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                              PARTITION OF INDIA
We all remember the year of 1947 as the year of independence from the British rule. But, Lives of many people were in chaos irrespective of the independence celebrations. The partition of India (say British India) into India and Pakistan resulted in communal riots especially in the Punjab region. Many people were killed in the riots. The factors that led to the partition of India draw their origin from the Indian freedom struggle.

partition of india 1947

India is a land of many religions and various communities with diverse cultures. Majority of the people belong to the Hindu community and rest of the communities are minorities. During the freedom struggle great persons like Mahatma Gandhi strove hard to gather people of all communities and make them to fight against the British rule. At the same time, the British rulers adopted the Divide and rule policy. That means by taking advantage of the fear of the minorities, especially Muslims they obstructed the national movement from time to time. This was ultimately going to result into partition of India in a way which was not only unexpected by Britishers but even people who were very vocal in demanding the partition of India.

All India Muslim League, a brain child of British rulers which was formed in 1906 used to fight for the cause of Muslims since its formation. Mohammed Ali Jinnah, who is considered as the father of Pakistan became the president of Muslim League in 1924 proposed the two nation theory and in 1940 he demanded a separate state for Muslims.

Also Read: Overview of the History of India

British rulers encouraged the Muslim League and also introduced separate electorates for Muslims in 1932. From time to time they introduced new acts in the favour of minorities and by the time of independence the demand for Pakistan is very strong. Though leaders like Mahatma Gandhi were against the partition of India, it became inevitable and British India was divided into India and Pakistan.

Here Pakistan consists of East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) and West Pakistan(the region west of present day Punjab).

At the time of Partition of India exact boundaries were not decided and people started moving towards the regions which they hope relatively safer and of their religion majority. That means Muslims in India moved to Pakistan while Hindus and Sikhs in Pakistan moved to India crossing borders. Meanwhile communal violence broke out and people started killing those of the opposite community.

Sikhs in the Pakistan are dragged out of their houses and butchered. Same is the situation of Muslims in India. Dead bodies were laid down across the borders. The ultimate low of the situation is the utmost humiliation of women. They were openly being raped and some women voluntarily took their lives by jumping into the wells.

The situation went out of control and both the governments were able to do nothing. It was estimated that nearly 2 to 3 lakh people were killed during the riots. This was the largest ever migration that took place in the History. Millions of people ran for their lives leaving their homes and cattle behind which were their means of living.

Later refugee camps were set up for all the migrants in both countries and they were settled in course of time.

Thus the partition of India saw the loss of many lives, property and will remain as the major tragedy of the Indian History.


The Supreme Court of India is the highest court of the India’s courts. It was established by Part V, Chapter IV of the Constitution of India. The Supreme Court of India comprises the Chief Justice of India and not more than 30 other Judges appointed by the President of India. The Supreme Court of India is a federal court, guardian of the Constitution and the highest court of appeal. The composition and jurisdiction of the Supreme Court of India is described in Articles 124 to 147 of the Constitution of India. Generally, this court takes up appeals against judgments of the High Courts of the states and territories. But it also takes writ petitions in cases of serious human rights violations and serious issue cases that need immediate resolution. On January 28, 1950, the Supreme Court of India had its inaugural sitting and since then has delivered more than 24,000 reported judgments.
Appointment and Qualification :
Person must be citizen of India.
Person must have been a Judge of a High Court for at least five years or
An Advocate of a High Court or of two or more such Courts in succession for at least 10 years or
The person must be a distinguished jurist in the opinion of the President.
The senior most judge of the Supreme Court is appointed as the Chief Justice of India.
Other judges are appointed by the President after consultation with such judges of the Supreme Court and of the High Courts as the President may dream necessary.
Term and Salary :
The Chief Justice and Judges of Supreme Court retire upon attaining the age of 65 years.
They can give resignation to President or can be removed by the Parliament.
The salary of Chief Justice is Rs.1,00,000 per month and salary of Judges are Rs.90,000 per month.

Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court
Original jurisdiction :
The Supreme Court handles the dispute between the Central Government and one or more States, between two or more States etc.
In regard to enforcement of Fundamental Rights, the Article 32 of the Constitution grants an extensive original jurisdiction to the Supreme Court.
Appellate jurisdiction :
In civil cases, an appeal lies to the Supreme Court if the High Court concerned certifies that the case involves a substantial question of law of general importance.
In criminal cases, an appeal lies to the Supreme Court if the High Court has on appeal reversed an order of acquittal of an accused person and sentenced him to death or to imprisonment for life or for a period of not less than 10 years, or has withdrawn for trial before itself any case from any Court subordinate to its authority and has in such trial convicted the accused and sentenced him to death or to imprisonment for life or for a period of not less than 10 years, or certified that the case is a fit one for appeal to the Supreme Court.
Advisory jurisdiction :
Under Article 143 of the Constitution, the Supreme Court has special advisory jurisdiction in matters which may specifically be referred to it by the President of India.
Judicial independence :
A Judge of the Supreme Court cannot be removed from office except by an order of the President passed after an address in each House of Parliament supported by a majority of the total membership.
The salary and allowances of a judge of the Supreme Court cannot be reduced after appointment.
A person who has been a Judge of the Supreme Court is debarred from practising in any court of law or before any other authority in India.

                     MY One of the inspiration at a glance 
RBI Governor Raghuram Rajan turns 53: Interesting facts about the man.
The current and the 23rd Governor of the Reserve Bank of India, Raghuram Govind Rajan was born on February 3, 1963.
On his 53rd birthday, here are some interesting facts about the man:
Raghuram Rajan was born in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh in a Tamil family. His father was a senior officer in the Intelligence Bureau, India.
An IIT Delhi graduate, he acquired a Post Graduate Diploma in Business Administration from IIM, Ahmedabad in 1987
He won the Director's Gold Medal in IIT Delhi and was a Gold medalist at IIM Ahmedabad.
One of the youngest governors, Rajan shares a common factor with India's former Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, who was also 50 years old when he became the RBI governor.
Rajan was appointed as the youngest ever Economic Counselor and Director of Research (chief economist) at the International Monetary Fund (IMF) from October 2003 to December 2006 
On September 5, 2013, Rajan took charge of India's central banking institution, succeeding Duvvuri Subbarao.
In 2010 and 2012, he was featured on the Foreign Policy magazine's Top 100 Global Thinkers list
In a 2011 poll in The Economist, Rajan was ranked by his peers as the economist with 'the most important ideas for a post-crisis world'
As the RBI governor, Rajan is known for his primary focus on curbing inflation
He successfully brought down retail inflation to 3.78 percent in July 2015 from 9.8 percent in September 2013, which was the lowest since the 1990's
With an aim to extend banking services to nearly two-thirds of the population who are still deprived of banking facilities, two universal banks have been licensed under Rajan and eleven payment banks have been given the nod.

Most of the monuments of India that are recognised as the world heritage sites belong to the Mughal period. These are known especially for their architectural brilliance. The Mughal architecture was inspired from Persian style of building. With the amalgamation of Indian techniques to this style a new style called INDO-ISLAMIC style of architecture emerged.

The main characteristics of the Mughal architecture are facades with four-centred arches and semi-doomed roofs, vaults of intersecting arches, domes with inverted lotus tops, ornaments in marble carvings, PIETRA DURA (a technique used to create images with coloured stones) and so on.

All the monuments of the Mughal period possess the above characteristics. Even in the countries of Pakistan and Afghanistan, Nepal and Bangladesh also you can find the same features.


The pioneer of Mughal rule, Babur and his son Humayun had spent all their time in establishing the Mughal rule in India and thus didn’t contributed to the Mughal architecture. It was from the reign of Akbar that the Mughal architecture flourished like anything.


It was during the reign of Akbar that the Mughal architecture took a concrete form. Akbar was an enlightened patron of architecture. He encouraged the style of architecture with a mix of Indian and foreign styles. The main works of his time are:

HUMAYUN’S TOMB: This was the first monument built in real Mughal style which was constructed in 1569 in Delhi. Standing on a high platform with typical Timurid design and Mughal scheme of Tomb gardens, the design of the tomb is of central Asian and Persian style.

