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Community Policy (MODS only!)  - 
 
Why Did My Post Get Removed? or How To Write A Good Science Post

This is a huge and fascinating community and the strong guidelines are what we think make it that way.  We heavily moderate this community and you might see your post disappear.  Why?  We want the best science posts possible. 

The number one reason a post will be removed is, it might be what can be called Link Litter or a One Liner.  These are posts that say just one sentence or even just one word describing a link.  "Interesting"  or   "I just found this and wanted to post it"  are not a good lead-in to a post and will usually get the post removed. This is also not a place for memes, there are many other communities devoted to just memes and jokes.  Please no self promotion.

Composition  - Please,  "No links without explanation. Accompany any link with an explanation of why you think it's share worthy. Write a paragraph or two (not just a sentence) that summarizes the key scientific content and why you were intrigued."

Sources - Please check your sources; if you can, find the original research paper and post a link so people who are interested can see what it was that you found so stimulating.  You have the largest library in the world, right at your fingertips.

Videos - Remember that many people read from a mobile device and might not have the bandwidth to view that video you really like.  So give a good description that will entice those people to come back and have a look later.  Also please give full credit to all videos, someone worked hard to make that science video, and they deserve the acknowledgement. 

Asking Questions see https://plus.google.com/117751903650439005786/posts/88zsXNWUWNu

Posting here is not hard, it just takes a little work on your part to make your post one that people will read and comment on.  And, check those comments; please, don't post and run.  

Thanks for reading this far.  We, the moderators and owners, know that it is you that make this community what it is.

Thanks for being a part of this community.

This community, it's moderators, owners and other members make no representation towards the ability to maintain, preserve or protect the copyright as we are users here ourselves. Please contact +Google   for terms of use and permissions thereof.

Here is another of our hard working owners' explanation why we have these guidelines.
https://plus.google.com/103586346709495625226/posts/FSgJcm6pDTZ
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Locking comments on this post. Please seperately PM the moderators for any discussion.

Eric Chan

• Health ♥  - 
 
Some interesting science including how glycemic index and resistance training affect accumulation of visceral fat.
 
Visceral fat, also known as belly fat, is not only unattractive but it also increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Read more about the science behind losing belly fat below.

Like us for more updates on:
#Science #Health #Fitness
A quick internet search will yield countless claims of ways to remove the unwanted fat from around your mid-section. From over-hyped diet pills promising to reduce levels of cortisol to cutting-edge workouts. The truth is that there is no scientifically proven diet pill or exercise that will specifically target your stomachs fat vs the fat providing a nice bone blanket for other parts of your body. All that being said, you can get rid of that bel...
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SciFi Author: Lacerant Plainer
moderator

• Astronomy/Astrophysics ☄  - 
 
 
Cube lightsail: Lightsail cubesat to be launched by Falcon Heavy : In a recent blogpost, +The Planetary Society announced that they would be launching a light sail (or solar sail) in Cubesat form via the +SpaceX Falcon Heavy. Why is this news? This would be the first time a Cubesat would demonstrate controlled solar sailing capability.

In a live webcast, The Planetary Society CEO Bill Nye announced that its long-awaited LightSail solar sail mission will launch to Earth orbit on a SpaceX Falcon Heavy, currently scheduled for an April 2016 liftoff. LightSail-1 and its parent satellite, Prox-1, will be on the same launch vehicle as the U.S. Air Force’s Space Test Program 2 (STP-2) mission. If successful, it will be the first CubeSat to demonstrate controlled solar sailing.

LightSail will go to an orbit about 720 km above Earth, stored inside the Prox-1, which was developed by the Georgia Institute of Technology to demonstrate new technologies enabling two spacecraft to work in close proximity. After ejecting LightSail, the largely student-built Prox-1 will track and image LightSail, including the sail deployment.

There might be a test flight of a prototype LightSail-A on a smaller rocket, perhaps in 2015. This flight will only reach low earth orbit, where the atmosphere is too thick for a solar sail to function, but it will allow the LightSail team to check the operation of vital systems in the extreme environment of space.

