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Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

• General/Interdisciplinary  - 
 
Revolutionary new electronic devices require new and novel material systems. Scientists from PNNL and the University of Minnesota showed that combining two oxide materials in one particular orientation gives rise to a densely packed sheet of highly mobile electrons. The density of these electrons – the highest ever observed at the junction of two materials – may well help create a new class of electronic devices. Learn more at http://goo.gl/6DBrPh.

* * *

By depositing alternating, ultra-thin layers of NdTiO3 and SrTiO3 on a crystalline surface, and investigating their properties experimentally and theoretically, the researchers demonstrated that a very high density of mobile electrons can be generated and confined within the SrTiO3 layers. The mobile electrons jump from the NdTiO3 layers, where they cannot easily move, into the SrTiO3 layers, where they are free to move.

Why do the electrons jump? A certain number must jump from NdTiO3 into SrTiO3 to stabilize the combined material system. The charges that stabilize the neodymium (Nd) and titanium (Ti) ions in NdTiO3 cannot be reached without electron rearrangement, and part of this rearrangement involves some electrons jumping across the junction into the adjacent SrTiO3 layers. However, when the NdTiO3 layer reaches a certain thickness, it becomes energetically favorable for additional loosely bound electrons in the NdTiO3 layer to spill over into the adjacent SrTiO3 layer, like water running over a waterfall. Once this happens, the SrTiO3 layers become conducting channels with a high density of mobile electrons.

Why is this important? New kinds of electronic devices that exhibit novel functionalities are constantly being sought after to expand our technology base. One such device, which cannot be fabricated with existing electronic materials, is a high-frequency plasmonic field effect transistor. This device can turn a larger electronic signal on and off very fast, something not achievable with traditional semiconductor materials, such as silicon. The interface between NdTiO3 and SrTiO3 constitutes such a pathway, even though neither oxide conducts electricity as a pure material.

What's Next? This work is part of ongoing research into the electronic, magnetic, and optical properties of doped metals at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

Work at the University of Minnesota was supported primarily by the National Science Foundation through the Materials Research Science and Engineering Center under awards DMR-0819885 and DMR-1420013. The band offset work at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was supported by the Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering. The computational modeling at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was supported by the PNNL Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program.
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Chad Haney

• General/Interdisciplinary  - 
 
How can you use x-ray CT to image a leech?
 
Joy and Luck of Fixing a Leech
A group of researchers have used microCT to examine and describe a new species of leech, which they named after Amy Tan (the author of Joy Luck Club). The most important part is kind of buried in the Science Daily piece.

For objects smaller than a human, CT has horrible soft tissue contrast. MRI has significantly better soft tissue contrast, regardless of the size of the sample. However, microCT has better spatial resolution compared to preclinical or 'microMRI' if you will. This group used a microCT that is not intended for live specimen and can reach 5 micron resolution.

The research presented here is a fantastic example of how science works, i.e., building on previous work, especially if it is in a different area. For those of you who remember high school biology, you probably had to dissect a frog or something from a jar. That stinky liquid is formaldehyde, which is what preserves the specimen. It's known as a fixative. So this group looked at fixatives that are typically used in scanning electron microscopy. One of them was osmium tetroxide, which binds the metal osmium to give better contrast. The recipe that worked best was using AFA (alcohol, formalin (which is a variant of formaldehyde), and acetic acid) as the primary fixative, followed by osmium tetroxide.

Unlike the BaSO4 method I wrote about earlier, this method involves soaking the sample for several hours (6-12).

The other key part is in the visualization and image analysis tools. Identifying the various internal organs uses a tool called segmentation. Sometimes it's automated and sometimes you have to do it manually.

Since I'm heading out to walk my dog, I'll keep this short and give you a few links if you wish to read more.

Medical Imaging 101 pt 2: CT
http://goo.gl/IHaFw

Fast CT from GE Healthcare
https://goo.gl/AV6Z59

BaSO4, X-ray Contrast
https://goo.gl/O3GBgU

Medical visualization, it's what I see and do
http://goo.gl/PrwLx6

GE phoenix v|tome|x s scanner
https://goo.gl/aOsbv2

edit
Here's the Science Daily article.
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/01/160121130702.htm

Full article here:
1. Michael Tessler, Amalie Barrio, Elizabeth Borda, Rebecca Rood-Goldman, Morgan Hill, Mark E. Siddall. Description of a soft-bodied invertebrate with microcomputed tomography and revision of the genusChtonobdella(Hirudinea: Haemadipsidae). Zoologica Scripta, 2016; DOI: 10.1111/zsc.12165
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/zsc.12165

h/t +rasha kamel 
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Gary Ray R's profile photoChad Haney's profile photoRomavic Antony's profile photo
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I'm happy to share, +Gary Ray R. Maybe someday I'll get some interesting discussion going with strangers interested in learning some science.
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Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

• General/Interdisciplinary  - 
 
You can learn a lot from the green goop that thrives in ponds – including how to create a form of clean, alternative energy. PNNL researchers collected near-complete genomic information for microscopic microbes that comprise two diverse microbial communities in blue-green algae. Their research has resulted in the most complex communities to have their genomes detailed to date. They also studied how these diverse communities interact and coexist. This new understanding has important implications for how these communities could be used in the future as an energy source. Learn more at http://goo.gl/j41bme.

* * *

Tiny microbes are hiding big secrets. Scientists often use a collection or community of microbes to study molecular functions, but the more complex the community, the more difficult it is to tease out functions and interactions. Now, scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have peered into two microbial communities of blue-green algae to collect near-complete genomic information for all 20 members in each community.

These communities, called unicyanobacterial consortia, or UCCs, are the most complex communities to have their genome described in detail to date. As recently reported in Applied and Environmental Microbiology, the researchers made two surprising discoveries that will help scientists better understand the communities' functions and interactions.

For one thing, the community composition was more varied than typical analyses would have estimated. PNNL's more in-depth analysis showed that usual approaches can underestimate the true diversity and function present within a community. For another, closely related organisms had tiny differences in their genomes. Normally, such microdiversity would put these organisms in competition with each other, and one would drive the other to extinction. Yet these organisms were coexisting in their communities, suggesting they have different functions.

