Vivienne suggested that we could go out eating together after the presentations. I think it’s an awesome idea and a good end for our great class! Who is in?

Hi all I won;t be able to get to the lecture until 5.45 today. May apologies. I hope you can find this time useful for discussing your group presentation.

ka kite ano

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I hope each of you have had a wonderful beginning on this week. I have watched the video of Jack. One word to describe their life, incredible! Letting him decide whatever he want to wear, whatever he wants to be, that whatever feels right for him, is not questioned, this is not based on whatever gender “normality” tells us how we should act, this is about how Jack feels inside and who he desire to be and his parents let him. Isn’t that what every child should have the right too? I really do believe in it. We all know for a fact that there are living 7 billons humans on this earth, around 2 billion are children. How can two gender types cover every single one of us? We know we are all different, there is no doubt, they can be similar, however they are sure different from who we are and our story. All of us are different, how can it be only two types of gender if we can be so much more? Some children will like playing with dolls more than cars, does not matter if you are born a girl or a boy. My parents allowed me to play with what I wanted during my childhood and because they did it made me a happy kid. A kid who could do the things he felt right doing to enjoy his life. So, I played with dolls and cars, I did also pedicure my toes when it was summer, I dressed up as a princess as often as Spiderman, they allowed me being me. It did never occur to me before later stages in childhood what I was supposed to play with and what I absolutely wasn’t allowed to, based on gender. I believe being able to feel what is right for the kid to play and express himself/herself through is meaningful for a kids’ development and life throughout childhood.

I have linked two other interesting videos about gender under. Please take a look at wonderful Jazz if you got the time! Have a wonderful day, see you tomorrow.


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Question 9: What did Nsamenang propose to editors of textbooks and why?

- Nsamenang suggested that editors and scientists who study children's development should in consideration of diversified readers and audiences because of the globalization. (Page 162)

Question 10: What are the main factors considered in critical psychology and how does this differ from traditional approaches to developmental psychology?

- The main factors are cultural, historical and political factors. The difference between critical psychology and traditional approaches to development psychology is epistemology. According to the postmodern respective, the central are subjectivity, ethical and power issue, and the main approaches is qualitative methods. (Page 1632)


3. According to the African psychologist A.B. Nsamenang (cited in Shute and Slee) what have western writings implied about alternative notions of childhood? Why?

As African psychologist A. Bame Nsamenang and others have noted, western writings have often carried the implication that alternative notions of childhood are faulty, leaving them open to accusations of racism. It seems, therefore, that whenever one tries seriously to address questions about culture and development, one becomes inevitably embroiled in philosophical, epistemological, ethical and political issues (Shute, Rosalyn H., et al, 2015).

A. Bame noted that western writings have made an implication that other ways than the western model of raising a child is faulty and not the “right” way. This means most of the western people look at other cultures and their way of raising a child as wrong. Who said it is our model that is the right one? How can’t it be that other cultures have better ways of making the child’s notions greater than how western people do it? A great point from A. Bame and a great topic for class!

4. What did Erik Erikson’s research on Sioux and Yurok, indigenous peoples of North America, conclude about the relationship between biology and culture?

In contrast to then typical western approaches to Indigenous peoples as primitive or infantile, he recognized that they had their own ways of dealing with the world and bringing up children. He argued that stages of development are marked by the resolution of normative crises resulting from the interaction between the biological plan for the species and the cultural environment (Shute, Rosalyn H., et al, 2015).

5. How is Pere’s example of learning from elders in Māori culture similar to Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory? Chantelle

Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory emphasis culture playa an integral role in development, it is inseparable from the influence of experienced members of the culture. In Pere’s example, the relationship between teacher and student is intimate with a high expectation to working together on task. Grandmother as a teacher in this situation, teaches her grand-daughter about the art of weaving, they both learning of their culture and skills together. The process will continue another task when they can perform that skill by themselves. It has transformed the interpersonal communication to an intrapersonal level, which led individual is inculcated through linguistic interaction with others, the nature of which is culturally determined.

6. Explain the shift in how sociocultural variables are viewed in research. Chantelle

Vygotsky’s theory identified the importance of culture in development, however, developmental researchers have often seen sociocultural variables as something to be controlled in studies, to enable the observation of ‘pure process’.