Article Link: http://www.universetoday.com/113116/the-planetary-societys-solar-sail-will-hitch-a-ride-to-space-on-a-falcon-heavy/

Lightsail video and source for Gifs: LightSail-1 Mission Trailer

Earlier post on solar sails (links) and the Sunjammer project: https://plus.google.com/u/0/b/103586346709495625226/+LacerantPlainerWrites/posts/Tkt4voNA8UQ

To sail beyond the sunset: https://plus.google.com/110884604033336753419/posts/HS7ViAFVccD

Lightsail link: http://spacecraftkits.com/lightsail/ and pic courtesy.

#lightsail #cubesat #solarsail  
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lol +Kenny Chaffin indeed. Some backstory.... Sunjammer was a story written by Arthur C Clarke in the 1960s which talked about the pressure of radiation from the Sun being used to move spacecraft. Jaxa was the first space agency (Japanese) to create the IKAROS project, a solar sail which used only the pressure of photons for propulsion.

h/t to +Jyoti Dahiya for the Sunjammer reference.
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Morgan Andrews

• Robotics  - 
 
The amount of robots able to play video games is on the rise. In addition to Clash of Clans and Threes, some robots are now able to play Angry Birds. However, there's another use for robots playing video games than just obtaining high scores. To help children with regaining muscle movement and rehabilitation, researchers at Georgia Tech have taught the DARwIn-OP humanoid robot how to play Angry Birds.
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Reza Ghalavand's profile photoGary Ray R's profile photoAlejandro Daniel Jose Gomez Florez's profile photo
 
This is interesting research from Georgia Tech.  The children will actually interact more with a robot that needs help, than a human.  Although it seems the adults just watched and the robot needed help. 

In a new study, Howard and Park asked grade-school children to play Angry Birds with an adult watching nearby. Afterwards, the kids were asked to teach a robot how to play the game. The children spent an average of nine minutes with the game as the adult watched. They played nearly three times as long (26.5 minutes) with the robot. They also interacted considerably more with the robot than the person. Only 7 percent of their session with the adult included eye contact, gestures and talking. It was nearly 40 percent with the robot.
http://www.news.gatech.edu/2014/07/10/your-next-opponent-angry-birds-could-be-robot
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John Chumack

• Astronomy/Astrophysics ☄  - 
 
The Milky Way from Scutum to Serpens to Sagittarius…Deep Sky Objects Galore!!!
The Milky Way in Sagittarius, near our Galactic Center one of the richest areas of the sky loaded with deep sky objects…Many Messier & NGC catalog objects are visible here…
Emission Nebulae, Globular Star Clusters, Open Star Clusters, Star Clouds, & Dark Nebulae abound, simply put a “Fantastic” place to explore with a telescope or Binoculars!! Every Summer it is easily visible, and for us 40 degree + latitude Observers it is really low in the south …find a dark location away from city lights with a low Southern Horizon & look when there is no moon present in the sky! I posted them a little higher res than normal so you can zoom in a little, Enjoy!

Details:
The Sagittarius Region near Galactic Center on 06-29-2014 at Dexter, Iowa.
M24 The Sagittarius Star Cloud,
M8 The Lagoon Nebula,
M16 The Eagle Nebula,
M17 The Omega/Swan Nebula,
M18 Open Cluster,
M20 The Trifid Nebula,
M21 Open Cluster,
M25 Open Cluster,
M23 Open Cluster,
M22 Globular Star Cluster,
M26 Open Cluster,
and dozens of Barnard's Dark Nebulae.
Canon 40D DSLR & 50mm Lens, F4, ISO 1600,
A single 4 minute exposure

Best Regards,
John Chumack
www.galacticimages.com
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The Daily Fusion

• Physics  - 
 
An international collaboration of scientists led by researchers with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has taken detailed “snapshots” of the four photon-step cycle for water oxidation in photosystem II, a large protein complex in green plants.

The researchers were working at SLAC’s Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), the world’s most powerful x-ray laser.

Photosystem II is the only known biological system able to harness sunlight for the oxidation of water into molecular oxygen.