AGRA FORT:It was the first major building project of Akbar’s time. The fort is an irregular semi-circle in plan, with massive wall built by huge blocks of RED SANDSTONE. The Hindu influence is strong in the style of building.

FATEHPUR SIKRI:The most remarkable architectural project of Akbar was the creation of the city FATEHPURSIKRI near AGRA, to commemorate the birth of his first son JAHANGIR. The buildings in the city are mostly built of Red Sand Stone.

The most important buildings are PANCH MAHAL (a five-storeyed structure), PALACE OF JODHABHAI (with rich interiors), DIWAN-I-KHAS (official court with over hanging galleries and central pillar), JAMA MASJID (Islamic in design but Hindu style also employed).

The other important architectural monuments of Akbar’s time are BULAND DARWAZA, TOMB OF SHAIKH SALIM CHISTI and so on.


The architecture of Jahangir’s period is more like a continuation of Akbar’s architecture. The important works are

AKBAR’S TOMB: It was constructed in sikandara near Agra. The marble trellis work with raised platforms, tiles decorated with golden painting and the garden of charbagh design are the main notable works. The design is similar to Buddhist viharas.

The other architectural works of this period are TOMB OF ITIMADUD-DAUL, TOMB OF ABDUL RAHIM KHAN and so on.


In the Shah jahan’s period, there was a transition in the architecture from robust style to pretty and elegant style. We can say that the shahjahan’s period was an age of marble buildings. The style of PIETRADURA was the important characteristic of this period.

REDFORT: The REDFORT, which was constructed in Delhi was similar to that of the AGRA FORT. But, the pleasing style of Shahjahan reflects in every architectural work ranging from pietradura paintings and domed kiosks to massive walls and marble water canals.

JAMA MASJID: This Masjid which was built in 1656 in Delhi is one of the most impressive mosques in the world with amalgamation of RED SAND STONE and WHITE MARBLE.

TAJMAHAL: TAJMAHAL, the crown of all palaces, was built by Shah jahan in Agra in the memory of his late beloved wife MUMTAZ BEGUM. It took nearly 14 years tocomplete this stupendous architectural piece. The White marble used is of the best quality. The pietradura ornamentation, arabesques and scroll works of floral forms are the major architectural works. The ornamental gardens, with long rows of water courses and fountains add to the beauty.

The Mughal architecture declined after Shahjahan as his successor, AURANGAZEB paid no attention to the fine arts.

The architecture of the monuments of Mughal period is a visual splendour, enhancing our cultural heritage

                               INDIAN FOREIGN POLICY 
Foreign trade in India includes all imports and exports to and from India. At the level of Central Government it is administered by the Ministry of Commerce and Industry.

The Foreign Trade Policy (FTP) which provides the basic framework of policy and strategy to be followed for promoting exports and trade. The Trade Policy is periodically reviewed to incorporate changes necessary to take care of emerging economic scenarios both in the domestic and international economy. Besides, the Department is also entrusted with responsibilities relating to multilateral and bilateral commercial relations, Special Economic Zones, state trading, export promotion and trade facilitation, and development and regulation of certain export oriented industries and commodities.

Foreign trade is nothing but trade between the different countries of the world. It is also called as International trade, External trade or Inter-Regional trade. It consists of imports, exports and entrepot. The inflow of goods in a country is called import trade whereas outflow of goods from a country is called export trade. Many times goods are imported for the purpose of re-export after some processing operations. This is called entrepot trade. Foreign trade basically takes place for mutual satisfaction of wants and utilities of resources.

3 Types of Foreign Trade

Foreign Trade can be divided into following three groups :-

Import Trade : Import trade refers to purchase of goods by one country from another country or inflow of goods and services from foreign country to home country.

Export Trade : Export trade refers to the sale of goods by one country to another country or outflow of goods from home country to foreign country.

Entrepot Trade : Entrepot trade is also known as Re-export. It refers to purchase of goods from one country and then selling them to another country after some processing operations.

Need and Importance of Foreign Trade

Following points explain the need and importance of foreign trade to a nation.

