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DRAWINGS
I found a link to some interesting ways of drawing and thinking about projects:
http://design.epfl.ch/organicites/2010b/

Think about what you are drawing, line weights, texture etc. Abstraction of information can distill information in evocative ways.

Good Luck, I'm looking forward to seeing your submissions!
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Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park

The Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park located in London, United Kingdom, is a sporting complex built for the 2012 Summer Olympics. This site covers parts of Stratford, Bow, Leyton, and Hackney Wick in east London. The Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park has opened to the public for the first time since the London 2012 Games.

I would consider this site as a park landscape type. The landscaping of the Olympic Park’s green space has also encouraged a wealth of diverse nature to return to the area. Aside from meadows filled with bee-attracting wildflowers, many of the Park’s waterways are now surrounded by specially designed wetlands, which provide a habitat to hundreds of birds, waterfowl and amphibians. The Park also offers a Biodiversity and Landscape Exploring Walk, with framed panels and plaques along the route to help you learn about the wildlife.
The Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park is being transformed into a huge new urban park where Londoners will live, work and visit.

References:

Minton, Anna (2012). Ground Control (2nd ed.). Penguin. Retrieved 25 June 2012.

 "The Park | Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park". Retrieved 27 April 2014.

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Found within one of the largest cities in the world is a centre of greenery known as Central Park. This park today is the result of 160 years of land use and various design ideas. Winning the competition for the park design was an English Architect named Calvert Vaux and a journalist and social critic named Frederick Law Olmsted. Embodied in their design proposition, known as “The Greenward Plan” is a clear appreciation for the picturesque landscape that was inspired by the English gardens of the time. There are a series of scenic views, winding paths and large open spaces for relaxation.

The proposition for the park was a result of various historical and philosophical factors of the time. Firstly, there was an increasing fascination with and value of the “natural” landscape. Even though the space was completely designed and constructed, the large amount of vegetation that was planted, the serpentine paths and the sloping hills all worked together to create a “natural” space – which contrasted with the dense and built-up surrounding city. Another influencing factor was the political push for an urban park space in Manhattan. The original land was described as “pestilential”. It was a treeless and rocky terrain that needed significant intervention. Furthermore, the public aspect of the park was a huge step forward in the society of the time, which had large social class differences and limited public spaces.

Today Central park is the most visited urban park in the United States and it has since moved away from the intent of the original designers to make way for sporting and entertainment facilities. Despite this, it still possesses most of its original features including its path layout and bridges.

The design of Central Park was heavily influenced by politics and America’s growing fascination with the “natural”, picturesque landscape.

Roy Rosenzweig, E. B., 1992. The Park and the People: A History of Central Park. s.l.:Cornell University Press.
Image: http://www.landmarkwest.org/emails/2011/CentralPark1875_playgrounds_mid.jpg
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Beijing

Beijing is in the north of China, and has a total area of 16.807.8 km2 and a population about 13.8 million. Beijing is the capital city of China.[1] Beijing can be considered as City type, because Beijing has large population that live here and contains different functions within different areas, for example residential area, commercial area, industrial district and etc. Beijing as a City also have infrastructure like roads, streets, parks, clean water and more[2].
The city type of Beijing doesn’t change but developing. Beijing becomes a city can take back to some four, five thousand years, settlements to the southwest of Beijing were thriving on basic agriculture and animal husbandry, this was the basic form of Beijing as a city. A city plan was laid out in the YUAN dynasty, Yet only after extensive reconstruction during the Ming and Qing, did the city emerge as an architectural masterpiece fit to serve as the capital of the Chinese empire. Designed with thousands of halls and gates arranged symmetrically around a north south axis, its dimensions and luxuriance are a fitting symbol of the power and greatness of traditional China[3]. Now, Beijing is developing its planning and construction to improve people’s living condition in the CITY.