Read more: http://bit.ly/1mkpjZX

Original research: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms5371
Scientists take detailed snapshots of the 4 photon-step cycle for water oxidation in photosystem II, a large protein complex in green plants
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Beauty is in the details, as someone said. This type of research might uncover the cure for some diseases. It  could turn out that a single stage "S3 error" or whatever is the trigger to build cancer cells. Once discovered, it might be easy to alter a stages behavior with drugs or other means.
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Engineering

• Engineering  - 
 
Imagine having an ultra high-resolution display built directly into a pair of contact lenses.
This could be the future of digital displays thanks to scientists at Oxford University, who have adapted a material currently used to store data on DVDs and transformed it into a radical new display technology.

Read more:
http://www.abc.net.au/science/articles/2014/07/10/4042533.htm
A new display technology promises to provide thinner, lighter screens, with higher resolution and lower power consumption than current options such as LCD and organic LED.
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The Daily Fusion

• Psychology/Sociology  - 
 
Researchers at Monash University and the University of St Gallen have used satellite data on night-time light intensity and information about the birthplaces of political leaders in 126 countries to pinpoint regional favoritism.

Using the satellite data from from 38,427 subnational regions from 1992-2009, the scientists established a strong relationship between light intensity and regional GDP.

Read more: http://bit.ly/U5vztm

Original research: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/qje/qju004
Researchers use satellite data on nighttime light intensity and data on the birthplaces of political leaders to pinpoint regional favoritism.
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Jerzy Kaltenberg's profile photoNick James's profile photo
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Seems rubbish to me. By this standard crawford & johnson city tx. Should be lit up like menlo park.
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Scott Lewis

• Astronomy/Astrophysics ☄  - 
 
How are amateur astronomers aiding research with Hubble?

Join us in 90 minutes as +Tony Darnell +Carol Christian and I host the newest #HubbleHangout

Today's topic is on how citizen science is helping +Hubble Space Telescope astronomers dig into the science of white dwarfs and type Ia supernovas. 

#Space #Astronomy #Hubble #ScienceEveryday #HangoutsOnAir #STEM 
 
Amateur astronomers have played a big role in astronomical research and the Hubble Space Telescope is not alone in enjoying the fruits of their labors.

When astronomers asked the question, Can white dwarfs in binary systems grow in mass? Amateurs were on hand to help guide Hubble to the best observations.

Understanding whether white dwarfs can gain mass is important, especially since they are the sources of a very important cosmic yardstick: Type 1a supernovae.  These supernovae were directly responsible for showing us that the universe is expanding and accelerating - which meant that it also gave rise to the idea of dark energy.

But making these observations of white dwarfs in order to see if they were gaining mass was tricky and older, rejected theories that cataclysmic variables might be the progenitors of Type 1a supernovae were being revisited.

Please join +Tony Darnell, +Carol Christian and +Scott Lewis as they discuss this very interesting Pro/Amateur collaboration using the Hubble Space Telescope to better understand Type 1a supernovae, white dwarf stars and cataclysmic variables.

Please bring your questions and comments and we'll address them during the hangout as well!
This Hangout On Air is hosted by Hubble Space Telescope. The live video broadcast will begin soon.
Q&A
Preview
Live

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New evidence that sleep facilitates learning and memory

Sleep has a crucial role in learning and memory formation. Scientists from New York University and Peking University examined how sleep affects the remodeling of postsynaptic dendritic spines induced by motor learning in the mouse primary motor cortex. Researchers used mice with headplates implanted in their skulls.  In such way a clear window for imaging was created. Scientists labeled dendrites with fluorescent protein and imaged them in awake mice before and in the hours after training with transcranial two-photon microscopy. Research group revealed
reduction in spine formation after the sleep deprivation, which could not be rescued by either an additional training session or subsequent sleep. Scientists proved that sleep contributes significantly to the formation of persistent new dendritic spines, as well as motor skill retention

http://www.sciencemag.org/content/344/6188/1173.short
http://www.theguardian.com/science/neurophilosophy/2014/jun/09/sleep-dendritic-spines-memory
http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn25682-sleep-may-help-memories-form-by-promoting-new-synapses.html#.U5l7tPmSwqw
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/06/140605141849.htm
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Well spotted
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About this community

