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Tomas Hood
owner

General Discussion  - 
 
By popular request, the "end-of-year" sale is being extended, again!

This won't be the case for long, though. This space weather and radio propagation forecasting course is being offered at a deep discount; take this extra discount for this ham radio and space weather educational course with the reference software. This is a seriously marked-down price!

Take advantage of the sale, now. The full details about the course and sale are here: http://SunSpotWatch.com/swc -- NOTE: this link does NOT require any informaton from you. The link is to a page with all of the details.

What are you waiting for? Get the space weather and radio propagation self-study course, today. http://SunSpotWatch.com/swc
You know that I'm the radio propagation & space weather columnist in "The Spectrum Monitor" (and for the last 14 years, in CQ Magazine, too). I invite you, today, to consider getting the course, and by doing so, helping yourself in knowledge and skill, and, helping me keep the web resources up and running. I'm talking about SunSpotWatch.com and other resources.

Why get the educational self-study course? Because, this is not your average source of information on radio propagation and space weather. This self-study course offers and exhaustive, in-depth knowledge that equips you to make your own forecasts, and to understand what is going on when you are making contacts on the shortwave bands. And, you'll better understand the Sun and space weather.

Do you wish to learn about space weather and how to know when aurora is possible? Do you want to learn about space weather, the Sun-Earth connection, solar flares, sunspots, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and more? Do you want to learn how to forecast space weather?

Or, do you want to learn all about radio-signal propagation via the ionosphere! Want to gain the competitive edge in radio DX contests? Want to forecast the radio propagation for the next weekend? Do you want to understand radio signal propagation? Want to understand how space weather affects radio propagation?

Well, what are you waiting for? Browse here, now: http://SunSpotWatch.com/swc

Some amateur radio operators may say, "But, I like the magic of just getting on the air and trying my luck! If I learn all this stuff, then it becomes science, and not a hobby." It is true that there's a joy at being dazzled with the magic of radio; buy a super cool transceiver, and a factory-made antenna with coax already fitted with connectors, adding the necessary accessories to make it come alive, then begin exploring the shortwave frequencies. Magical, indeed! But, there are many in the hobby that wish to learn how all of that works. Some even begin learning how to build antennas, radio kits, and discover the joy of the "science" of radio. A few eventually take the step with gained "scientific" knowledge of electronics, and they design and build equipment for their hobby. The course is part of that mix: learning how the Sun affects getting a radio signal from point A to point B, and how to leverage their time and efforts, is a joy, indeed.

A list of the topics covered in this home-study course include:

+ The Sun
+ Basics of the Sun
+ Sunspots
+ Types of Sunspots
+ Sunspot Magnetic Fields
+ Solar Radiation and Radio Emissions
+ Solar Cycles
+ Techniques for Modelling Solar Cycles
+ Sources of Information and Imagery
+ Interplanetary Space
+ The Solar Wind
+ Magnetic Fields
+ Heliospheric Current Sheet
+ Solar Sector Structures
+ The Earth
+ Magnetosphere
+ The quiet magnetosphere
+ The disturbed magnetosphere
+ Understanding Magnetic Indices
+ Magnetic Storms
+ Sudden Storm Commencements (SSCs)
+ Gradual Storm Commencements
+ Geomagnetically Induced Currents (GICs)
+ Effects on Electrical Hydro Systems
+ Effects on Other Long Conductors
+ Ionosphere
+ Formation of Ionospheric Layers
+ Factors Affecting Ionospheric Layers
+ Solar Disturbances
+ Transient Solar Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs)
+ Types and Structures of Coronal Mass Ejections
+ Understanding the Importance of CME Structures
+ Inferring CME Structures from Available Solar Data
+ Coronal Mass Ejection Detection Methods
+ Using IMPACT (software) to Aid in CME Disturbance Predictions
+ Solar Cycle Dependencies
+ Solar Flares
+ Basic Nature of Flares
+ Types of Flares
+ Flare Rating Systems
+ Significance of Proton Flares
+ Ground Level Events (GLEs)
+ Fast Transit Events
+ Interpreting Magnetograms
+ Determining Magnetic Shear and Flare Susceptibility
+ Solar Flare (and Proton Flare) Prediction Techniques
+ Solar Flare Related Coronal Mass Ejection Prediction Techniques
+ Sources of Solar Flare Information
+ Solar Coronal Holes
+ Coronal Hole Basics
+ Recurrence
+ Solar Cycle Correlations
+ Associations with Near-Relativistic Electrons
+ Coronal Hole Related Disturbance Prediction Techniques
+ Filament Eruptions
+ Filaments and Prominences
+ Eruptive and Non-Eruptive Activity
+ Filament-Associated Coronal Mass Ejections
+ Filament-Related Disturbance Prediction Techniques
+ Auroral Activity
+ Basic Theory of the Northern/Southern Lights
+ Behavioral Characteristics of the Auroral Ovals
+ Sensitivity to Solar Disturbances
+ Affects on Satellite Health and Radio Communications
+ Mathematical Models of the Auroral Zones
+ Auroral Activity Prediction Techniques
+ Information Sources
+ Conditions Affecting Satellite Health
+ Atmospheric Drag
+ Surface Charging Anomalies
+ Deep Dialectric Charging Anomalies
+ Interplanetary Shocks
+ Magnetopause Crossings
+ Postulated Sun/Earth Climate Connections
+ Possible Long-Term Climatic Trends
+ Rainfall
+ Temperatures
+ Atmospheric Pressure
+ Storm Tracks
+ Ozone Correlations
+ Possible Short-Term Meteorological Trends
+ Pressure and Winds
+ Lightning
+ Storm Systems
+ Ozone Responses
+ Radio Propagation
+ Basic Theory (Non-Technical)
+ Characteristics and Components of Radio Signals
+ Understanding Plasmas
+ Importance of Electron Collisions
+ Appleton/Hartree Contributions
+ Signal Polarization and Coupling
+ Ionospheric Absorption
+ Deviative Absorption
+ Non-Deviative Absorption
+ Fading
+ Multipathing
+ Travelling Ionospheric Disturbances
+ Solar Related Disturbances
+ Structure of the Ionosphere
+ Ionospheric Layers
+ Importance of Sporadic-E
+ Effects of Spread-F
+ Solar-Cycle Dependencies
+ Models of the Ionosphere
+ Simple Mathematical Models
+ Numerical Maps
+ and MUCH MUCH more

