reports, an online open access journal of the Nature group. >>
http://www.nature.com/articles/srep18932

► Image: The Iceman's hand is pictured.
Credit: South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology/EURAC/M.Lafogler

#biology, #Ötzi, #research, #Ötzi_genetic_history, #EURAC, #Iceman, #first_Neolithic_peoples, #science, #EasternAlps, #HomoSapiens;
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Natkritta Panprasert
moderator

archaeology news  - 
 
 
Archaeologists began excavating an ancient "lost city" in Honduras. What have they found so far?
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Annette Kapple
moderator

general Discussion  - 
 
Had a very successful trip to Nicaragua! 
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Kolberg Art & Science Club
moderator

archaeology news  - 
 
Marble slab with 7 lines of #Aramaic and #Hebrew text found at biblical town on banks of Sea of Galilee may be from #Byzantine-era #synagogue. ‘There’s been nothing like this before,’ says archaeologists. http://www.timesofisrael.com/ancient-inscription-points-to-jewish-past-for-early-christian-site/

#archaeology #byzantineart #judaism  
Marble slab with 7 lines of Aramaic and Hebrew text found at biblical town on banks of Sea of Galilee may be from Byzantine-era synagogue. ‘There’s been nothing like this before,’ says archaeologist
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carlos augusto da cruz novo

general Discussion  - 
 
If a person has 50% or more of genetics in southern Europe, and if mtDNA is African, there is a possibility your ydna not be European?
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Shannon Dillman's profile photo
 
Well, there's almost always a possibility of that, whether or not your autosomal DNA makeup shows much of anything African. There's zero relationship to the mtDNA. Only way to know for sure is to test. 
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carlos augusto da cruz novo

general Discussion  - 
 
Si une personne a 50% ou plus de la génétique dans le sud de l'Europe, et si ADNmt est africaine, il ya une possibilité de votre ydna ne pas être européen?
 ·  Translate
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Kolberg Art & Science Club
moderator

archaeology news  - 
 
All about the ancient city of Iasos on the Bodrum peninsula of Turkey. This ancient Carian city has a historical timeline bursting with events and prominent people. Caria was a Greek region that covered most of the Aegean and part of the Mediterranean coasts during the 11th to 6th century B.C. Sitting near the current day village of Kiyikislacik, Iasos was once an island and a member of the Delian league of  468 B.C, of which its main aim was to fight invasion by the Persian Empire.

Read more here : http://turkishtravelblog.com/iasos-kiyikislacik-bodrum-turkey/

#turkey #travel #bodrum #history  
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Dirk Schweitzer
owner

general Discussion  - 
 
The map below shows how ethnic groups are distributed in Africa. Defining ethnic groups is an infamously tricky problem, so this study used a very simple method: it simply asked people which group they belonged to.

One interesting thing they discovered was that circumstances changed the way people answered this question. For example, in Somalia, after the famine and civil war, people shifted to defining themselves by smaller sub-tribes -- e.g., calling themselves Issa rather than Dir. (Dir being a larger group which includes several other clans)

But as the article notes, this isn't the main thing driving the tremendous ethnic diversity on this map: instead, the fine grains here were mostly created by terrain which physically isolates one group from another. Linguistic boundaries tend to match it.

This is similar to the structure of Papua New Guinea, which rather famously has over 800 distinct languages, mostly completely unrelated to one another, for a population of 7.3 million people in an area not much bigger than Germany. There too, terrain makes it surprisingly difficult to get from the home of one tribe to the next. This map gives you an idea of what's involved there: http://www.muturzikin.com/cartesoceanie/imagesoceanie/papou1.png

Another interesting comparison comes from this recent article in Foreign Affairs, which tried to draw a map of the "real" political borders of Africa: https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/2015-11-08/real-map-africa The idea here was to use foreign travel advisories to identify regions where governments didn't have effective control. This method is somewhat approximate, but the main thing it shows is that most of the Sahara isn't really part of any government at all; in fact, you could walk from Mauritania to Egypt without once stepping into a place that had a government. (Assuming you somehow survived)

Even within areas which are clearly governed, warfare tends to happen along tribal boundaries. Large-scale wars rarely involve small tribes on their own, of course; instead, tribes align with one another, generally based on some shared property like mutual (often fictive) kinship, shared religion, or shared economic needs. These larger alignments can drive much more long-lasting and difficult wars, such as the perpetual instability in Nigeria between the northern Muslims and the southern Christians, or in Sudan (and now South Sudan) between Muslims, Christians and animists.

This is very similar to the pattern seen in the Middle East, where tribes align along combinations of ethnicity, language, religion, and most of all family relationship.

This leads to complex hierarchies of relationship: Hamas could work with Iran because they're jointly Muslim, even though Hamas was principally Sunni and Arab and Iran is Shi'ite and Persian, because they were both fighting against the Israelis, who are Jews. However, there are lots of Persian Israelis, who thus have long-standing relationships with Persian Iranians, and in fact the countries got along fairly well until a different tribal alliance took over Iran in 1979. And Hamas is wary of Hezbollah, who are Lebanese Shi'ites, and also thus clients of Iran, because Hezbollah is mostly fighting wars against everyone in Lebanon who isn't a Shi'ite, as well as fighting against Israel. So Hamas also works with forces in Egypt, which is Sunni and Arab; except not the Egyptian government, which has an alliance with the Israelis, and so instead they try to work with the (Sunni) Bedouins of the Sinai Peninsula, who are at war with the Egyptians, but who are also closely tied to the Israeli Sunni Bedouins, which are...