1. Feng, L and Rusong, W and Paulussen J and Xusheng, L 2004, Comprehensive concept planning of urban greening based on ecological principles: a case study in Beijing, China, viewed 12 April 2017, http://www.sciencedirect.com.ezproxy.lib.rmit.edu.au/science/article/pii/S0169204604000878

2. Kim, J 2015, Basic Infrastructure Services Are Essential for Urbanization, 21 September, viewed 12 April 2017, http://www.newcitiesfoundation.org/basic-infrastructure-services-are-essential-for-urbanization-but-who-will-pay/

3. BEIJING’S HISTORY, China, viewed 12 April 2017, <http://china.org.cn/english/features/beijing/30785.htm>

Picture reference: http://www.8264.com/ditu/5044.htm
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The Villa D’Este was built in16th-century at Italy. The size of the villa is about 50000 square meters. I think the basic type of the Villa D’Este is a garden, because most of the land are covered by vegetation, and some of the fountains are very famous and incredible. Through the image, we can clearly see the symmetry in this villa, we can see there is an Axis from the top to the end, and the symmetrical vegetation and paths on the two side. Villa D’este use a lots of marble and white marble to show the gorgeous and noble, and also the kind of experience was also designed through the effects of water, light and sounds.


Dernie, D., 1997. The use and meaning of materials in the garden of the Villa d'Este at Tivoli. Architectural Research Quarterly, 2(3), pp.64–73.

Phillipps, EM 1903, THE GARDENS OF ITALY: THE VILLA D'ESTE AT TIVOLI. Country Life (Archive : 1901 - 2005), http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.lib.rmit.edu.au/docview/1493634113?accountid=13552&rfr_id=info%3Axri%2Fsid%3Aprimo
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Beijing is the capital of China, which located at the northeast of China. It belongs to the landscape type of city. It is a huge city that includes 9 main districts which are CBD, Haidian district, Chaoyang district, Fengtai district, Shijingshan district, Changping district, Daxing district, Tongzhou district and Shunyi district. (Virtual Beijing, 2003) Beijing is a very orderly designed city that the long straight avenues are crisscrossed and form the symmetric network of lanes. (Beijing International) Beijing plays the most important role of Chinese transportation in air, rail and road: there is the Chinese biggest airport; it is the Chinese largest rail hub; lots of national roads and highways start here. (Travel China Guide, 2017) Liu, Wang, Chen and Peng (2015) give the land use map of Beijing which shows that the main areas are the residential; the distribution of public areas are mainly at north of Beijing; the commercial areas are abundant and all over the city; the agricultural and water area are limited so most of the food and water are from other provinces of China.


References:

Beijing International, Capital Maps, http://www.ebeijing.gov.cn/BeijingInformation/#;

Liu, R, Wang, M, Chen, W & Peng, C 2015, Spatial pattern of heavy metals accumulation risk in urban soils of Beijing and its influencing factors, Environmental Pollution, Vol. 210, pp. 174-181, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749115302049

Travel China Guide, 2017, Beijing Transportation, https://www.travelchinaguide.com/cityguides/beijing/transportation/

Virtual Beijing, 2003, Beijing city map,
http://www.n-wisdom.com/map_volume/world_map/world

image
http://www.crystalinks.com/chinarchitecture.html
http://www.vidiani.com/maps/maps_of_asia/maps_of_china/beijing/large_detailed_road_map_of_beijing_city_in_chinese.jpg
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A NEW PERSPECTIVE ON URBAN SPRAWL:
BROADACRE CITY

Broadacre City was a housing development concept by architect, Frank Lloyd Wright. The concept expressed his vision for America in the 20th Century: decentralised, self-reliant urban regions which promote individualism and allow “beauty of design and landscaping, sanitation and fresh air, privacy and playgrounds, and a plot whereon to raise things” (Wright, 1935) He believed in a “system of personal freedom” through land ownership, proposing that every citizen should be given one acre of land.

It wasn’t just a plan for a city, it was a vision for the entire american landscape as a continuous, low-density metropolitan region. His concept, modelled in 1934, developed as a grid and was zoned into specific areas such as residential, industry, recreation, medical and schools. He proposed that citizens live no more than 10 miles from their workplace, and that no more than 1,400 families live in a 10km2 area (the same size shown on the modelled concept). (Steffenson 2010)

Broadacre City could be seen as a type of ‘sprawl’. However, his vision is quite different from today’s typing of urban sprawl, which is often given negative connotations. Urban sprawl is the expansion of urban populations away from a central area (city) from which it depends on and where many people commute to and from. (Gillham, 2002) However, Broadacre City proposed a decentralised region where an “economic independence would be near, a subsistence certain; life varied and interesting” (Wright, 1935) His vision could be typed as a self-reliant community, zoned and limited to, but fulfilling the needs of a certain amount of people.