To coax the microbial communities into giving up their secrets, PNNL scientists borrowed a technique called "genome reconstruction" from the environmental field. The relatively new approach allows scientists to segregate species into bins to reconstruct their genomes. Because the same organisms were present in each community at different abundances, the scientists could more easily parse out genomic information.

The team then investigated the function of individual organisms and predicted interactions. To confirm the process's accuracy and specificity, researchers compared the sequenced genomes of isolated organisms from the UCCs. The results appeared fairly accurate, lending support for other scientists to use this method.

"The UCCs are excellent systems from which to learn about how microbial communities behave," said Dr. William Nelson, the PNNL microbiologist who led the study. "They are much simpler than natural communities, making it easier to interpret what's going on. We have them growing in the lab, so we can perform experiments on them. And, now we have the genome sequences of all the organisms, which gives us a better ability to both make predictions and interpret results."

Why is this important? Microdiversity refers to the differences in organisms that have highly similar physical or genetic characteristics. Current thinking assumes that microdiversity in the communities PNNL studied would be minor. However, PNNL's research shows microdiversity is a fundamental property of microbial communities. These differences can have profound impact on understanding how UCCs function, particularly as these communities are being considered for use as a form of clean energy.

"The idea behind this project was to characterize the interactions between organisms-get a complete understanding of how they work together, how they form a community greater than the sum of its parts," said Nelson. "Our work shows that these communities are more diverse than anyone expected."

What's Next? PNNL scientists are looking into how the small differences in genome sequences translate to function. The UCCs will form the basis for upcoming experiments exploring interactions between community members, including how microdiversity is maintained and how it affects community function. In addition, the results of the current study can serve as a foundational dataset and resource for future investigations to understand interactions among microbial communities, particularly those important to human health and the environment.

This work was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research via the Genomic Sciences Program.
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ULg Reflexions

• General/Interdisciplinary  - 
 
How do listeners perceive whether a #singer is in tune or not? It is challenging to define it objectively. In spite of the difficulties involved, Pauline Larrouy-Maestri, a researcher at the Max Planck Institute and a scientific collaborator with the department of psychology of the +Université de Liège (ULg) , has succeeded in doing so. By quantifying objective criteria for judging singing accuracy with the help of computer programs, and by comparing the subjective judgements of #music professionals and #laymen, she succeeded in evaluating the perception of accuracy among the two groups. This research greatly alters the commonly-held idea that music professionals are better equipped to judge voice accuracy.
Read more about it : http://reflexions.ulg.ac.be/en/SingingVoice 
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Alex Gigliotti's profile photoRomavic Antony's profile photoFrank Schwab's profile photo
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Cool!
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Chad Haney

• General/Interdisciplinary  - 
 
What's BaSO4 and what does it have to do with x-rays?
 
BaSO4, X-ray Contrast
Many of you have probably seen the post by +Mindy Weisberger showing the awesome CT images of various animal's vasculature. The main point of that article is the development of a contrast agent for x-ray computed tomography (CT).

Since I haven't had time to post to my Medical Imaging Collection, I figured I'd take the opportunity to clear up a few things about the technology and stop neglecting my medical imaging collection.

There are two main classes of x-ray contrast agents. Iodine based agents and barium sulfate (BaSO4) based agents. Iodinated agents are typically given intravenously (IV) and sometimes orally. BaSO4 agents are only given orally for live patients/animals. Iodonated agents are soluble in water and often look like water (not very viscous). BaSO4 agents look like thick milk of magnesia (very viscous). There are many reasons why BaSo4 cannot be given IV (viscosity, osmolarity, etc.). BaSO4 agents are routinely used in about 5 million x-ray procedures in the USA. Its use can be traced back to 1910. Iodinated agents are used in around 20 million procedures (Chem. Rev 1999, 99, 2353-2377).

The agent in the article is called BriteVu, developed by Scarlet Imaging. It's a BaSO4 based agent with minerals and silica added. I plan on purchasing some to see what makes it superior to plain BaSO4 or even if it is superior. So the first thing to correct in the article is that this isn't noninvasive in the sense that it can't be used in vivo. It's noninvasive but it's terminal. I think most people assume when you say noninvasive that you also imply survival.

The second misleading issues is that clinical scanners can image fast enough for iodine based agents to work. This is only applicable for animal work where there is only one or two scanners that are as fast as clinical CT scanners. So what does speed have to do with iodinated agents? Unlike BaSO4 agents, they diffuse out of the vasculature very rapidly and are cleared from the body rapidly (relatively speaking). A preclinical scanner does not have a slip-ring like a clinical scanner and therefore is much slower. By the time the x-ray source and detector have traveled around the animal, the agent is already diffusing out. The math used to reconstruct the images would break down because you have an important feature (the vasculature) changing over the time course of the image. See the links below for more information about slip-rings. This is unlike motion artifacts (e.g. breathing) that can be corrected for.

In two of the images below of a mouse, Kiessling et al show that an iodinated agent can be use in vivo with a live mouse. Their prototype slip-ring preclinical scanner is probably over $1million. Nevertheless, it is possible to image fast enough to use iodine in vivo in an animal. You will see that they image the mouse with an iodinated agent, iomeprol 400, on the right side and BaSO4 on the left side for comparison. Keep in mind, the left side image is only possible as a terminal experiment. The other mouse figure shows a 3D rendering to demonstrate how you can visualize the vasculature of a tumor on a mouse. The other five images are from Scarlet Imaging.

Mindy's post:
https://plus.google.com/+MindyWeisberger/posts/NhBBaniLqmP

More information about CT and slip-rings.
Medical Imaging 101 pt 2: CT
http://goo.gl/IHaFw

Fast CT from GE Healthcare
https://goo.gl/AV6Z59

Image sources:
Scarlet Imaging
https://www.scarletimaging.com/

Volumetric computed tomography (VCT): a new technology for noninvasive, high-resolution monitoring of tumor angiogenesis
Kiessling et al Nature Medicine 10, 1133 - 1138 (2004)
7 September 2004; | doi:10.1038/nm1101
http://www.nature.com/nm/journal/v10/n10/abs/nm1101.html

Duke University has an experimental microCT that can be used to image mouse hearts, which beat up to 600 bpm.
http://www.civm.duhs.duke.edu/4DmicroSpectCT2013/
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Chad Haney's profile photoThomas Pinault's profile photoRomavic Antony's profile photoFYI FOAD's profile photo
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You are welcome +Gary Ray R and +Brigitte W..
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Justin Chung

• General/Interdisciplinary  - 
 
Happy Carl Sagan Day! Today we honor the life of Carl Sagan. Here's a bit on scientific skepticism -- a term that appears to originate in Carl Sagan's work...
 