Welcome to the Science Community on G+ featuring science research, news, and more. New Members: Please read the rules and the Community Policy category before posting. This is not a meme depository. This applies to posts and comments. *One liners will be deleted!* : Please cite any work you reference or state as facts. Put effort into your posts. We all prefer intelligent, descriptive posts that tell us what to expect in any links and/or videos. ***Basic Guidelines:*** 1. Post about science 2. No links / videos without explanation 3. No spam, flooding or reposts (English only please). 4. Be civil 5. No plagiarism 6. Please do not self-promote or advertise services 7. Please do not argue with the moderators. Take the time to make a reasoned discussion (if required) and logic to make your case. Do not remove moderator comments. 8. Please check comments on your own post. 9. Not more than one post in 12 hours. (Anti-flooding guideline) *Questions* We welcome thoughtful questions. We do ask that you have done some work before you ask. If you have a question please read the link below before you ask. The moderators reserve the right to ban, remove or carry out any action on posts, which in their view is not as per the community focus, maybe be repetitive or uninteresting and /or does not further the case for science or the community.

Ciências E Tecnologia

• Geology/Earth Science  - 
 
A carbon dating 14 discovered by the American Chemical Willard Frank Libby (1908-1980), who received the Nobel chemistry prize de1960, the development of this technique. Basically, he realized that the amount of carbon-14 from the dead organic tissues decreases steadily over time. In 1947, working at the Institute for Nuclear Studies, it with the help of some students developed the technique of radiocarbon, using a very sensitive Geiger counter.

Dated encompasses a set of techniques that allow an assessment of the age of fossil, traces, parts or objects belonging to the past. Dating techniques can be classified into two groups: relative and absolute. The techniques developed by geologists for the century 19 based simply on the comparison of materials or objects to one another, which leads to a chronological order within a set only studied. Absolute dating methods to determine with great accuracy the actual age, the time of existence of archaeological or just old, if they are of organic origin or are chronologically related organic specimens.

Read more at em: http://cienciasetecnologia.com/determination-C14/?lang=en
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Jenny Winder

• Astronomy/Astrophysics ☄  - 
 
Astronomers have calculated the ages of 22 Sun-like stars using a new technique, called gyrochronology, that measures how old a star is by checking its spin.
#Kepler #Exoplanets #Stars #CfA #Universe

http://www.sen.com/news/a-new-spin-on-aging-sun-like-stars
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Peptineo

• General/Interdisciplinary  - 
 
 
Today, the CDC provided update on incident involving unintended anthrax exposure earlier in the year.  In the update, several key changes were outlined. First, a moratorium on the movement of infectious biological materials from BSL3 or BSL-4 facilities was instituted pending internal review.  Second,  a high-level group was established to immediately address laboratory safety.  This group will approve movement of biological materials between labs and serve as an intermediate step in the establishment of key leadership to manage these type of activities going forward.  For more information see: http://ow.ly/z3yO2 

Additionally, a detailed report was generated on the anthrax incident and is now available for review:  http://www.cdc.gov/od/science/integrity/docs/Final_Anthrax_Report.pdf

#CDC
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There is a lot of interesting yet unsettling information in the above links.
I like that the CDC is being transparent about this incident.  The problem was they thought some samples were sterile when they still had viable anthrax on them.  No one was infected. 

What is also troubling is this revelation of another incident after the anthrax incident.  From the Press Release:
While finalizing this report, CDC leadership was made aware that earlier this year a culture of non-pathogenic avian influenza was unintentionally cross-contaminated at the CDC influenza laboratory with the highly pathogenic H5N1 strain of influenza and shipped to a BSL-3 select-agent laboratory operated by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). There were no exposures as a result of that incident.  The CDC influenza laboratory is now closed and will not reopen until adequate procedures are put in place. Further investigation, review, and action is underway.
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KQED SCIENCE

• Astronomy/Astrophysics ☄  - 
 
NASA's Cassini Spacecraft: A Decade of Discovery at Saturn

"A decade ago, NASA's Cassini spacecraft, the largest and most complex robotic probe yet built, arrived in the Saturn system to begin a marathon exploration of the gas giant, its famous and awe-inspiring rings and what has turned out to be a collection of some of the most eye-opening moons in the solar system."