Anyway, hopefully you get the picture: each group has a bunch of identifiers, and if two groups have any identifier in common (or can make one up), they can use that as the shared language needed to build an alliance. Sometimes these alliances are for trade, while sometimes they're for the purpose of war against a third group. And these alliances can shift quite easily over time.

This can also be useful in understanding the perspective of these groups on regions such as Europe and the US, since they get interpreted as being tribes as well. As far as most of the world is concerned, the US, Latin America, and Europe are three major tribes in their own right, which are parts of the Protestants, the Catholics, and the generic Christians, respectively. (People's individual beliefs have nothing to do with this: religion is a matter of tribal identity, not faith) Importantly, this means that they're not part of the family of Abraham, which is one of the largest super-tribal designations commonly used in the Middle East, merging Jews and Muslims, including Persian Muslims even though that makes only limited biological sense. That means that entirely different language is needed when making alliances with the western countries, which is particularly difficult because everyone knows what the Christians think of the Jews and the Muslims, and people remember the Crusaders very well.

Yes, this is how the world works. Exciting, isn't it?

h/t to +Anne-Marie Clark for the Foreign Affairs article.
This Harvard University map of ethnic diversity across Africa speaks volumes.
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Dirk Schweitzer's profile photocarlos augusto da cruz novo's profile photoDebbie Kennett's profile photo
4 comments
 
No, what I want to know is regarding mutations, and the organization of nitrogenous bases

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Kolberg Art & Science Club
moderator

archaeology news  - 
 
The Sumerian language was spoken in southern Mesopotamia during the 3rd millennium BCE. It is an isolate language meaning we know of no other languages that relate to it ancestrally. Although there are some theories that Sumerian is a member of the Uralic languages like Hungarian and Finnish, or other language families, this is a minority view with insufficient evidence to make a definite claim. The language was spoken in a region where Semitic languages were also spoken, particularly Akkadian, and it eventually fell out of use in favor of those languages by the turn of the 2nd millennium BCE.

http://buff.ly/1Mbwtv0 #Mesopotamia #Sumerian #Languages #History #AncientHistory #AncientHistoryEncyclopedia
The Sumerian language was spoken in southern Mesopotamia during the 3rd millennium BCE. It is an isolate language meaning we know of no other languages that relate to it ancestrally. Although there are...
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About this community

Welcome to the Genetic Genealogy Community at Google+. Reconnect with lost close relatives. Learn about the migration paths your ancestors took. Make new friends worldwide by testing your own DNA, and those of your parents, and comparing the test results to those of others. Everybody is welcome to post constructive entries, for example: what have you learned so far? Want to discuss the history of a specific haplogroup? Have technical questions? Share a relevant news story? Please feel free to promote the group, invite your G+ & (still at) FB friends to join it.
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Kolberg Art & Science Club
moderator

Full Genomes Corporation  - 
 
+1  
https://www.fullgenomes.com/  

The Y-Chromosome in Human History 
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Natkritta Panprasert
moderator

archaeology news  - 
 
 
Access to Spain’s Altamira caves containing Paleolithic paintings may soon be out of reach for the average art lover, as Spain considers an auction system to grant access to the caves.
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Jeannette Austin

general Discussion  - 
 
Virginia Ancestors? You are invited to visit www.virginiapioneers.net
Access to 300 genealogies, images of Wills, Estates, Marriages, Deeds, Bibles, Obituaries, Probate Records for the State of Virginia
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Natkritta Panprasert
moderator

archaeology news  - 
 
 
"Whether Ötzi suffered from stomach problems cannot be said with any degree of certainty,"
A group of scientists has found aggressive gut bacteria in a 5,300-year-old mummy, discovered in the Tyrolean Alps in 1991. It was dubbed Ötzi the Iceman. Helicobacter pylori, present in half the planet's population, speak volumes about the history of human migration.
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Ana Oquendo Pabón
moderator

general Discussion  - 
 
Tiny arthropods reveal history of human evolution and migration
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carlos augusto da cruz novo

general Discussion  - 
 
What is the relationship that has haplogroup with skin color?
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Crista Sullo's profile photo
4 comments
 
Genetic s
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Kolberg Art & Science Club
moderator

general Discussion  - 
 
+1      :-)
Another DNA testing company is a good thing. 
 
Its in the genes! Mapmygenome features in 'The Week'
Mapmygenome offers genetic tests that will tell you what diseases you are prone to
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Annette Kapple
moderator

general Discussion  - 
 
Big changes at AncestryDNA and 23andMe. I would now recommend AncestryDNA over 23andMe. 
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Ava Lawrence's profile photoMatthew Collins's profile photo
 
I was always going with ancestry.com, doubt we have 23andMe here in the UK
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Eugene Dubois

ancient DNA Discussion  - 
 
A bit scientific, but still a good read... Is anyone going to make a more "popular" version of this article?
(a). Principal component analysis. Ancient data from Bichon, Kotias and Satsurblia genomes were projected11 onto the first two principal components defined by selected Eurasians from the Human Origins data set1. The percentage of variance explained by each component accompanies the titles of the ...
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Crista Sullo's profile photoRussell Self's profile photo
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