#CarlSaganDay: Scientific Skepticism

Happy Carl Sagan Day! Here's a bit on scientific skepticism -- a term that appears to originate in Carl Sagan's work: amzn.to/saganbooks

Also called "rational skepticism" and "skeptical inquiry", scientific skepticism is the practice of questioning whether claims are supported by empirical research and have reproducibility, as part of a methodological norm pursuing "the extension of certified knowledge". For example, Robert K. Merton asserts that all ideas must be tested and are subject to rigorous, structured community scrutiny.

Scientific skeptics believe that empirical investigation of reality leads to the truth, and that the scientific method is best suited to this purpose.

Related resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Empirical_research
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reproducibility
http://xenu.net/archive/baloney_detection.html
http://faqs.org/faqs/skeptic-faq
http://skepdic.com

#science #reason #criticalthinking #skepticism #carlsagan #sagan #scienceeveryday
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Justin Chung's profile photoSantos Basile's profile photoDavid Camp's profile photo
 
For those interested, more Carl Sagan Day posts on my profile. :)
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Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

• General/Interdisciplinary  - 
 
Natural organic matter (NOM) is a mixture of organic molecules derived primarily from the natural decay of plant matter. Understanding how NOM interacts with mineral surfaces is critical for a range of applications such as CO2 sequestration, wastewater treatment and prevention of industrial fouling (the accumulation of unwanted material on solid surfaces). Recent research at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory at PNNL sheds light on the molecular-scale roles that calcium and other cations play in determining the structure and behavior of large NOM aggregates commonly found in nature. Learn more at https://goo.gl/b7cKC1.
 
* * *
 
Researchers from Alfred University, Michigan State University and the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory at PNNL, examined the nano- and microstructure of large NOM aggregates called floccs. They also studied the molecular-scale interactions between NOM, dissolved calcium and water, and the effects of pH and ionic strength on the formation of NOM floccs. To do so, they used a combination of X-ray diffraction, helium ion microscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance at EMSL, a Department of Energy national scientific user facility.
 
Consistent with previous observations, researchers found NOM floccs are built from a fundamental spheroidal structure that is approximately 10 nm in diameter. Calcium, which plays a crucial role in NOM aggregation, was incorporated into these floccs in a wide range of environments. Both pH and the concentration of ions influenced the formation of NOM floccs in solutions containing calcium. These findings provide significant new insight into the formation and morphology of calcium-mediated NOM floccs and the molecular-scale behavior of calcium in these materials.
 
The study also sheds light on how organic matter added to soil may change the transport of nutrient ions through a surface soil. The findings suggest ion mobility is increased overall when salty solutions are added to NOM. Furthermore, the pH history of the system also influences ion and fluid behavior. This knowledge may help conserve valuable nutrients to help farmers and gardeners prepare a more productive soil.
 
Because NOM is a ubiquitous, important, chemically active component of surface water, soils and groundwater, a better understanding of its structure and behavior could have broader implications. For example, the findings could improve our understanding of NOM–mineral interactions, the global carbon balance, soil biogeochemistry, plant nutrition, industrial fouling and a variety of fundamental chemical processes in the environment, including weathering reactions and the transport of inorganic ions, pharmaceuticals and other organic contaminants.
 
Why is this important? These broad-reaching fundamental discoveries will improve predictive models used for understanding nutrient and carbon cycling at the earth's surface, CO2 sequestration and the transport of environmental contaminants. This information could be used to improve strategies for remediating contaminated soil and groundwater. 
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Skimevo Evoskim's profile photoRohullah Rahimi's profile photoPriorclave North America Inc's profile photoMalith Arambage's profile photo
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Valuable research today! I'm am wondering if NOM carbon is the ancient source of diamond carbon or lipeds under pressure from long ago
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Vitaliy Kaurov

• General/Interdisciplinary  - 
 
Equation-free modeling and forecasting "Complex natural systems defy standard mathematical analysis, so one ecologist is throwing out the equations." An approach based on chaos theory called “empirical dynamic modeling,” which makes no assumptions about analytic laws and uses only raw data as input. "Empirical dynamic modeling can reveal hidden causal relationships that lurk in the complex systems that abound in nature."

SOURCE:

https://www.quantamagazine.org/20151013-chaos-theory-and-ecology

http://www.pnas.org/content/112/13/E1569.full

"It is well known that current equilibrium-based models fall short as predictive descriptions of natural ecosystems, and particularly of fisheries systems that exhibit nonlinear dynamics. For example, model parameters assumed to be fixed constants may actually vary in time, models may fit well to existing data but lack out-of-sample predictive skill, and key driving variables may be misidentified due to transient (mirage) correlations that are common in nonlinear systems. With these frailties, it is somewhat surprising that static equilibrium models continue to be widely used. Here, we examine empirical dynamic modeling (EDM) as an alternative to imposed model equations and that accommodates both nonequilibrium dynamics and nonlinearity. Using time series from nine stocks of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) from the Fraser River system in British Columbia, Canada, we perform, for the the first time to our knowledge, real-data comparison of contemporary fisheries models with equivalent EDM formulations that explicitly use spawning stock and environmental variables to forecast recruitment. We find that EDM models produce more accurate and precise forecasts, and unlike extensions of the classic Ricker spawner–recruit equation, they show significant improvements when environmental factors are included. Our analysis demonstrates the strategic utility of EDM for incorporating environmental influences into fisheries forecasts and, more generally, for providing insight into how environmental factors can operate in forecast models, thus paving the way for equation-free mechanistic forecasting to be applied in management contexts.