Learn more from astronomer Ben Burress at Chabot Space & Science Center. 

NASA website for the Cassini mission: http://goo.gl/nxDDxn
A decade ago, NASA's Cassini spacecraft, the largest and most complex robotic probe yet built, arrived in the Saturn system to begin a marathon exploration of the gas giant, its famous and awe-inspiring rings and what has turned out to be a collection of some of the most eye-opening moons in the solar system.
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O.R. TEX GRAVES

• General/Interdisciplinary  - 
 
#ortexgraves  

A question for the climate change people.

Why isn't there more discussion from your groups about the ability of Fusion Energy to remove green house gases?

While fusion energy isn't perfect, it is nearly 98% clean. Compared to all fossil fuel generating plants creating tons of co2, the nuclear plants creating tons of spent nuclear fuel rods, Fusion energy has none of that.

Don't just say fossil fuels and nuclear is bad for the environment. Offer a solution! Fusion energy can change all that, for the good!
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Its more enthusiasm than science. Yes, the funding amounts are a small price to pay for energy from fusion. But even the ITER bill is peanuts. As some Aussie researcher said recently it really is peanuts, and they are willing to put in more than double of their share. ITER is the best bet. Some of the brightest minds of our time are involved in the project.

Except for the US, all the other partners are continuing to pump in money. No one is disputing it would be awesome. But you need to look at the science and the timelines. Its not a proven tech. Where would you invest? EAST (China) is even further off. The plasma lasts only 30 seconds and they have not achieved bootstrapping.

General Fusion is grappling with issues with containment and of course net gain. NIF is talking back their timelines.. its harder than expected. The issue is everytime there looks like a breakthrough is imminent, some other variable pops up and instability increases. I would say keep pumping in money, but also develop other alternatives.
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On average, an atom has no net charge. But at any moment in time, an uneven distribution of its electrons can induce it to become a dipole, with one end positive and the other negative (called a polarized state). Dipoles can then interact with other atoms, further inducing them to also become polarized. These short-range attractions are called van der Waals forces. 

When many atoms and molecules interact this way, they create what's called the Casimir effect. In essence, this effect explains why two parallel objects are attracted to each other even in a vacuum. 
 
This animation interprets what happens to the electromagnetic field because of quantum effects and virtual photons, to show what results when two plates are brought close together in such an environment.
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KQED SCIENCE

• Chemistry  - 
 
Non-Toxic Flame Retardants Made From Milk

"New research has shown that milk proteins called caseins, a byproduct of cheese production that normally gets dumped down the sewer, could help make fabrics more flame-retardant. The idea, which is still in its early phases, could lead to a replacement for current flame retardants. 

Researchers from Italy’s Polytechnic University of Turin began their search for a more eco-friendly alternative in the dairy aisle. They knew caseins, like conventional flame retardants, are high in phosphorus. So they tried coating three types of materials—cotton, polyester, and a 65/35 polyester-cotton blend—with cheap, plentiful caseins from Italy’s productive cheese industry. (1) During the tests, caseins formed a char layer of incombustible carbon on the fabric. The char stopped the flames after they had consumed just 14 percent of the cotton and 23 percent of the polyester. The cotton-polyester blend still burned completely but did so at a rate 60 percent slower than that of untreated fabric. That’s a result, the researchers say, comparable to a textile-fireproofing treatment medium called ammonium polyphosphate (APP). Moreover, conventional flame retardants release dangerous gases such as formaldehyde during a fire. No toxic fumes were produced during the casein tests."

Link to the journal abstract: http://goo.gl/VGU6nC
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Gary Ray R
owner

• Ecology/Nature ✿  - 
 
Whales Help Buffer Marine Ecosystems In Unique Ways

This marine biology research made me think of the 1986 science fiction movie Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home where whales are central to the plot to save earth.   Now, whales are not going to save earth, but they may affect marine ecosystems in a much more significant way than was thought.  And in a rather, let's say unique way, whale poop, or to be scientific, whale feces.

