How Cellular Enzymatic and Metabolic networks point to designhttp://reasonandscience.heavenforum.org/t2371-how-cellular-enzymatic-and-metabolic-networks-point-to-design
The argument of a intelligent designer required to setup the Metabolic Networks for the origin of life
Observation: The existence of metabolic pathways is crucial for molecular and cellular function. Although bacterial genomes differ vastly in their sizes and gene repertoires, no matter how small, they must contain all the information to allow the cell to perform many essential (housekeeping) functions that give the cell the ability to maintain metabolic homeostasis, reproduce, and evolve, the three main properties of living cells. Gil et al. (2004) In fact, metabolism is one of the most conserved cellular processes. By integrating data from comparative genomics and large-scale deletion studies, the paper "Structural analyses of a hypothetical minimal metabolism" proposes a minimal gene set comprising 206 protein-coding genes for a hypothetical minimal cell. The paper lists 50 enzymes/proteins required to create a metabolic network implemented by a hypothetical minimal genome for the hypothetical minimal cell. The 50 enzymes/proteins , and the metabolic network, must be fully implemented to permit a cell to keep its basic functions.
Hypothesis (Prediction): The origin of biological irreducible metabolic pathways which also require regulation and and which are structured like a cascade, similar to electronic circuit boards, are best explained by the creative action of an intelligent agent.
Experiment: Experimental investigations of metabolic networks indicate that they are full of nodes with enzymes/proteins, detectors, on/off switches, dimmer switches, relay switches, feedback loops etc. that require for their synthesis information rich, language-based codes stored in DNA . Hierarchical structures have been proved to be best suited for capturing most of the features of metabolic networks (Ravasz et al, 2002). It has been found that metabolites can only be synthesized if carbon, nitrogen, phosphor, and sulfur and the basic building blocks generated from them in central metabolism are available. This implies that regulatory networks gear metabolic activities to the availability of these basic resources. So one metabolic circuit depends on the product of other products, coming from other, central metabolic pathways, one depending from the other, like in a casacade. Further noteworthy is that Feedback loops have been found to be required to regulate metabolic flux, and the activities of many or all of the enzymes in a pathway. In many cases, metabolic pathways are highly branched, in which case it is often necessary to alter fluxes through part of the network while leaving them unaltered or decreasing them in other parts of the network (Curien et al., 2009). These are interconnected in a functional way, resulting in a living cell. The biological metabolic networks are exquisitely integrated, so the significant alterations in inevitably damage or destroys the funcion. Changes in flux often require changes in the activities of multiple enzymes in a metabolic sequence. Synthesis of one metabolite typically requires the operation of many pathways.
Conclusion: Regardless of its initial complexity, self-maintaining chemical-based metabolic life could not have emerged in the absence of a genetic replicating mechanism insuring the maintenance, stability, and diversification of its components. In the absence of any hereditary mechanisms, autotrophic reaction chains would have come and gone without leaving any direct descendants able to resurrect the process. Life as we know it consists of both chemistry and information. If metabolic life ever did exist on the early Earth, to convert it to life as we know it would have required the emergence of some type of information system under conditions that are favorable for the survival and maintenance of genetic informational molecules. ( Ribas de Pouplana, Ph.D.)
Intelligent agents have frequently end goals in mind, and use high levels of instructional complex information to met the goal. In our experience, systems storing large amounts of specified/instructional complex information through codes and languages -- invariably originate from an intelligent source. Likewise, circuits or networks of coordinated interaction as for example of analog electronic devices can always be traced back to a intelligent causal agent. The operation of analog electronic devices maps very closely to the flow of information in chemical reactions of metabolic pathways (McAdams and Shapiro, 1995). A proposed mechanism to make metabolical networks must be capable of construct de novo, not merely modifying, a minimal set of 50 enzymes, and complex integrated metabolic circuits with the end goal to create life. A metabolic network that is not fully operational, will not permit life. We know in our experience that intelligence is able to setup circuit boards, like discrete electronic boards, and is the only known cause of irreducibly complex machines. Since evolution depends on metabolic circuits fully setup, its excluded as possible mechanism. The only two alternatives, chance/luck or physical necessity have never been observed to be able to setup circuit boards and irreducible complex systems. The origin of the basic metabolical network of the first cells is therefore best explained through the action of a intelligent agency.
1. High information content (or specified complexity), irreducible complexity, and the setup of exquisitely integrated circuits, which by significant alterations are inevitably damaged or destroys the funcion, constitute strong indicators or hallmarks of (past) intelligent design.
2.The high information content and biological irreducible metabolic pathways which also require regulation and and structured in a cascade manner, similar to electronic circuit boards, utilizing proteins and enzymes that manifest by themself irreducible complexity, constitute strong indicators or hallmarks of (past) creation through intelligent intervention, and design.
3. Naturalistic mechanisms or undirected causes do not suffice to explain the origin of information (instructed complex information), irreducible complexity, and the setup of complex circuits with little tolerance of change.
4. Therefore, intelligent design constitutes the best explanations for the origin of information and irreducible complexity in metabolic biological circuits.