The STD SW Course (created by Cary Oler, STD) presents you with some specific historic real-life scenarios. Using the information and techniques studied in this course, you are asked to develop your own space-weather and radio-propagation predictions. The actual real-life impacts are then studied and compared with your forecasts.

The Course presents you with several hypothetical (possible future) examples and ask you to develop your own forecasts.

(NOTE: The certificate which was originally offered, when the course was much more expensive, is no longer offered.)

Visit http://SunSpotWatch.com/swc for the latest sale and for more information!
Learn all about space weather and ionospheric radio wave propagation with this self-study home course, today. The course is a comprehensive radio wave propagation resource and self-paced educational resource about space weather, offered by the editor of the propagation columns of CQ Amateur Radio Magazine, and the Spectrum Monitor magazine.
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Paulo Mora

General Discussion  - 
 
Paulo Mora originally shared:
 
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Tomas Hood
owner

Analysis  - 
 
Today's graph, plotting the SESC sunspot number, the 10.7cm Radio Flux, and the Estimated Planetary A Index, for the last 30 days.

The numbers are:

Date | Sunspots | 10.7-cm Flux | Ap
==========================================
2016/02/11 | 68 | 113 | 11
2016/02/10 | 82 | 112 | 5
2016/02/09 | 79 | 117 | 10
2016/02/08 | 82 | 115 | 17
2016/02/07 | 84 | 117 | 8
2016/02/06 | 71 | 117 | 8
2016/02/05 | 113 | 120 | 12
2016/02/04 | 95 | 123 | 6
2016/02/03 | 78 | 112 | 14
2016/02/02 | 52 | 102 | 6
2016/02/01 | 42 | 100 | 9
2016/01/31 | 39 | 101 | 10
2016/01/30 | 30 | 105 | 3
2016/01/29 | 49 | 107 | 3
2016/01/28 | 64 | 110 | 6
2016/01/27 | 75 | 113 | 5
2016/01/26 | 61 | 115 | 4
2016/01/25 | 58 | 108 | 3
2016/01/24 | 47 | 104 | 11
2016/01/23 | 54 | 99 | 12
2016/01/22 | 50 | 101 | 14
2016/01/21 | 56 | 104 | 32
2016/01/19 | 55 | 98 | 11
2016/01/18 | 48 | 100 | 5
2016/01/17 | 48 | 101 | 4
2016/01/16 | 38 | 100 | 4
2016/01/15 | 38 | 104 | 6
2016/01/14 | 36 | 103 | 8

For complete live data and images visit http://SunSpotWatch.com

Be sure to share this post, to spread the love!

Get the space weather and radio propagation self-study course, today. Visit http://nw7us.us/swc for the latest sale and for more information!

Check out the stunning view of our Sun in action, as seen during the last five years with the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO):
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zXN-MdoGM9g
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Tomas Hood
owner

Analysis  - 
 
Today's Sun (artificially-colored in purple) seen at the 211-angstrom wavelength (Extreme Ultraviolet, or EUV), as viewed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA).

At this wavelength, at a wavelength not seen by the un-aided eye, we observe this full-disk AIA image through the 21.1 nm (211 A) filter. This Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) waveband is used to monitor active regions in the solar corona.

The image is a 'false color image', meaning that observed data are in a range outside of what human eyes can see, so the data are digitally recast into colors that emphasize physically important features. This view is created from data gathered by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) satellite that flies above Earth's atmosphere in an inclined geosynchronous orbit.

Emissions captured in this image come from iron (Fe), a trace element in the solar atmosphere that emits Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) light when heated to temperatures in excess of one million deg K. In the solar corona the temperatures are so high that most chemical elements have lost many of their electrons. Some of the remaining electrons still attached to the atom emit EUV radiation in narrow wavebands or lines.