University of Vermont conservation biologist Joe Roman and a team of researchers have been working on research that show the role of whales and specifically the "great whales", the baleen and sperm whales, on marine ecology.  
“For a long time, whales have been considered too rare to make much of a difference in the oceans,” notes University of Vermont conservation biologist Joe Roman. That was a mistake.  ⓐ

In a new paper, Roman and a team of biologists have tallied several decades of research on whales from around the world; it shows that whales, in fact, make a huge difference — they have a powerful and positive influence on the function of oceans, global carbon storage, and the health of commercial fisheries. “The decline in great whale numbers, estimated to be at least 66% and perhaps as high as 90%, has likely altered the structure and function of the oceans,” Roman and his colleagues write in the July 3, 2014, online edition of Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, “ but recovery is possible and in many cases is already underway.”  ⓐ

With huge metabolic demands — and large populations before humans started hunting them — great whales are the ocean’s ecosystem engineers: they eat many fish and invertebrates, are themselves prey to other predators like killer whales, and distribute nutrients through the water. Even their carcasses, dropping to the seafloor, provide habitat for many species that only exist on these "whale falls." Commercial whaling dramatically reduced the biomass and abundance of great whales.  ⓐ

“Among their many ecological roles, whales recycle nutrients and enhance primary productivity in areas where they feed." They do this by feeding at depth and releasing fecal plumes near the surface, which supports plankton growth, a remarkable process described as a “whale pump.” Whales also move nutrients thousands of miles from productive feeding areas at high latitudes to calving areas at lower latitudes.  ⓐ

Until recently, ocean scientists have lacked the ability to study and observe directly the functional roles of whales in marine ecosystems. Now with radio tagging and other technologies they can better understand these roles. "The focus of much marine ecological research has been on smaller organisms, such as algae and planktonic animals. These small organisms are essential to life in the sea, but they are not the whole story," Roman said.  ⓑ
New observations of whales will provide a more accurate understanding of historical population dynamics and "are likely to provide evidence of undervalued whale ecosystem services," note the ten scientists who co-authored this new paper, "this area of research will improve estimates of the benefits -- some of which, no doubt, remain to be discovered -- of an ocean repopulated by the great whales."  ⓑ

[This] review of research on whales shows that they have more a powerful influence on the function of oceans, global carbon storage, and the health of commercial fisheries than has been commonly assumed. The continued recovery of great whales from centuries of overhunting may help to buffer marine ecosystems from destabilizing stresses, including climate change . . .  ⓑ

ⓐ   The University of Vermont, University Communications
Whales as Ecosystem Engineers
http://www.uvm.edu/~uvmpr/?Page=news&storyID=18797&category=ucommfeature

ⓑ  http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/07/140703102957.htm

Original research behind pay wall.
Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment
Whales as marine ecosystem engineers
http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/130220

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sperm_whale

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baleen_whale

Image:
After feeding at depth, sperm whales off the coast of Sri Lanka return to the surface — and poop. This “whale pump” provides many nutrients, in the form of feces, to support plankton growth. It’s one of many examples of how whales maintain the health of oceans described in a new scientific paper by UVM’s Joe Roman and nine other whale biologists from around the globe. (Photo: Tony Wu)
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Adam Cantrell's profile photoSuparna Roy's profile photoMichael A Koontz's profile photoUni Corn's profile photo
9 comments
 
I do wonder about the dwell time for the whale poo plume +Joel Reid  (That is a bit of a strange statement)
Currents, does it float or is it neutral buoyancy, how fast can the animals that depend on it for food get to it, or reproduce enough to use it are all parts of the equation.   
I do wish the study was not behind a paywall.

I'm sure that people much more qualified than I have studied this. 
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O.R. TEX GRAVES

• Physics  - 
 

 My Passion in life is FUSION ENERGY. It has the ability to transform society (In a good way) and the world. Yet hardly anything ever gets mentioned about it. 