The conventional parametric approach to modeling relies on hypothesized equations to approximate mechanistic processes. Although there are known limitations in using an assumed set of equations, parametric models remain widely used to test for interactions, make predictions, and guide management decisions. Here, we show that these objectives are better addressed using an alternative equation-free approach, empirical dynamic modeling (EDM). Applied to Fraser River sockeye salmon, EDM models (i) recover the mechanistic relationship between the environment and population biology that fisheries models dismiss as insignificant, (ii) produce significantly better forecasts compared with contemporary fisheries models, and (iii) explicitly link control parameters (spawning abundance) and ecosystem objectives (future recruitment), producing models that are suitable for current management frameworks."
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Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

• General/Interdisciplinary  - 
 
New research at EMSL, the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory at PNNL, explores the earliest stages of uranium dioxide (UO2) oxidation under conditions relevant to oxidation mechanisms in nature. The research shows that UO2 oxidation spreads from the surface to deeper atomic layers in a complex pattern that does not follow classical diffusion. By shedding light on initial stages of UO2 oxidation, the findings could be used to help improve safety systems and cleanup technologies at mine sites, nuclear reactors and waste sites. Read more at http://goo.gl/1Dolvl.
 
* * *
 
Uranium dioxide contains the less soluble and immobile form of uranium in nature, so it is the desired end product of bioremediation strategies for contaminated soil and groundwater. But when exposed to oxygen, UO2 incorporates additional O atoms and the uranium oxidizes, transforming into the more soluble, mobile form of uranium that can be released into the environment. This study combined experimental and theoretical approaches to examine, at the atomic scale, the earliest stages of UO2 oxidation under ambient conditions relevant to oxidation mechanisms in nature.
 
Researchers from the University of Chicago, PNNL and Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource examined the surface structure and composition of UO2 after exposure to oxygen gas and water at ambient conditions. They performed density-functional theory computations using PNNL’s and EMSL’s supercomputing capabilities, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in RadEMSL at EMSL. They also collected crystal truncation rod X-ray diffraction data at GeoSoilEnviroCARS using capabilities at the Advanced Photon Source, a DOE national scientific user facility operated by Argonne National Laboratory.
 
In contrast to previous models, researchers found oxygen atoms occupied every third layer below the surface of UO2. Moreover, uranium existed in three oxidation states: IV, V and VI. Similar structures formed under oxygen gas and water, suggesting the same corrosion process operates under a wide range of conditions. The findings have important implications for understanding initial stages of oxidative corrosion in materials at the atomic scale. Moreover, this conceptual framework may be relevant to a wide class of redox-active materials and minerals that can incorporate oxygen, including plutonium (IV) oxide.
 
UO2 is the most economically important uranium mineral and the most common nuclear fuel in reactors around the world. Despite more than 60 years of UO2 oxidation research, experimental challenges and the complex oxidation behavior of uranium oxides prevented scientists from moving beyond an observational description to an understanding of the underlying atomistic processes. Only by combining computational and experimental techniques using cutting-edge capabilities at two DOE user facilities could researchers shed light on the previously obscure process of atomic-scale UO2 surface oxidation under ambient conditions relevant to oxidation mechanisms in nature. 
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Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

• General/Interdisciplinary  - 
 
To prevent metal alloy failures, it helps to understand the atomic-level kinetics and mechanisms causing intergranular – “between the grains” – oxidation that can lead to material fatigue and cracking. In work examining intergranular attack of alloys under hydrothermal conditions, PNNL scientists developed a mathematical model that directly compares with experimental data in predicting how fast oxygen penetrates binary alloys and the resulting element depletion that can initiate material failures. The insights into oxidation mechanisms at the atomic level revealed by this work offer a new perspective on ways to improve materials durability. Read more at http://goo.gl/bM36Rn.
 
* * *
 
A core concern for any structural material is maintaining a prolonged, effective service life. Notably, critical metal alloy failures typically initiate beyond the naked eye, where intergranular (between the grains) oxidation combines with stress corrosion, causing cracks. Even worse, these corrosive attacks ultimately can result in total metal alloy failure.
 
In seeking a mathematical kinetics model to predict oxidation penetration and minor element depletion, a PNNL team began with a generic model and earlier studies that involved moving interfaces, oxidation kinetics, and heterogeneous reactions at the interface of two phases. To fully examine intergranular oxidation rates, they noted that the transport processes along the grain boundary and reactions at the oxidation front had to be considered. Using a semi-analytical method to find numerical solutions of the proposed model, they approximated various real-world scenarios. For planar (flat) surface oxidation, the model predicts a critical concentration, where the oxide of the minor element dominates the oxide of the major element by neglecting mass transfer between the bulk alloy and grain boundary. Meanwhile, for grain boundary oxidation, the model can account for the penetration velocity, penetration depth, and depletion distance ahead of the advancing oxidation front based on the competition of oxidation and transport properties of various species.
 
Why is this important? Combating intergranular embrittlement and disintegration is necessary for preventing metal alloy failure during service life, yet oxidation remains a potentially dangerous obstacle to overcome. Understanding the kinetics and mechanisms causing intergranular oxidation at the atomic level can improve manufacturing for more durable, corrosion-resistant materials designed for safe application in service environments, for example, in a light-water (nuclear) reactor within its decidedly high-temperature, reactive environs.
 
What’s Next? The proposed selective oxidation model provides a simple theoretical framework for understanding the complex picture of oxidation and transport during intergranular attacks. Future work includes building a multiscale simulation framework that establishes connections between the proposed model to atomistic models based on explicit parametrization of relevant transport and oxidation parameters via appropriate small-scale models. 
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Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

• General/Interdisciplinary  - 
 
In the United States, 90% of electrical power comes from power plants that use heat-conversion (thermoelectric) systems, fueled by coal, gas, oil and nuclear generators. These plants require fresh water to generate steam and for cooling. PNNL scientists have developed a new modeling tool to understand the impact of human activities on temperatures of complex river and stream systems. Learn more at http://goo.gl/eo9QuF.

* * *

As a bellwether for water quality, stream temperature is regulated to protect aquatic ecosystems. PNNL scientists developed a new modeling tool to understand stream temperature, with their sights on how it may be influenced by climate change and human activities.