The 21.1 nm filter (also called channel or bandpass) is dominated by emissions from highly ionized iron: 13 times ionized (missing 13 electrons) iron--Fe XIV. Other ionization levels of iron also contribute. The roman numeral descriptors are consistent with spectral notation: the level of ionization for a given roman numeral is one unit larger that the actual number of missing electrons. Additionally there may be some contribution from hot thermal plasma when solar flares are present. The temperatures associated with this level of ionization is about 2 x 10^6 K.

The bright regions in this image correspond to regions of closed magnetic field loops that trap the hot, emitting plasma. Large bright regions are often called active regions. The dark regions correspond to cooler temperatures and possibly to locations where magnetic field lines open into the heliosphere, and thus, do not trap hot plasma.

With this image, we can monitore active regions.

View live data and images at http://SunSpotWatch.com

Get the space weather and radio propagation self-study course, today. Visit http://nw7us.us/swc for the latest sale and for more information!

We're on Facebook: http://NW7US.us/swhfr
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Tomas Hood
owner

Analysis  - 
 
Today's graph, plotting the SESC sunspot number, the 10.7cm Radio Flux, and the Estimated Planetary A Index, for the last 30 days.

The numbers are:

Date | Sunspots | 10.7-cm Flux | Ap
==========================================
2016/01/27 | 75 | 113 | 5
2016/01/26 | 61 | 115 | 4
2016/01/25 | 58 | 108 | 3
2016/01/24 | 47 | 104 | 11
2016/01/23 | 54 | 99 | 12
2016/01/22 | 50 | 101 | 14
2016/01/21 | 56 | 104 | 32
2016/01/19 | 55 | 98 | 11
2016/01/18 | 48 | 100 | 5
2016/01/17 | 48 | 101 | 4
2016/01/16 | 38 | 100 | 4
2016/01/15 | 38 | 104 | 6
2016/01/14 | 36 | 103 | 8
2016/01/13 | 26 | 104 | 14
2016/01/12 | 29 | 106 | 15
2016/01/11 | 41 | 108 | 14
2016/01/10 | 73 | 109 | 7
2016/01/09 | 84 | 107 | 6
2016/01/08 | 80 | 109 | 8
2016/01/07 | 57 | 103 | 14
2016/01/06 | 38 | 100 | 17
2016/01/05 | 29 | 95 | 7
2016/01/04 | 60 | 95 | 5
2016/01/03 | 50 | 102 | 7
2016/01/02 | 52 | 100 | 10
2016/01/01 | 40 | 98 | 27
2015/12/31 | 18 | 96 | 43
2015/12/30 | 34 | 102 | 4

For complete live data and images visit http://SunSpotWatch.com

Be sure to share this post, to spread the love!

Get the space weather and radio propagation self-study course, today. Visit http://nw7us.us/swc for the latest sale and for more information!

Check out the stunning view of our Sun in action, as seen during the last five years with the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO):
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zXN-MdoGM9g
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Tomas Hood
owner

Analysis  - 
 
I NEED YOU IN MY LOG!

Please, read this whole post, and see if you can help me out.

Below are the current scheduled dates and times (all listed in UTC -- not in your local time zone, but in Universal Time coordinates, i.e., GMT) of my current operating schedule, onward from today, during which I need your help!

Come meet me on the shortwave (HF) ham bands for the Morse code (CW mode) special event, the Straight Key Century Club celebration, with special callsign, K3Y/0 -- I am the control operator during the times I list, below.

I need you to make a contact with me.

YOU DO NOT NEED TO BE A MEMBER OF THE (free) SKCC GROUP. You simply must use Morse code to communicate with me. It is painless. Use computer-generated Morse code, or tap it out. Whatever you choose.

For those of you who want to get fully immersed in the spirit of this event, though, you may and can join the SKCC group for FREE -- get your own SKCC number, which is cool; we SKCC members use that in our exchange during our QSO information. You don't need that, but since it is free, why not?

What is needed is simply you, getting on the shortwave band, find me, hear me, respond to me with Morse code. In other words, we need to have a QSO using Morse code. I am not a fast operator, so no problem if you are not very fast. I'll meet your speed.

In any case, here are some of the times I will be on the air as K3Y/0... please dust off your straight key, bug, paddles, whatever, and make a QSO with me. Thanks!

My current schedule:

UTC Start/End (remember, these are NOT your local times, but are the UTC (GMT) times!)

00:00 - 02:59 15-Jan-16
00:00 - 05:59 16-Jan-16
16:00 - 23:59 16-Jan-16
00:00 - 02:59 17-Jan-16
14:00 - 18:59 17-Jan-16
00:00 - 02:59 18-Jan-16
00:00 - 02:59 19-Jan-16
00:00 - 02:59 20-Jan-16
00:00 - 02:59 21-Jan-16
00:00 - 02:59 22-Jan-16
00:00 - 05:59 23-Jan-16
14:00 - 18:59 23-Jan-16
00:00 - 02:59 24-Jan-16
14:00 - 18:59 24-Jan-16
00:00 - 02:59 25-Jan-16
00:00 - 02:59 26-Jan-16
00:00 - 02:59 27-Jan-16
00:00 - 02:59 28-Jan-16
00:00 - 02:59 29-Jan-16
00:00 - 05:59 30-Jan-16
13:00 - 18:59 30-Jan-16
00:00 - 03:59 31-Jan-16
13:00 - 23:59 31-Jan-16

Now, what frequency will I be on?