Division of labour and specialisation – Foreign trade leads to division of labour and specialisation at the world level. Some countries have abundant natural resources. They should export raw materials and import finished goods from countries which are advanced in skilled manpower. This gives benefits to all the countries and thereby leading to division of labour and specialisation. 
Optimum allocation and utilisation of resources – Due to specialisation, unproductive lines can be eliminated and wastage of resources avoided. In other words, resources are channelised for the production of only those goods which would give highest returns. Thus there is rational allocation and utilization of resources at the international level due to foreign trade.
Equality of prices – Prices can be stabilised by foreign trade. It helps to keep the demand and supply position stable, which in turn stabilises the prices, making allowances for transport and other marketing expenses.
Availability of multiple choices – Foreign trade helps in providing a better choice to the consumers. It helps in making available new varieties to consumers all over the world.
Ensures quality and standard goods – Foreign trade is highly competitive. To maintain and increase the demand for goods, the exporting countries have to keep up the quality of goods. Thus quality and standardised goods are produced.
Raises standard of living of the people – Imports can facilitate standard of living of the people. This is because people can have a choice of new and better varieties of goods and services. By consuming new and better varieties of goods, people can improve their standard of living.
Generate employment opportunities – Foreign trade helps in generating employment opportunities, by increasing the mobility of labour and resources. It generates direct employment in import sector and indirect employment in other sector of the economy. Such as Industry, Service Sector (insurance, banking, transport, communication), etc.
Facilitate economic development – Imports facilitate economic development of a nation. This is because with the import of capital goods and technology, a country can generate growth in all sectors of the economy, i.e. agriculture, industry and service sector.
Assitance during natural calamities – During natural calamities such as earthquakes, floods, famines, etc., the affected countries face the problem of shortage of essential goods. Foreign trade enables a country to import food grains and medicines from other countries to help the affected people.
Maintains balance of payment position – Every country has to maintain its balance of payment position. Since, every country has to import, which results in outflow of foreign exchange, it also deals in export for the inflow of foreign exchange.
Brings reputation and helps earn goodwill – A country which is involved in exports earns goodwill in the international market. For e.g. Japan has earned a lot of goodwill in foreign markets due to its exports of quality electronic goods.
Promotes World Peace – Foreign trade brings countries closer. It facilitates transfer of technology and other assistance from developed countries to developing countries. It brings different countries closer due to economic relations arising out of trade agreements. Thus, foreign trade creates a friendly atmosphere for avoiding wars and conflicts. It promotes world peace as such countries try to maintain friendly relations among themselves.

The Delhi Sultanate (1206 – 1290)
January 27, 2014 by Prafull 9 Comments

Till the beginning of the 12th century, there was no mention of the kingdom with Delhi as the capital city. Moreover, Al-Biruni who came India during the reign of Mahmud of Ghazni, wrote about the city of Delhi. In his work Kita-ul-Hind, he mentioned some other cities like Kanauj, Mathura etc. His work, written in Arabic provides an important resource to the historians. Helhi became an important city only when it became the capital of Rajput rulers. In the middle of the 12th century, it developed as an important commercial centre. With the establishment of Delhi Sultanate in 13th century, it was transformed into a capital city covering a vast area of the subcontinent. The sultans of Delhi built monuments in this area. Delhi Sultanate comprised of five dynasties. These dynasties ruled from 1206 to 1526 A.D.
These are:

Slave dynasty (1206 – 1290 A.D.)
Khilji dynasty (1290 – 1320 A.D.)
Tughluq dynasty (1320 – 1414 A.D.)
Sayyid dynasty (1414 – 1451 A.D.)
Lodi dynasty (1451 – 1526 A.D.)
The word ‘Sultanate’ means strength and authority. Later, t came to be used as the title by certain Muslim rulers, who claimed full sovereign power.

The Slave Dynasty (1206 – 1290 A.D.)