Applying the new module in a river transport model and coupling it with a generic water management model within an Earth system model framework, they were able to closely mimic the observed stream temperature variations from over 320 river gauges across the contiguous United States.

Their additional analysis focused on reservoir operations which they found could cool down stream temperature in the summer low-flow season, from August to October, by as much as 1 to ~2oC by altering the timing of streamflow that boosts summer water flows.

"Our new capability lays a solid foundation for future studies on the water-energy-land nexus," said Dr. Hong-Yi Li, a PNNL hydrologist who led the study. "It opens exciting opportunities to evaluate our options for managing resources in an evolving environment."

PNNL researchers developed a new large-scale stream temperature model within theCommunity Earth System Model (CESM) framework. The model was coupled with the MOdel for Scale Adaptive River Transport (MOSART) that represents river routing, and a water management model. The coupled models allowed reservoir operations and withdrawal impacts on stream temperature to be explicitly represented in a physically based and consistent way. The models were applied to the contiguous United States driven by the observed meteorological forcing.

The team evaluated model-simulated streamflow and stream temperature against the observations at over 320 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) river gages in the United States. They showed that including water management in the models improves the agreement between the simulated and observed streamflow and stream temperature at a large number of stream gauge stations. The space and time variation of stream temperature was systematically analyzed at regional to national scales.

Through sensitivity experiments, this study revealed the relative influence of climate and water management on both streamflow and stream temperature. Further, it uncovered the notable impacts of reservoir operations on stream temperature during August-September-October when changes in stream temperature have critical effects on water-cooling thermoelectric power production and aquatic ecosystems.

Why is this important? In the United States, 90 percent of electrical power comes from generating electricity using heat-conversion (thermoelectric) systems, fueled by coal, gas, oil, and nuclear generators. Withdrawing as much water as farms, these power plants require fresh water to generate steam and for cooling purposes.

Because of the sensitivity of stream life, regulations are in place—especially for the protection of fish—on the temperature of water discharged from power plants. In turn, this means that stream temperature is an important limitation on energy production. Such a constraint is particularly critical during low water flows and drought conditions, which are projected to be more widespread and prolonged in a warmer climate.

Researchers increasingly use Earth system models to understand climate change impacts. Adding a stream temperature module can provide important information to evaluate potential changes in river temperature. This information is extremely valuable because stream temperature can impact thermoelectric power production that uses wet-cooling systems. The water's eventual release back into the stream system can put aquatic and coastal ecosystems in jeopardy.

What's Next? PNNL researchers are now examining the relative contributions of climate change and human activities on stream temperature variations and subsequently on wet-cooling thermoelectric power production in the coming decades. They are also extending MOSART to simulate how sediment, carbon, and other nutrients move from the landscape through the rivers and into the ocean.
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Arran Frood

• General/Interdisciplinary  - 
 
If you are interested in greener alternatives to fossil fuels, then do check out Plants v petrol, the new video from UK bioscience funders BBSRC.

The 01:30 animation outlines how tinkering with the mechanism for photosynthesis to make it more efficient (evolution isn't perfect!) could lead to better liquid fuels for cars and other vehicles.

More details here: http://www.bbsrc.ac.uk/news/industrial-biotechnology/2016/160112-n-plant-power-plants-vs-petrol/

And there are more in the Plants Vs series here: http://www.bbsrc.ac.uk/research/briefings/plant-science/
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Nancy Parker's profile photoMatthew Brownlow - Hewett's profile photoRomavic Antony's profile photoNick Gleeson's profile photo
3 comments
 
still putting more CO2 into the air by burning plant products.
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Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

• General/Interdisciplinary  - 
 
Seashells and lobster claws are hard to break, but chalk is soft enough to draw on sidewalks. Though all three are made of calcium carbonate crystals, the hard materials include clumps of soft biological matter that make them much stronger. Research published in Nature Communications reveals how soft clumps get into crystals and endow them with remarkable strength. Read more at http://goo.gl/7SZtTg.

* * *

The research shows that such clumps become incorporated via chemical interactions with atoms in the crystals, an unexpected mechanism based on previous understanding. By providing insight into the formation of natural minerals that are a composite of both soft and hard components, the work will help scientists develop new materials for a sustainable energy future, based on this principle.

"This work helps us to sort out how rather weak crystals can form composite materials with remarkable mechanical properties," said materials scientist Jim De Yoreo of the Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. "It also provides us with ideas for trapping carbon dioxide in useful materials to deal with the excess greenhouse gases we're putting in the atmosphere, or for incorporating light-responsive nanoparticles into highly ordered crystalline matrices for solar energy applications."

Calcium carbonate is one of the most important materials on earth, crystallizing into chalk, shells, and rocks. Animals from mollusks to people use calcium carbonate to make biominerals such as pearls, seashells, exoskeletons, or the tiny organs in ears that maintain balance. These biominerals include proteins or other organic matter in the crystalline matrix to convert the weak calcium carbonate to hard, durable materials.

Scientists have been exploring how organisms produce these biominerals in the hopes of determining the basic geochemical principles of how they form, and also how to build synthetic materials with unique properties in any desired shape or size.

The strength of a material depends on how easy it is to disrupt its underlying crystal matrix. If a material is compressed, then it becomes harder to break the matrix apart. Proteins trapped in calcium carbonate crystals create a compressive force — or strain — within the crystal structure.

Unlike the strain that makes muscles sore, this compressive strain is helpful in materials, because it makes it harder to disrupt the underlying crystal structure, thereby adding strength. Scientists understand how forces, stress and strain combine to make strong materials, but they understand less about how to create the materials in the first place.

The leading explanation for how growing crystals incorporate proteins and other particles is by simple mechanics. Particles land on the flat surface of calcium carbonate as it is crystallizing, and units of calcium carbonate attach over and around the particles, trapping them.

"The standard view is that the crystal front moves too fast for the inclusions to move out of the way, like a wave washing over a rock," said De Yoreo.

That idea's drawback is that it lacks the details needed to explain where the strain within the material comes from. The new results from De Yoreo and colleagues do, however.

"We've found a completely different mechanism," he said.