To find out what frequency I am on:

Visit http://g.nw7us.us/sched4SKCC and look on the right side for my callsign, NW7US. I usually post my frequency of operation right after my call sign.

Typically, evening operation is 30m, then 40m, and then possibly 80m.

If you are trying to alert me to your presence, you may message me on my personal Facebook profile, under my "Tomas David Hood" profile messages, but I may not see that right away.

Here is the detail covering the K3Y operation and the SKCC group: http://skccgroup.com/k3y

73 de NW7US
dit dit

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Miguel Trestini

General Discussion  - 
 
Tnx for accept me. Greetings from Valencia, Venezuela. De Miguel, YV4MT.

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Tomas Hood's profile photo
 
Very good to have you aboard, YV4MT 73 de +NW7US dit dit
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Tomas Hood
owner

Analysis  - 
 
Today's graph, plotting the SESC sunspot number, the 10.7cm Radio Flux, and the Estimated Planetary A Index, for the last 30 days.

The numbers are:

Date | Sunspots | 10.7-cm Flux | Ap
==========================================
2016/01/09 | 84 | 107 | 6
2016/01/08 | 80 | 109 | 8
2016/01/07 | 57 | 103 | 14
2016/01/06 | 38 | 100 | 17
2016/01/05 | 29 | 95 | 7
2016/01/04 | 60 | 95 | 5
2016/01/03 | 50 | 102 | 7
2016/01/02 | 52 | 100 | 10
2016/01/01 | 40 | 98 | 27
2015/12/31 | 18 | 96 | 43
2015/12/30 | 34 | 102 | 4
2015/12/29 | 54 | 105 | 6
2015/12/28 | 64 | 112 | 5
2015/12/27 | 67 | 110 | 11
2015/12/26 | 63 | 117 | 15
2015/12/25 | 71 | 126 | 9
2015/12/24 | 51 | 133 | 12
2015/12/23 | 63 | 134 | 11
2015/12/22 | 68 | 130 | 13
2015/12/21 | 38 | 122 | 38
2015/12/20 | 33 | 117 | 66
2015/12/19 | 44 | 119 | 12
2015/12/18 | 49 | 117 | 5
2015/12/17 | 52 | 118 | 7
2015/12/16 | 49 | 126 | 7
2015/12/15 | 64 | 119 | 17
2015/12/14 | 81 | 124 | 22
2015/12/13 | 74 | 123 | 8
2015/12/12 | 89 | 117 | 12

For complete live data and images visit http://SunSpotWatch.com

Be sure to share this post, to spread the love!

Get the space weather and radio propagation self-study course, today. Visit http://nw7us.us/swc for the latest sale and for more information!

Check out the stunning view of our Sun in action, as seen during the last five years with the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO):
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zXN-MdoGM9g
2
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Tomas Hood
owner

General Discussion  - 
 
Compared to Earth, the Sun is enormous! It contains 99.86% of all of the mass of the entire Solar System. The Sun is 864,400 miles (1,391,000 kilometers) across. This is about 109 times the diameter of Earth. The Sun weighs about 333,000 times as much as Earth. It is so large that about 1,300,000 planet Earths can fit inside of it. Earth is about the size of an average sunspot!
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Tomas Hood
owner

Forecasts  - 
 
A recurrent coronal hole, with an associated high speed stream (CH HSS) is expected to become geoeffective with Earth late on 6 January, 2016. This will cause geomagnetic activity that may reach a level of G1 (on the NOAA scale). A G1 (Minor) activity level is likely, due to solar wind speeds rising above the typical quiet levels. Last time this recurrent CH HSS was present, about 27 days ago, the wind speed reached over 650 km per second, and measurements from the STEREO-A spacecraft approximately 2 weeks ago observed similar speeds.

http://SunSpotWatch.com

http://SunSpotWatch.com/swc for educational material

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About this community

Topics of space weather, the Sun-Earth connection, the ionosphere, the geomagnetic environment, radio signal propagation, and other related subjects are part of this community. Webpage: http://SunSpotWatch.com Alternate: http://SunSpaceWeather.com Curator: NW7US ( page: http://NW7US.us )

Tomas Hood
owner

Videos  - 
 
A Nuclear Fusion Light Show -- The Sun in 4k-UHD!

The Sun is a main-sequence star, and thus generates its energy by nuclear fusion of hydrogen nuclei into helium. In its core, the Sun fuses 620 million metric tons of hydrogen each second.

The sun is always changing and NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory is always watching. Launched on February 11, 2010, SDO keeps a 24-hour eye on the entire disk of the sun, with a prime view of the graceful dance of solar material coursing through the sun's atmosphere, the corona.

SDO captures images of the sun in 10 different wavelengths, each of which helps highlight a different temperature of solar material. Different temperatures can, in turn, show specific structures on the sun such as solar flares, which are gigantic explosions of light and x-rays, or coronal loops, which are stream of solar material travelling up and down looping magnetic field lines.