A shift from this type of thinking has become visible, however, in the direction of seeing social environmental variables as something to be studied to enable development to be understood.

This shift was acknowledged by the later versions of Bronfenbrenner’s theory. Bronfenbrenner and Pamela Morris made this point well by referring to a 1995 work by Laurence Steinberg and colleagues: it made no sense at all to control for ethnicity, social class, or household composition in an attempt to produce ‘pure’ process. No process occurs outside of a context. And if we want to understand context, we need to take it into account, not pretend to control it away. (Bronfenbrenner and Morris, 1998: 1,016)

Question 8 - Describe the main findings of the experiment carried out by de Vries (1984). Page 161 last paragraph.

• A cross-cultural study of infant temperament. Personalities/Development based on culture.

•Cross- Cultural approach – aims to elicit the often-implicit theories that parents have about the correct way to raise children.

•The study was investigating the notion of differences in temperament between infants.

•How different cultures view their children’s development based on their cultural beliefs in comparison with western researcher’s beliefs.

•Different cultures value different characteristics in children e.g. the Masai infants those who survived the drought where the assertive children who demanded to be feed more, these ‘difficult’ babies survived. This characteristic is valued to Masai parents however, may not be to US parents.

•“Therefore, a valued characteristic in one culture may not be highly valued, and even detrimental to survival, in another. This illustrates the notion of ‘goodness-of-fit’ between a child’s propensities and the environment in determining development (Thomas and Chess, 1977).”

11) According to Burman what did the study of infants and animals have in common? And how did this reinforce imperialists views of primitive peoples’?
Burman (1994 / 2008) reviewed developmental psychology from a critical perspective. She observed that, in the mid-nineteenth century, non-western peoples, along with infants and animals, were studied as examples of the ‘primitive’ mind, thus serving the perspective of European (especially British) imperialists that their own race was superior.This perspective continued into the twentieth century (Burman 1994; Burman, 2008, as cited in Shute & Slee, 2015).

12) According to Dudgeon and Pickett (2000) psychology ‘promotoes individualism’ – Why is this problematic ?
Patricia Dudgeon and Harry Pickett (2000), writing about psychology and reconciliation between Australia’s Indigenous and non-Indigenous communities, have similarly observed that, like anthropology, psychology is based in western culture. While purporting to be objective and apolitical, it is in fact a value-laden discipline, based on individualism and granting only a peripheral role to cultural contexts, largely ignoring historical and social factors. Psychology promotes individualism to the neglect of the community and family welfare, which are central to many Indigenous cultures (Dudgeon and Pickett, 2000, as cited in Shute & Slee, 2015)

1. Why is Lancy (2007, cited in Shute and Slee) critical of the idea of mother-child play?

Lancy (2007) is critical of the idea of mother-child play because it is only practiced by the upper-classes of western societies and is not relevant and culturally appropriate in all societies.

2. Who does the term ‘majority world’ refer to?

The majority world refers to those neglected by developmental psychology and its theorists. (Nsamenang, 2006).

Q15. Explain how Watson's experiment on 'little Albert' are an example of the inferiority of the emotions in comparison to the intellect/ cognitive development?
A: Watson's stance seemed to be influenced not only by prevailing western approaches to emotions, but by his own upbringing, which combined religious fundamentalism with an an alcoholic father prone to violent outbursts. (165)
Q16. What does indigenous psychology mean? And how is it relevant for New Zealand and Australia?
A: The concept of ' Indigenous psychology' is not used to marginalise non- western perspectives ( Nsamenang, 2005). This can thrive when members of the dominant culture are prepared to recognise the impact of colonialism on Indigenous people.
It is relevant to Australia and New Zealand because the 20th century research on indigenous Australian people was typically based on identifying ' deficits', which were attributed to genetic and cultural inferiority to the majority culture. Similarly, in New Zealand, considering the educational difficulties of Maori children, ' the dominants assume they are dealing with quirks of personality or ethnic traditions created in pre-European history when most often they are dealing with modern class problems which are largely the creation of the dominants themselves ' (Burch, 1967, cited in McDonald, 1973). P.168
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