To find out how calcium carbonate incorporates proteins or other strength-building components, the team turned to atomic force microscopy, also known as AFM, at the Molecular Foundry, a DOE Office of Science User Facility at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. In AFM, the microscope tip delicately runs over the surface of a sample like a needle running over the grooves in a vinyl record. This creates a three-dimensional image of a specimen under the scope.

The team used a high concentration of calcium carbonate that naturally forms a crystalline mineral known as calcite. The calcite builds up in layers, creating uneven surfaces during growth, like steps and terraces on a mountainside. Or, imagine a staircase. A terrace is the flat landing at the bottom; the stair steps have vertical edges from which calcite grows out, eventually turning into terraces too.

For their inclusions, the team created spheres out of organic molecules and added them to the mix. These spheres called micelles are molecules that roll up like roly-poly bugs based on the chemistry along their bodies — pointing outwards are the parts of their molecules that play well chemically with both the surrounding water and the calcite, while tucked inside are the parts that don't get along with the watery environment.

The first thing the team noticed under the microscope is that the micelles do not randomly land on the flat terraces. Instead they only stick to the edges of the steps.

"The step edge has chemistry that the terrace doesn't," said De Yoreo. "There are these extra dangling bonds that the micelles can interact with."

The edges hold onto the micelles as the calcium carbonate steps close around them, one after another. The team watched as the growing steps squeezed the micelles. As the step closed around the top of the micelle, first a cavity formed and then it disappeared altogether under the surface of the growing crystal.

To verify that the micelles were in fact buried within the crystals, the team dissolved the crystal and looked again. Like running a movie backwards, the team saw micelles appear as the layers of crystal disappeared.

Finally, the team recreated the process in a mathematical simulation. This showed them that the micelles — or any spherical inclusions — are compressed like springs as the steps close around them. These compressed springs then create strain in the crystal lattice between the micelles, leading to enhanced mechanical strength. This strain likely accounts for the added strength seen in seashells, pearls and similar biominerals.

"The steps capture the micelles for a chemical reason, not a mechanical one, and the resulting compression of the micelles by the steps then leads to forces that explain where the strength comes from," said De Yoreo.

This work was supported by the Department of Energy Office of Science, National Institutes of Health.
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"These compressed springs then create strain in the crystal lattice between the micelles, leading to enhanced mechanical strength."

So are shells strong like prestressed concrete - extra compression is released when subjected to tensile force?
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Gary Ray R
owner

• General/Interdisciplinary  - 
 
The Man Who Discovered The Doppler Effect

I wanted to share this excellent post by +annarita ruberto who writes today about Christian Andreas Doppler who discovered the Doppler effect. 

The Doppler effect (or Doppler shift) is the change in frequency of a wave (or other periodic event) for an observer moving relative to its source. It is named after the Austrian physicist Christian Doppler, who proposed it in 1842 in Prague. It is commonly heard when a vehicle sounding a siren or horn approaches, passes, and recedes from an observer. Compared to the emitted frequency, the received frequency is higher during the approach, identical at the instant of passing by, and lower during the recession.  Wiki

Christian Andreas Doppler is renowned primarily for his revolutionary theory of the Doppler effect, which has deeply influenced many areas of modern science and technology, including medicine. His work has laid the foundations for modern ultrasonography and his ideas are still inspiring discoveries more than a hundred years after his death.

Christian Andreas Doppler: A legendary man inspired by the dazzling light of the stars
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3743612/
 
Today in Mathematics History: Christian Andreas Doppler

Born: 29 November 1803 in Salzburg, Austria
Died: 17 March 1853 in Venice, Italy

Christian Andreas Doppler was an Austrian mathematician and physicist. He is celebrated for his principle — known as the Doppler effect — that the observed frequency of a wave depends on the relative speed of the source and the observer. He used this concept to explain the color of binary stars.

Doppler was raised in Salzburg, Austria, the son of a stonemason. He could not work in his father's business because of his generally weak physical condition. After completing high school, Doppler studied philosophy in Salzburg and mathematics and physics at the k. k. Polytechnisches Institut (now Vienna University of Technology) where he began work as an assistant in 1829. In 1835 he began work at the Prague Polytechnic (now Czech Technical University), where he received an appointment in 1841.

He published widely, but was known as a harsh instructor who was not popular among his students. 

In 1842, Doppler gave a presentation called "Über das farbige Licht der Doppelsterne" ("On the colored light of the double stars and certain other stars of the heavens") at the Royal Bohemian Society of Sciences. The paper theorized that since the pitch of sound from a moving source varies for a stationary observer, the color of the light from a star should alter according to the star's velocity relative to Earth. This principle came to be known as the "Doppler effect." The Doppler effect has been used to support the Big Bang Theory and is often referenced in weather forecasting, radar and navigation.

Doppler left Prague in 1847 and accepted a professorship in mathematics, physics and mechanics at the Academy of Mines and Forests in the Slovakian town of Banska Stiavnica. When revolution broke out in the region in 1848, Doppler was forced to return to Vienna.

In 1850, Doppler was appointed head of the Institute for Experimental Physics at the University of Vienna. One of his students there was Gregor Mendel, known for his tremendous contributions to the field of genetics, who did not impress Doppler at the time. Another member of faculty, Franz Unger, served as a mentor to Mendel.

He was often ill and died while convalescing in Venice, Italy, on March 17, 1853.

References and further reading

http://www.biography.com/people/christian-doppler-9277346

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christian_Doppler

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3743612/

Read the biography in the Mac Tutor website>> 
http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/Biographies/Doppler.html

► Image source>> http://macul.ciencias.uchile.cl/blog/?p=669

#Christian_Andreas_Doppler, #DopplerEffect , #history_of_mathematics , history_of_science
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Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

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Scientists have strived to explore the state of complex matter and its changes over time using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy but have been limited to evaluating samples at lower pressures and temperatures. The ability to analyze samples at the atom- or molecule-level under conditions that mimic deep underground, the deep ocean or in chemical reactors would enable a new range of studies, including gaining new insights to industrial and natural processes. Now, a new tool – developed by PNNL scientists – allows research in these conditions. Learn more at http://goo.gl/ZRPh0h.