After the death of Muhammad Ghori in 1206 A.D. his slave Qutub-ud-din Aibak founded this dynasty. He extended the Muslim empire in many parts of the northern India. Due to his generosity, he came to be known as lakh-baksh – giver of lakhs. After his death Iltutmish became his successor. Delhi Sultanate was established during the reign of Iltutmish. He made Delhi as his capital. He made many conquests and ruled over whole of the northern India. On his deathbed he nominated his daughter Razia Sultana as successor. She was followed by Bahram Shah, Ala-ud-din Masud Shah, Naisr-ud-din Muhammad. Although Nasir-ud-din Muhammad ruled for twenty years but the main power remained in the hands of Ghiyas-ud-din Balban – one of the slaves of Iltutmish his original name was Baha-ud-din. Balban defended his empire from Mangol invation. After the death of Balban, all his successors became inefficient and weak hence, the Slave dynasty came to an end.
Rulers of Slave dynasty:

Qutub-ud-din Aibak (1206 – 1210 A.D.)
Iltutmish (1210 – 1236 A.D.)
Rukh-ud-din Firoz Shah along with his mother (for six months after the death of Iltutmish against his last wish)
Raziya Sultana (1236 – 1240 A.D.)
Bahram Shah (1240 – 1242 A.D.)
Ala-ud-din Masud Shah (1242 – 1246 A.D.)
Nasir-ud-din Muhammad (1246 – 1266 A.D.)
Ghiyas-ud-din Balban (1266 – 1287 A.D.)
The Khilji Dynasty (1290 – 1320 A.D.)
Jalal-ud-din Khilji was the founder of the Khilji dynasty, his nephew Ala-ud-din Khilji murdered him and ascended the throne of Delhi. Expansion of empire during Ala-ud-din Khilji includes successful campaigns in Gujarat, Malwa, Ranghambhore, Chittor etc. After his death, his successor proved inefficient and weak. Hence, Khilji dynasty came to an end.
Rulers of the Khilji dynasty:

Jalal-ud-din Khilji (1290 – 1296 A.D.)
Ala-ud-din Khilji (1296 – 1316 A.D.)
The Tughluq Dynasty (1320 – 1414 A.D.)
The Tughluq Dynasty was founded by Giyas-ud-din Tughluq in 1320, is original name was Ghazi Malik. After his death in an accident in 1324 A.D., he was succeeded by his son Muhammad-bin-Tughluq. Muhammad-bin-Tughluq was a brilliant scholar and a great patron of learning. Ibn Batuta, a traveler came to India during his rule. He has provided a detailed account of his reign. Muhammad-bin-Tughluq was succeeded by Firoz Shah Tughluq, he was an able ruler therefore made an attempt to consolidate Delhi sultanate. He followed the policy of appeasement to please the nobles, army and the ulemas. He imposed jaziya. He died in 1388. Amir Timur, the Mangol leader of central Asia, attached India in 1398. He ordered general massacre in Delhi and robbed people mercilessly. The invasion of Timur gave abig jolt to Tughluq dynasty. Due to weak successors of Tughluq dynasty, it came to an end in 1414.
Rulers of the Tughluq dynasty:

Giyas-ud-din Tughluq (1320 – 1324 A.D.)
Muhammad-bin-Tughluq (1324 – 1351 A.D.)
>Firoz Shah Tughluq (1351 – 1388 A.D.)
The Sayyid Dynasty (1414 – 1451 A.D.)
This dynasty existed for a very short period. It was founded by Khizr Khan (1414 – 21 A.D.). He helped Timur in his invasion. His successors namely, Mubarak Shah, Muhammad Shah, and Ala-ud-din Alam Shah were weak rulers.
Rulers of Sayyid dynasty:

Khizr Khan (1414 – 1421 A.D.)
Mubarak Shah (1421 – 1433 A.D.)
Muhammad Shah (1434 – 1443 A.D.)
Ala-ud-din Alam Shah (1443 – 1451 A.D.)
The Lodi Dynasty (1451 – 1526 A.D.)
Bahlol Lodi was the founder of this dynasty. He was one of the Afghan generals of Sayyids. He regained Sind and Mewar by bringing peace and order in the country. Bahlol Lodi was succeeded by his son Sikandar Lodi. He was a good administrator. He annexed Jaunpur, Bihar, parts of Bengal and Ganga valley. He founded the city of Agra and made it his capital. His successor was Ibrahim Lodi. He was the last ruler of the dynasty. In 1526 A.D., Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodi at the first battle of Panipat. Thus, the Delhi Sultanate came to an end.
Rulers of the Lodi dynasty:

Bahlol Lodi (1451 – 1489 A.D.)
Sikandar Lodi (1489 – 1517 A.D.)
Ibrahim Lodi (1517 – 1526 A.D.)