Ever since the U.S. created the first thermo nuclear bomb (FUSION or Hydrogen Bomb), we knew that if we could come up with a way to sustain the reaction we would have an inexhaustible source of clean, abundant, cheap energy.

Let’s take a moment for a brief history lesson. In the late 1890’s and early 1900’s, mankind started down the path of trying to understand the atom. The ‘Madam Curies’ of the world did all the basic research and theorizing. They made simple cyclotrons and discovered the awesome power contained in the atom.  Left to their own devices, the scientists would have eventually discovered how to make a bomb.

However, World War II came a long and things changed dramatically.
There were a handful of countries that had small programs, US, Germany, U.S.S.R., and even Japan had an interest. Most notably though, if Germany had decided earlier to focus on atomic energy we would have all been speaking German today. 

The U.S. did decide to focus on atomic power. With our own intellectuals and the brain drain from Germany, we did engineer a ‘bomb’. 

The U.S. did it by putting an army of scientists and engineers in a secluded place (mostly Los Alamos, N.M.) and did not let them out until they got it right. (Fission bomb--Hiroshima and Nagasaki) 

The next step was the fusion or thermo-nuclear or hydrogen bomb. This took place in the second half of the 1940’s. We can now even build neutron bombs that only kill people and save the buildings.
Again, ever since the mid to late 1940’s the U.S. has been doing theoretical science and engineering studies trying to figure out how to build a functional Fusion energy device that can sustain the fusion process. 

Today we are at the same place that Madam Curie was in the late 30’s. Most of the basic engineering has been accomplished.

There are several scientific projects out there that are working on fusion. These projects are at the top of the list:

1) Lawrence Livermore National Labs/National Ignition Facility: Located in Livermore California, near Sacramento. The NIF is located within LLNL.

Go to Lawrence Livermore National Labs here: www.llnl.gov 
Go directly to the National Ignition Facility here: https://lasers.llnl.gov 

2) J.E.T. (Joint European Torus) Located in Culham, Oxfordshire, England.

Here is the latest, most comprehensive article about this project and fusion in general. http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-27138087 

3) Igniter: Russian-Italian project located near Moscow. Here is an early article on this project:

http://www.technologyreview.com/news/419057/nuclear-reactor-aims-for-self-sustaining-fusion/

There is a very interesting comment in the last paragraph of this article:  “…As a result, Igniter can only sustain ignition for bursts of four seconds…” This means that back in 2010 it was working. It was just getting too hot, a cooling problem.

4) I.T.E.R.: International Thermal Energy Research. Located in Cadarache, France. ITER is probably ‘The buzz word’ of fusion energy in the world today. Not necessarily the best project and not without debate.

You can visit ITER here: http://www.iter.org/ 

There are others to be sure. As you can see, there is a lot going on in the world of fusion energy. Why haven’t you ever heard about it? We should all start asking that and similar questions, and demanding straight answers.

The U.S. is such great country. We are capable of doing so much. However, we are distracted and bogged down by so many things. One of those things is big oil, and its related corruption. 

Only in America could we put an army of engineers together to build the first nuclear bomb. Only in America could we put an army of engineers together to send a man to the Moon and return him safely.

Isn’t it time that we put an army of engineers together to break down that last barriers to fusion energy, and build the first Fusion electric generation plants of the world? America could do it. The Basic engineering has been done. 

Imagine the following:
1) Cheap electrical energy, nationwide means robust industrial growth. 
2) Robust industrial growth means more jobs.
3) National energy independence. No more oil imports.
4) Lower oil demand means reduced or in some case eliminated war/terrorist activities world wide.
5) No drilling in A.N.W.R.
6) No more drilling in the Gulf of Mexico.
7) No more fossil fuel or fission type electric generation plants, and associated green house gases, and storage problems.
8) No more brownouts and outages.
9) High tech jobs.
10) Spin off jobs and technology.
11) The list goes on.

Fusion energy is a quintessentially good thing for America. It is good for everyone, everything, and all groups. There is no down side. You can’t even use it for evil. The H-bomb, from which it was derived, has already been developed.

I can imagine that, as I am telling you this, there is an army of choirs singing ‘nay’, ‘no’ ‘never!’