* * *

Obtaining structural information about a sample on an atomistic or molecular level under conditions that mimic natural conditions underground, in the deep ocean, and in chemical reactors is now possible, thanks to an innovative sample-holding rotor developed by scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The rotor operates as a reactor vessel like those used for organic syntheses in industry. When partnered with magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), the rotor enables researchers to study samples under the conditions employed in chemical processes. The results of their studies were highlighted in Chemical Communications, the journal of the Royal Society of Chemistry.

"We designed a perfectly sealed all-zirconia rotor that spins samples at high speeds inside a strong magnetic field and performs at extremes of pressure and temperature," said Dr. Jian Zhi Hu, PNNL scientist and team lead.

The PNNL team first developed the rotor to further studies in carbon sequestration. They knew that by spinning a sample at an angle of 54.74° with respect to NMR's main magnetic field (the magic angle), a rotor could support analysis of solids, liquids, gasses, supercritical fluids, and mixtures. But metal and polymer plastic rotors had failed in the past under extreme conditions, so another material was needed.

The scientists manufactured a rotor out of a sturdy ceramic called zirconia which is known for its high mechanical strength. They also ensured it had only four parts-the rotor cylinder, the sealing screw, an O-ring holding the two together, and a spin tip. To ensure the rotor met the rigorous requirements of scientific analyses, they used it in experiments ranging from molecular crystallization to a dehydration reaction under both high temperature and high pressure.

Even more challenging, they used the rotor to study the metabolism of biological tissues under the low temperatures necessary to keep such tissues intact, the first time NMR has been used successfully for such analyses. These low temperatures would normally hinder the operations of other rotors.

Why is this important? One of the most powerful diagnostic and analytical tools in chemistry and materials science, MAS NMR spectroscopy provides high spectral resolution and detailed structural information about a sample on an atomistic or molecular level and allows scientists to follow changes over time regardless of whether the sample is a solid or a liquid or a mixture of solid, liquid, and gas phases. Scientists have strived to explore the state of complex matter and its changes over time using NMR spectroscopy but have been limited to lower pressures and temperatures. Being able to analyze samples in such conditions enables a whole new range of studies, such as characterizing  materials for carbon sequestration, developing solid catalysts and their action to produce biofuels, optimizing food industry processes, and studying how a disease progresses using intact biological tissues.

"Limitations in vessels to probe solids and chemical reactions by NMR spectroscopy under more extreme conditions left  a large territory of scientific problems related to catalytic reactions and material synthesis unexplored," said Dr. Johannes Lercher, director of the Institute for Integrated Catalysis at PNNL. "Designing a perfectly sealed rotor is critical for gaining chemical insights into catalysts and catalysis while chemical reactions occur."

What's Next? Scientists have been striving to match experimental conditions to those of nature so as to accurately investigate molecular processes. The rotor brings that goal within reach. PNNL researchers will use it to make measurements and gain understanding never before possible in fields such as synthesis of materials and biomedical studies.
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Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

• General/Interdisciplinary  - 
 
In the quest for renewable fuels, scientists are taking lessons from a humble bacterium that fills our oceans and covers moist surfaces the world over. While the organism captures light to make food through photosynthesis, scientists have found that it simultaneously uses the energy from that captured light to produce hydrogen. Learn more about this research at http://goo.gl/I5haB3.

* * *

While the nuances of how microbes draw upon sunlight, water, and elements like carbon and nitrogen to survive may seem detached and remote from modern life, such knowledge is central to our ability to meet the energy needs of our planet's growing population.

"The ultimate goal here is to take energy from the sun, and water, and produce useable energy," said microbiologist Alex Beliaev, one of two scientists at the Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory who led the research. "The more we know about the pathways involved in this process, the more likely we will be able to find a facile and economic way to produce renewable energy. The organisms that produce clean energy naturally provide a blueprint of sorts for how we might do this."

The latest finding, published in Scientific Reports, concerns a cyanobacterium known as Cyanothece 51142, a type of bacteria also called blue-green algae that produces hydrogen — a resource that is one focus of the worldwide push toward renewable energy.

PNNL scientists found that the organism taps into an unexpected source of energy to create hydrogen. Researchers have known that 51142 makes hydrogen by drawing upon sugars that it has stored during growth. In this study, PNNL researchers found that the organism also draws on a second source of energy, using sunlight and water directly to make hydrogen.

Cyanobacteria - Central to life and energy production: Organisms like cyanobacteria made life on the planet possible by producing the oxygen for our atmosphere 2.3 billion years ago. They also convert the abundant nitrogen in our atmosphere to a form that is essential for all plant life on the planet.

"If we want to understand life on Earth, and how to improve it, this is a great place to start," said first author Hans Bernstein, a Linus Pauling distinguished postdoctoral fellow at PNNL. Bernstein and Beliaev are co-authors on the paper.

Many of these organisms are equipped with an enzyme called nitrogenase to convert inert atmospheric nitrogen to more usable forms for plants and other organisms. For a long time, scientists have known that nitrogenase produces small quantities of molecular hydrogen as a byproduct. When nitrogen is not available, the organism produces hydrogen. It's this attribute of the enzyme that scientists like Bernstein and Beliaev focus on.

The team set up Cyanothece 51142 in a bioreactor, limited the supply of nitrogen, and kept the lights on 24 hours a day for several weeks. The team used an array of high-tech equipment to yield sophisticated minute-by-minute profiles of the organism as it converted light energy to hydrogen. Scientists conducted many of their analyses using capabilities at EMSL, the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a DOE user facility at PNNL, to "interrogate" the genes and proteins of the organism as they changed while the reactions occurred.

In scientific parlance, the team conducted a "multi-omics experiment," studying the genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics of the organism's activity, as well as its reaction kinetics. The scientists scrutinized 5,303 genes and 1,360 proteins at eight separate times over the course of 48 hours as the bacteria, with limited nitrogen supply, switched on the activity of the nitrogenase protein.

Scientists found that in addition to drawing upon its previously stored energy, the organism captures light and uses that energy to split water to create hydrogen in real time. As one component of the organism is creating energy by collecting light energy, another part is using that energy simultaneously to create hydrogen.

Robust hydrogen production: Scientists know that the organism is a robust producer of hydrogen, creating the resource at a rate higher than other known natural systems.