Scientists study these images to better understand the complex electromagnetic system causing the constant movement on the sun, which can ultimately have an effect closer to Earth, too. Flares and another type of solar explosion called coronal mass ejections can sometimes disrupt technology in space. Moreover, studying our closest star is one way of learning about other stars in the galaxy. NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. built, operates, and manages the SDO spacecraft for NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington, D.C.

It is widely believed that the Sun's magnetic field is generated by electrical currents acting as a magnetic dynamo inside the Sun. These electrical currents are generated by the flow of hot, ionized gases in the Sun's convection zone.

We know a lot about the Sun's magnetic dynamo. It has a 22 year cycle. During the first half of the cycle, the Sun's magnetic north pole is in the northern hemisphere while the magnetic south pole is in the southern hemisphere. Right around the peak of the sunspot cycle (solar maximum), the magnetic poles flip or exchange places so that magnetic north is now located in the southern hemisphere. This flip occurs about every 11 years at solar maximum.

The 22 year magnetic cycle greatly influences the most prominent manifestation of the dynamo, sunspots and active regions, which migrate towards the solar equator from high latitudes over the course of the solar 11 year "sunspot cycle". Sunspots and Active Regions are manifestation of the magnetic field generated in the Sun's interior poking through the visible region of the atmosphere. Active regions are responsible for the production of intense and violent energy burst, called flares, and events where very large amounts of hot gas, trapped by the magnetic field of the active region, are released from the Sun's atmosphere and into space, called coronal mass ejections (CMEs).

Watch the movie, now! Here's the link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sq4PlyNkm2Y

Credit: The SDO Team, Genna Duberstein and Scott Wiessinger, Producers

1st music:

The Big Decision by Audionautix is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) || Artist: http://audionautix.com/

Then:

Light Awash by Kevin MacLeod is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) Source: http://incompetech.com/music/royalty-free/index.html?isrc=USUAN1100175 || Artist: http://incompetech.com/

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Tomas Hood
owner

Videos  - 
 
This ultra-high definition (3840x2160) video shows the sun in the 171-angstrom wavelength of extreme ultraviolet light. It covers a time period of January 2, 2015 to January 28, 2016 at a cadence of one frame every hour, or 24 frames per day. This timelapse is repeated with narration by solar scientist Nicholeen Viall and contains close-ups and annotations. The 171-angstrom light highlights material around 600,000 Kelvin and shows features in the upper transition region and quiet corona of the sun.

The sun is always changing and NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory is always watching. Launched on Feb. 11, 2010, SDO keeps a 24-hour eye on the entire disk of the sun, with a prime view of the graceful dance of solar material coursing through the sun's atmosphere, the corona. SDO's sixth year in orbit was no exception. This video shows that entire sixth year--from Jan. 1, 2015 to Jan. 28, 2016 as one time-lapse sequence. Each frame represents 1 hour.

SDO's Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) captures a shot of the sun every 12 seconds in 10 different wavelengths. The images shown here are based on a wavelength of 171 angstroms, which is in the extreme ultraviolet range and shows solar material at around 600,000 Kelvin (about 1 million degrees F.) In this wavelength it is easy to see the sun's 25-day rotation.

During the course of the video, the sun subtly increases and decreases in apparent size. This is because the distance between the SDO spacecraft and the sun varies over time. The image is, however, remarkably consistent and stable despite the fact that SDO orbits Earth at 6,876 mph and the Earth orbits the sun at 67,062 miles per hour.

Scientists study these images to better understand the complex electromagnetic system causing the constant movement on the sun, which can ultimately have an effect closer to Earth, too: Flares and another type of solar explosion called coronal mass ejections can sometimes disrupt technology in space. Moreover, studying our closest star is one way of learning about other stars in the galaxy. NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. built, operates, and manages the SDO spacecraft for NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington, D.C.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HgP0e1VHBxc

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Tomas Hood
owner

Analysis  - 
 
A possible coronal mass ejection has caused a Type II Radio Sweep event, with the following attributes:

SOLAR RADIO EVENT 1:
DRIFTING: 100 - 20 MHz
START TIME: 2034 UT END TIME: 2048 UT
SPECTRAL TYPE: TYPE II BURST
IMPORTANCE: MODERATE
FUNDAMENTAL AND HARMONIC VISIBLE
ESTIMATED SHOCK SPEED 550 KM/S

If the CME is Earth-directed, it may cause a geomagnetic disturbance within the next three days.

The Culgoora Solar Radio Spectrograph observes the radio emission of the Sun from 18MHz to 1.8GHz. This is required as solar flares can radiate energy over a very broad frequency range. Solar flare radio activity appear as "sweeps" on a solar radio spectrograph display. In particular, there are two types of "sweeps" known as "Type II" and "Type IV", which can indicate that a solar coronal mass ejection has occurred. SWS combines the solar radio "sweep" signature of the event and the solar location and size of the H-Alpha flare activity (obtained from Culgoora Observatory H-Alpha patrol), to determine the geo-effectiveness of the event.
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Cliff Fox (KU4GW)'s profile photo
 
I've been hearing a drifting signal on 75 meters as it moves across the band. You can hear the doppler effect of it like a approaching and departing train. 
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Tomas Hood
owner

Analysis  - 
 
Today's Sun (artificially-colored in yellow) seen at the 171-angstrom wavelength (Extreme Ultraviolet, or EUV), as viewed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA).