Today, urban planners focus on the revitalisation of city centres, whereas Wright’s vision essentially dissolved the city. As cities like Melbourne grow larger and wider, looking to Wright’s proposal could help us reconsider new ways for an ‘urban sprawl’ to function.


References:

Frank Lloyd Wright, 1935, ‘Broadacre City: A New Community’, Architectural Record, p. 345-55.

Ingrid Steffensen, 2010, ‘Broadacre City’, Oxford Art Online.

Oliver Gillham, 2002, ‘The Limitless City, A primer on the Urban Sprawl Debate’, p.1-5.

Images: Plan of Broadacre City concept model (left) and depiction of his vision (right)

http://www.metropolismag.com
http://paleofuture.gizmodo.com (Sources)
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Pearl River Delta

“Pearl River Delta” where I researched is a region area, include six main cities: Hong Kong, Macau, Shenzhen, Zhongshan, Guangzhou, Dongguan. The estuary of Pearl River shaped like triangle, lands located around the north-east and the north-west sides of the estuary, and there are many rivers come from north-west flow into South China Sea. The rivers come from north-east side are less than the other side, these are branches of Zhejiang River, this side of land have many inland lakes that formed many reservoirs in this area. The hydrologic system of the north-west side is different, more watercourses result on more farm area, the countless rivers is the best condition for irrigation.

The landform of Pearl River Delta is river plain, there are no obvious topographic relief, the area where is higher elevation is mountain area, the region have many mountain areas located different places, cities are built around mountain area. There are many transportations connected each town and metropolis.

There is a significant feature in this area which is artificial island, because the demand of human is more than the land can given.


The resourse of picture:
Survey and Mapping Office. 2014. viewed 12 Apirl 2017. http://www.landsd.gov.hk/mapping/en/paper_map/prd.htm
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Paris

Paris is considered a city type of landscape, because it is a place where people built constructions to occupy permanently. It is the capital of France, and a major city in Europe. The area of Paris is 105.4 km2, the climate is mild summers and mild winters with no intense temperatures (Paris 2009). The revolution on 1700s caused Paris to be exceptional than other European cities. It is now seen as a strong and revolutionary city. Per Ferguson (1997), before the revolution, the city space kept changing as the government change, because of the clashes between the political parties. Not just tourists, but the people of Paris were frequently puzzled and lost in their own city, so most of them stayed in their neighbourhood.





Reference

Colantonio, C 2012, “Paris Bird’s Eye View”, digital image, viewed 12 April 2017, <http://qahn.org/image/paris-birds-eye-view-chloe-colantonio-secondary-5-laurier-senior-high-school-montreal>.
Ferguson, PP 1997, Paris as Revolution: Writing the Nineteenth-century City, University of California, Berkeley, viewed 12 April 2017, <https://books.google.com.au/books?hl=en&lr=&id=DEKyn555un4C&oi=fnd&pg=PR9&dq=landscape+of+paris+city+centre&ots=x-4n1AFQ0f&sig=Y3eJc-QkyK2HUOhgzOnpEijz9mk#v=onepage&q&f=false>.
Paris 2009, Information Paris, viewed 11 April 2017, <http://www.paris.eu/information/>.
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Ryōan-ji

This one of a kind Zen temple (garden), located in northwest Kyoto, Japan is known as The Temple of the Dragon at Peace. It belongs to a branch of Zen Buddhism.

The Ryōan-ji garden is considered one of the finest surviving examples of dry landscape in the world.
Its distinctive large rock formations are arranged amidst a sweep of smooth pebbles and raked into linear patterns that facilitate meditation. This particular landscape not only speaks to the eye but stores a spiritual importance that many people travel far to experience. It also is very unlike the common definition of a garden and expresses a significant uniqueness, “In the West, we tend to think of gardens as being precincts of flora that is, primarily as places where plants grow. In gardens of the West, plants or plantings form the focus and subject of outdoor made places. The notion of a garden with very few, or even no, plants in it, is at odds with our idea of "garden." By exploring this garden It gave me the opportunity to see the term ‘garden’ through another lens and made we wonder what the true similarities are that all gardens display.

Reference:
Kane, J.K, 2014. The Ryōan-ji axiom for common knowledge on hypergraphs. Ryōan-ji , Volume 191, Issue 14, 001.
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