"This organism can make lots of hydrogen, very fast; it's a viable catalyst for hydrogen production," said Bernstein. "The enzyme that makes the hydrogen needs a huge amount of energy. The real question is, what funds the energy budget for this important enzyme and then, how can we design and control it to create renewable fuels and to advance biotechnology?"

In a paper published in 2012 in mBio, Beliaev and colleagues raised questions about how the microbe drew upon the energy required to produce hydrogen. In the new paper, the molecular signals the team studied show that photosynthesis and the hydrogen production by nitrogenase happen hand in hand in a coordinated manner.

The team includes 11 researchers from PNNL. Beliaev began the project seven years ago as part of hydrogen production research related to biofuels, and Bernstein picked it up when he joined PNNL two years ago.

"Our primary goal is to understand the fundamental processes that occur in nature, so that we can learn to design and control complex biological systems to sustain healthy people on a healthy planet," added Bernstein.

The work was funded by the Department of Energy Office of Science (Biological and Environmental Research) and by PNNL's Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program, which funds the Linus Pauling Distinguished Postdoctoral Fellowship Program.
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SpringerPlus

• General/Interdisciplinary  - 
 
This month SpringerPlus are celebrating #SocialSciences  

We present our EiC, Professor Norbert Seel, offer in insight into the Journal Section, and extend free #OpenAccess publication throughout November to all our Social #Scientist authors!

For more information, please visit the campaign page:
http://bit.ly/1D16pim
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Lacerant Plainer
owner

• General/Interdisciplinary  - 
 
 
Space-Based Solar energy : There have been some fits and starts, and technology is still evolving. But now, JAXA, NASA and other agencies are much more serious about it. And JAXA has demonstrated transmission.

I remember having a discussion with +Jonah Miller on an earlier post - https://plus.google.com/u/0/+LacerantPlainerWrites/posts/Gg5Tw9tWHWJ which outlined the issues.

What has changed? : Firstly the name. SBS has been renamed 'Space-based stellar' energy. But more relevant, there have been advances in transmission, materials, funding and research which have been gathering momentum. And that maverick +Elon Musk has put his hat in the ring....

JAXA Transmission tests : The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, or Jaxa, said it succeeded in transmitting electric power wirelessly to a pinpoint target using microwaves, which is an essential technology needed for the realization of space-based solar power. In space-based solar power generation, sunlight is gathered in geostationary orbit and transmitted to a receiver on Earth. According to the U.S. Department of Energy, more solar energy reaches the Earth every hour than humans use in a year. Unlike solar panels set on Earth, satellite-based solar panels can capture the energy around the clock and aren’t affected by weather conditions.

Is it safe? : While the energy is transmitted in the same microwaves used in microwave ovens, it doesn’t fry a bird or an airplane traveling on its path because of its low-energy density, according to the Jaxa spokesman. Of course, the SSPS is still far from perfect, but JAXA's latest success clears one of the biggest and most fundamental hurdles facing the program: delivering power from space without having to run an extension cord out to Low Earth Orbit.

Other initiatives Chinese scientists are also considering how they can build and put into orbit a massive space station that would supply a constant stream of solar energy to Earth. A sponsored research agreement with Northrop Grumman Corporation will provide Caltech up to $17.5 million over three years for the development of the Space Solar Power Initiative (SSPI). The SSPI will develop the scientific and technological innovations necessary to enable a space-based solar power system—consisting of ultralight, high-efficiency photovoltaics, a phased-array system to produce and distribute power dynamically, and ultralight deployable space structures—that ultimately will be capable of generating electric power at a cost comparable to that from fossil-fuel power plants.

References and Links

Paper: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=1145675&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D1145675

http://www.wsj.com/articles/japan-advances-in-space-based-solar-power-1426100482

http://www.caltech.edu/news/space-based-solar-power-project-funded-46644

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_Solar_Power_Exploratory_Research_and_Technology_program

http://discovermagazine.com/2015/july-aug/19-stellar-energy

http://www.computerworld.com/article/2903588/china-considering-space-based-solar-power-station.html

http://www.engadget.com/2015/03/12/scientists-make-strides-in-beaming-solar-power-from-space/

Pic courtesy: Discover magazine.
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+Ante Renic energy is never free... there are tradeoffs on both sides, but fusion holds the promise to be a game changer in terms of pricing and sustainability. It's just very hard to pin down, and scientists are realizing that part of it is the nature of the very small. Confinement, power ratios, making it do things is hard, there are variables that crop up in each little experiment, which we did not expect and then we cannot get output > input. Whatever we do. We already can fuse particles. So we have fusion. But we do not have net gain.
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Arran Frood

• General/Interdisciplinary  - 
 
What can drones bring to agricultural research? See in this 3min video how scientists at Rothamsted Research, UK, are using drones to measure crop growth and stress.

In the future, they could sow seeds, or carry out precision sprays of water, pesticides or fertiliser pellets. Or they could identify areas of crop for these interventions, potentially saving time, energy and resources.

The full feature can be found on the BBSRC feature page, who funded the research: http://www.bbsrc.ac.uk/news/research-technologies/2015/150929-f-octocopter-experimental-drone-agricultural-research/

Here's an academic reference from a similar group:
High-Throughput 3-D Monitoring of Agricultural-Tree Plantations with Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Technology
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0130479

And here's an article from Forbes on why 2015 is take off year for the agricultural drone: http://fortune.com/2015/05/18/drone-agriculture/
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Agreed Ward, there are so many applications and the technology is moving fast. It's almost as if the regulators are behind the technological development in this field... what do we want our drones to do?
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Vitaliy Kaurov

• General/Interdisciplinary  - 
 
Mining brain by programming Computing plays increasingly greater role in science. But besides simulation, the axiom of scientific computing, there is also growing body of data. Programming allows to process the data in numerous creative ways. In this post I showed how to quickly see hierarchical anatomical structure of brain. I used the Wolfram programming language, which has astronomical amounts of biult-in curated scientific data, so no more encyclopedias, web searches, and custom databases - all is at your fingertips. 

SOURCE:
http://community.wolfram.com/groups/-/m/t/568284 
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