At this wavelength, at a wavelength not seen by the un-aided eye, we observe the Sun with the 17.1 nm (171 A) filter. This Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) waveband is used to monitor the corona and upper transition region. With this filter, we can see the myrid of massive magnetic field lines, from simple to complex, that weave and twist throughout the Sun.

The image is a 'false color image', meaning that observed data are in a range outside of what human eyes can see, so the data are digitally recast into colors that emphasize physically important features. This view is created from data gathered by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) satellite that flies above Earth's atmosphere in an inclined geosynchronous orbit.

Emissions captured in this image come from iron (Fe), a trace element in the solar atmosphere that emits Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) light when heated to temperatures in excess of one million deg K. In the solar corona the temperatures are so high that most chemical elements have lost many of their electrons. Some of the remaining electrons still attached to the atom emit EUV radiation in narrow wavebands or lines.

The 17.1 nm filter, or channel, is dominated by emissions from highly ionized iron: 8 times ionized (missing 8 electrons) iron--Fe IX. The roman numeral descriptors are consistent with spectral notation: the level of ionization for a given roman numeral is one unit larger that the actual number of missing electrons. The temperatures associated with this level of ionization is about 6 x 10^5 K.

The bright regions in this image correspond to regions of closed magnetic field loops that trap the hot, emitting plasma. Large bright regions are often called active regions. The dark regions correspond to cooler temperatures and possibly to locations where magnetic field lines open into the heliosphere, and thus, do not trap hot plasma.

View live data and images at http://SunSpotWatch.com

Get the space weather and radio propagation self-study course, today. Visit http://nw7us.us/swc for the latest sale and for more information!

We're on Facebook: http://NW7US.us/swhfr
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Tomas Hood
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Analysis  - 
 
Today's Sun, seen through a filter of 'visible' light (remember: NEVER look directly at the Sun!), as viewed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), by the Helioseismic Magnetic Imager (HMI).

This image is known as a 'continuum' image; a continuum image is formed by filtering portions of the visible light part of the spectrum.

The SDO HMI is designed to study oscillations and the magnetic field at the solar surface, or photosphere.

The continuum images allow us to track the evolution of sunspots. These images are important as they allow us to better understand the dynamic nature of the solar atmosphere.

View live data and images at http://SunSpotWatch.com

Get the space weather and radio propagation self-study course, today. Visit http://nw7us.us/swc for the latest sale and for more information!
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Tomas Hood
owner

Analysis  - 
 
Today's graph, plotting the SESC sunspot number, the 10.7cm Radio Flux, and the Estimated Planetary A Index, for the last 30 days.

The numbers are:

Date | Sunspots | 10.7-cm Flux | Ap
==========================================
2016/01/09 | 84 | 107 | 6
2016/01/08 | 80 | 109 | 8
2016/01/07 | 57 | 103 | 14
2016/01/06 | 38 | 100 | 17
2016/01/05 | 29 | 95 | 7
2016/01/04 | 60 | 95 | 5
2016/01/03 | 50 | 102 | 7
2016/01/02 | 52 | 100 | 10
2016/01/01 | 40 | 98 | 27
2015/12/31 | 18 | 96 | 43
2015/12/30 | 34 | 102 | 4
2015/12/29 | 54 | 105 | 6
2015/12/28 | 64 | 112 | 5
2015/12/27 | 67 | 110 | 11
2015/12/26 | 63 | 117 | 15
2015/12/25 | 71 | 126 | 9
2015/12/24 | 51 | 133 | 12
2015/12/23 | 63 | 134 | 11
2015/12/22 | 68 | 130 | 13
2015/12/21 | 38 | 122 | 38
2015/12/20 | 33 | 117 | 66
2015/12/19 | 44 | 119 | 12
2015/12/18 | 49 | 117 | 5
2015/12/17 | 52 | 118 | 7
2015/12/16 | 49 | 126 | 7
2015/12/15 | 64 | 119 | 17
2015/12/14 | 81 | 124 | 22
2015/12/13 | 74 | 123 | 8
2015/12/12 | 89 | 117 | 12

For complete live data and images visit http://SunSpotWatch.com

Be sure to share this post, to spread the love!

Get the space weather and radio propagation self-study course, today. Visit http://nw7us.us/swc for the latest sale and for more information!

Check out the stunning view of our Sun in action, as seen during the last five years with the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO):
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zXN-MdoGM9g
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Tomas Hood
owner

Analysis  - 
 
Today's graph, plotting the SESC sunspot number, the 10.7cm Radio Flux, and the Estimated Planetary A Index, for the last 30 days.