That is not surprising. Do a Google search on the following: “Groups against…..” Insert whatever environmental nasty you want, you will find a group against it.

Note: The Senate Appropriations committee just voted to have the US with draw from the ITER project. Why?

What is surprising is that all the environmentalists, environmental groups, and good thinking people in general, are not picking up on fusion energy as a solution to many of our environmental woes.
Every environmentalist, environmental group, every citizen should be taking the names of every politician saying ‘no’. Hold the politicians accountable for saying ‘no’, and expose their hidden agenda for saying ‘no’. Don’t let it go.
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Sadly, fusion has always been a technology of the future...in 20 years time.  The cruel say 'always has been, always will'.

I suspect the USA that did the Manhattan Project and the moon landings is not the USA of today.  The public's focus is on the trivia of mobile device technology (made offshore somewhere) and TV shows.  The spark has gone.

Also, the modern political climate makes it almost impossible to achieve anything, with one party in particular taking the view that anything science is anti-Republican and bad for them.  They will, on principle, fight tooth and nail against absolutely anything that the other guy proposes and doubly hard against anything that uses tax dollars.

They have realised that this sort of technology will hurt a lot of politicians' own interests - big oil, big coal, big gas.  They put $$$ into the politicians' hands.  Free, clean, non-polluting fusion power would upset an awful lot of those people and their corporate interests.  The benefit for the population and the world come way down any list of important considerations.

And on that topic, politicians bend over sideways and backwards to avoid any upset to industry making money. The list is long and shameful, full of lies and deceit - persistent pesticides, leaded petrol, CFC's (Reagan said to give people sun-hats to avoid skin cancer!), and, of course, climate change.

No wonder politicians voted to de-fund ITER.  I just hope that the countries still supporting hit gold with it.  This stuff is too important to walk away from.
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Ciro Villa

• Astronomy/Astrophysics ☄  - 
 
 
In an extraordinary discovery a team of scientists finds the most distant stars ever associated with our Milky Way!  They might be "nomad stars" leftover from Dwarf Galaxies long gone billions of years ago

They are about five times more distant than the Large Magellanic Cloud. In fact, they lie about one third of the distance to the Andromeda Galaxy

These  "wandering stars" are ULAS J0744+25, nearly 775,000 light years away and ULAS J0015+01 at the mind boggling distance of nearly 900,000 light years but they are considered part of the Milky Way outer halo.

"The distant outskirts of the Milky Way harbor valuable clues for understanding the formation and evolution of our Galaxy. Yet, due to overwhelming distances and an extremely sparse population of stars, many objects have not been identified beyond 400,000 light years, with only seven stars known to date beyond this limit.

Recently a team of astronomers led by John Bochanski, a visiting assistant professor at Haverford College, began targeting stars in the Milky Way's outer halo, which is a sparse shroud of stars that surrounds the disk of our Galaxy and stretches to at least 500,000 light years away. The team has now discovered two stars in this halo that are the most distant ever discovered in our Galaxy.

On July 3, Bochanski and his team, which includes Haverford College Associate Professor of Astronomy Beth Willman, published a letter in Astrophysical Journal Letters detailing the discovery of two cool red giants, ULAS J0744+25 and ULAS J0015+01. These stars are extremely far away, at distances of 775,000 and 900,000 light years, respectively. The giant stars were selected from observations contained in the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey and Sloan Digital Sky Survey."

Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2014-07-team-stars-distant-milky.html#jCp

The study: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApJ...790L...5B

Image: "This simulated image demonstrates how small the Milky Way would look from the location of ULAS J0744+25, nearly 775,000 light years away.  This star, along with ULAS J0015+01, are the most distant stars ever associated with our Galaxy, and are about five times further away than the Large Magellanic Cloud, one of the Milky Way's closest galactic neighbors.  Credits: Visualization Software:  Uniview by SCISS Data: SOHO (ESA & NASA), John Bochanski (Haverford College) and Jackie Faherty (American Museum of Natural History and Carnegie Institute's Department of Terrestrial Magnetism)"
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