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Indian River Systems
October 8, 2015 by Prafull 11 Comments

India is one of the top five countries in the world with favourable water resources (others are Canada, Brazil, Russia and Congo). Among the total water resources of the country, Indian rivers constitute the major share.The water in these rivers is used for various purposes including agriculture, production of electricity, storing water in dams and so on. Indian rivers are mainly divided into two types:


As the name suggests, these rivers originate from Himalayan Mountains. The sources of water are rainfall and melted snow. As they come from high altitudes they flow withhigh speed and have larger and deep courses. INDUS, GANGES and BRAHMAPUTRA along with their respective tributaries are the main Himalayan Rivers.


SOURCE: The Indus River rises in Tibet near Manas sarovar Lake. Flowing westwards, it enters India in Ladakh district of Jammu and Kashmir.

COURSE: It flows through the states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh andPunjab in India then enters Pakistan and flowing further south reaches the Arabian Sea, east of Karachi.

TRIBUTARIES: Zaskar, Nubra, Shyok and Hunza are the tributaries in India. Ravi, Chenab, Sutlej, Jhelum and Beas are the tributaries in Pakistan.

CHARACTERISTICS: The slope is very gentle and with 2900 km length, Indus River is one of the longest rivers in the world.


SOURCE:The Ganges River originates in Gangotri glacier as Bhagirathi and joined by Alaknanda at Devprayag, It turns into Ganga.

COURSE: The Ganga River enters plains in Haridwar and from there it flows eastwards enlarged by the tributaries joining from left and right. The river divides in West Bengal and the distributary Hooghly flows southward to reach Bay of Bengal. The main river enters into Bangladesh and joins with Brahmaputra river.It covers the states of Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal.

TRIBUTARIES: Yamuna River joins Ganga at Allahabad as a right bank tributary. Ghagra, Gandak and Kosi Rivers arising from Nepal Himalayas joins as left bank tributaries. Chambal, Betwa and Son rivers from central Highlands join as right bank tributaries. It covers the states of Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar

CHARACTERISTICS: The length is 2500 km and the slope is almost steep in Himalayas and gentle in the plains. With more number of tributaries the basin of the river is very huge.


SOURCE: The Brahmaputra River originates in Tibet to the east of Manas sarovar Lake.

COURSE: The Brahmaputra River mostly flow outside India from the point of its origin and in the middle course, enters Arunachal Pradesh and later into Assam. Then, it flows eastwards into Bangladesh. In Bangladesh, Brahmaputra River is called as River Padma.

TRIBUTARIES: In Arunachal Pradesh Dibang, Lohit and Kenula Rivers are its tributaries.

CHARACTERISTICS:The length of the river is 2900 km and is one of the longest rivers of the world.

These rivers are confined to the peninsular region and are dependent on rainfall for water. Unlike Himalayan Rivers, these rivers are shorter with small basins. NARMADA, TAPI, GODAVARI, KRISHNA, CAUVERY and MAHANADI are the main rivers.


It originates in Amarkantak hills in Madhya Pradesh and flows towards west to join the Arabian Sea. It covers the states of Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat.


It rises in Madhya Pradesh and covering the states of Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Maharashtra joins the Arabian Sea.


It is known as DAKSHIN GANGA due to its area covered (over 1500 km). The Godavari River originates in Nasik in Maharashtra and covers the states of Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Andhra Pradesh. Flowing eastwards, it joins in Bay of Bengal.


It rises near MAHABALESWAR in Maharashtra and covering an area of 1300 km, it flows through Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh and reaches Bay of Bengal.


Cauvery River originates in Western Ghats and covering an area of 760 km, it reaches Bay of Bengal in Tamil Nadu. The states covered are Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.

Besides the above other rivers include Mahi, Sabarmati, Subarna rekha and so on.

All the rivers in India, despite their location are considered holy by the people. There is a proposal of interlinking all the Indian rivers in order to utilise the waste flowing water in drought areas.

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