The numbers are:

Date | Sunspots | 10.7-cm Flux | Ap
==========================================
2016/01/03 | 50 | 102 | 7
2016/01/02 | 52 | 100 | 10
2016/01/01 | 40 | 98 | 27
2015/12/31 | 18 | 96 | 43
2015/12/30 | 34 | 102 | 4
2015/12/29 | 54 | 105 | 6
2015/12/28 | 64 | 112 | 5
2015/12/27 | 67 | 110 | 11
2015/12/26 | 63 | 117 | 15
2015/12/25 | 71 | 126 | 9
2015/12/24 | 51 | 133 | 12
2015/12/23 | 63 | 134 | 11
2015/12/22 | 68 | 130 | 13
2015/12/21 | 38 | 122 | 38
2015/12/20 | 33 | 117 | 66
2015/12/19 | 44 | 119 | 12
2015/12/18 | 49 | 117 | 5
2015/12/17 | 52 | 118 | 7
2015/12/16 | 49 | 126 | 7
2015/12/15 | 64 | 119 | 17
2015/12/14 | 81 | 124 | 22
2015/12/13 | 74 | 123 | 8
2015/12/12 | 89 | 117 | 12
2015/12/11 | 77 | 114 | 20
2015/12/10 | 86 | 109 | 23
2015/12/09 | 77 | 109 | 8
2015/12/08 | 58 | 111 | 11
2015/12/07 | 50 | 101 | 20
2015/12/06 | 38 | 102 | 24

For complete live data and images visit http://SunSpotWatch.com

Be sure to share this post, to spread the love!

Get the space weather and radio propagation self-study course, today. Visit http://nw7us.us/swc for the latest sale and for more information!

Check out the stunning view of our Sun in action, as seen during the last five years with the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO):
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zXN-MdoGM9g
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Tomas Hood
owner

General Discussion  - 
 
Happy New Year!
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Tomas Hood
owner

General Discussion  - 
 
End-of-year Fire Sale!

Right now, I am offering an extra discount for this space weather and ham radio educational course (with software, if you choose). This is a seriously-marked-down price. Details here: http://SunSpotWatch.com/swc

As my Facebook and Amateur Radio friend, you know that I'm the radio propagation & space weather columnist in "The Spectrum Monitor" (and for the last 14 years, in "CQ Amateur Radio Magazine," too). I invite you, today, to check out the Space Weather + Ham Radio educational course at http://SunSpotWatch.com/swc

Get the comprehensive, rich-with-information (more than most hobby books) space weather and radio propagation self-study course, today. Of, give it as a gift! The price is right!

Consider getting the course, and by doing so, helping yourself in knowledge and skill, and, helping me keep the web resources up and running. I'm talking about SunSpotWatch.com and other resources. Or, give this as a gift to a fellow ham or space enthusiast.

Why get the educational self-study course? Because, this is not your average source of information on radio propagation and space weather. This self-study course offers in-depth knowledge that equips you to make your own forecasts, and to understand what is going on when you are making contacts on the shortwave bands.

Do you wish to learn about space weather and how to know when aurora is possible? Do you want to learn about space weather, the Sun-Earth connection, solar flares, sunspots, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and more? Do you want to learn how to forecast space weather?

Or, do you want to learn all about space weather and radio signal propagation via the ionosphere! Want to gain the competitive edge in radio DX contests? Want to forecast the radio propagation for the next weekend? Do you want to understand radio signal propagation? Want to understand how space weather affects radio propagation?

Well, what are you waiting for? Browse here, now: http://nw7us.us/swc

Some amateur radio operators may say, "But, I like the magic of just getting on the air and trying my luck! If I learn all this stuff, then it becomes science, and not a hobby." It is true that there's a joy at being dazzled with the magic of radio; buy a super cool transceiver, and a factory-made antenna with coax already fitted with connectors, adding the necessary accessories to make it come alive, then begin exploring the shortwave frequencies. Magical, indeed! But, there are many in the hobby that wish to learn how all of that works. Some even begin learning how to build antennas, radio kits, and discover the joy of the "science" of radio. A few eventually take the step with gained "scientific" knowledge of electronics, and they design and build equipment for their hobby. The course is part of that mix: learning how the Sun affects getting a radio signal from point A to point B, and how to leverage their time and efforts, is a joy, indeed.

A list of the topics covered in this home-study course include:

+ The Sun
+ Basics of the Sun
+ Sunspots
+ Types of Sunspots
+ Sunspot Magnetic Fields
+ Solar Radiation and Radio Emissions
+ Solar Cycles
+ Techniques for Modelling Solar Cycles
+ Sources of Information and Imagery
+ Interplanetary Space
+ The Solar Wind
+ Magnetic Fields
+ Heliospheric Current Sheet
+ Solar Sector Structures
+ The Earth
+ Magnetosphere
+ The quiet magnetosphere
+ The disturbed magnetosphere
+ Understanding Magnetic Indices
+ Magnetic Storms
+ Sudden Storm Commencements (SSCs)
+ Gradual Storm Commencements
+ Geomagnetically Induced Currents (GICs)
+ Effects on Electrical Hydro Systems
+ Effects on Other Long Conductors
+ Ionosphere
+ Formation of Ionospheric Layers
+ Factors Affecting Ionospheric Layers
+ Solar Disturbances
+ Transient Solar Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs)
+ Types and Structures of Coronal Mass Ejections
+ Understanding the Importance of CME Structures
+ Inferring CME Structures from Available Solar Data
+ Coronal Mass Ejection Detection Methods
+ Using IMPACT (software) to Aid in CME Disturbance Predictions
+ Solar Cycle Dependencies
+ Solar Flares
+ Basic Nature of Flares
+ Types of Flares
+ Flare Rating Systems
+ Significance of Proton Flares
+ Ground Level Events (GLEs)
+ Fast Transit Events
+ Interpreting Magnetograms
+ Determining Magnetic Shear and Flare Susceptibility
+ Solar Flare (and Proton Flare) Prediction Techniques
+ Solar Flare Related Coronal Mass Ejection Prediction Techniques
+ Sources of Solar Flare Information
+ Solar Coronal Holes
+ Coronal Hole Basics
+ Recurrence
+ Solar Cycle Correlations
+ Associations with Near-Relativistic Electrons
+ Coronal Hole Related Disturbance Prediction Techniques
+ Filament Eruptions
+ Filaments and Prominences
+ Eruptive and Non-Eruptive Activity
+ Filament-Associated Coronal Mass Ejections
+ Filament-Related Disturbance Prediction Techniques
+ Auroral Activity
+ Basic Theory of the Northern/Southern Lights
+ Behavioral Characteristics of the Auroral Ovals
+ Sensitivity to Solar Disturbances
+ Affects on Satellite Health and Radio Communications
+ Mathematical Models of the Auroral Zones
+ Auroral Activity Prediction Techniques
+ Information Sources
+ Conditions Affecting Satellite Health
+ Atmospheric Drag
+ Surface Charging Anomalies
+ Deep Dialectric Charging Anomalies
+ Interplanetary Shocks
+ Magnetopause Crossings
+ Postulated Sun/Earth Climate Connections
+ Possible Long-Term Climatic Trends
+ Rainfall
+ Temperatures
+ Atmospheric Pressure
+ Storm Tracks
+ Ozone Correlations
+ Possible Short-Term Meteorological Trends
+ Pressure and Winds
+ Lightning
+ Storm Systems
+ Ozone Responses
+ Radio Propagation
+ Basic Theory (Non-Technical)
+ Characteristics and Components of Radio Signals
+ Understanding Plasmas
+ Importance of Electron Collisions
+ Appleton/Hartree Contributions
+ Signal Polarization and Coupling
+ Ionospheric Absorption
+ Deviative Absorption
+ Non-Deviative Absorption
+ Fading
+ Multipathing
+ Travelling Ionospheric Disturbances
+ Solar Related Disturbances
+ Structure of the Ionosphere
+ Ionospheric Layers
+ Importance of Sporadic-E
+ Effects of Spread-F
+ Solar-Cycle Dependencies
+ Models of the Ionosphere
+ Simple Mathematical Models
+ Numerical Maps
+ and MUCH MUCH more

The STD SW Course (created by Cary Oler, STD) presents you with some specific historic real-life scenarios. Using the information and techniques studied in this course, you are asked to develop your own space-weather and radio-propagation predictions. The actual real-life impacts are then studied and compared with your forecasts.

The Course presents you with several hypothetical (possible future) examples and ask you to develop your own forecasts.

(NOTE: The certificate which was originally offered, when the course was much more expensive, is no longer offered.)

Visit http://nw7us.us/swc for the latest sale and for more information!

Don't forget: check out my YouTube channel at https://YouTube.com/NW7US

(This post was made by the special software written by Tomas - it posts hand-picked content, at pre-determined times. I, Tomas, really wrote this message, but I simply delayed posting it.)

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Tomas Hood
owner

General Discussion  - 
 
UPDATE: Geomagnetic conditions settling down to normal (quiet) conditions, today.

The Current Space Weather Observation at 2015 Dec 21 15:30 UTC: 10.7-cm Radio Flux 117 / Ap 66, Kp 3, Sunspot Count 33 (as of 12/20/2015)

Solar Wind 501 km/s Bz: 4.2 nT (northward orientation - this is why the geomagnetic conditions are improving).

Space weather for the past 24 hours has been moderate. Geomagnetic storms reaching the G2 level occurred. Radio blackouts reaching the R1 level occurred.

No space weather storms are predicted for the next 24 hours.

Flares: (0000 UTC) 6h hi M2.8(0052Z 12/21) 24h hi M2.8(0052Z 12/21)

Global HF Propagation Cndx 1500Z 21 Dec, 2015: Hi Lat=Fair: Mid Lat=Normal: Low Lat=Normal

FYI: Year-end Ham Radio and Space Weather Education Course Sale! Now is the perfect time to get this course for yourself, or to gift it. This sale is a great bargain!

Get the space weather and radio propagation self-study course, today. Visit http://nw7us.us/swc for the latest sale and for more information!

http://g.nw7us.us/1kLOrZP

#spaceweather #sunspots #solar #flares #aurora #hamr #ARRL #spacewx #solarstorm

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