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"Khayyam" redirects here. For other uses, see Khayyam (disambiguation).
Omar Khayyám
عمر خیام
Omar Khayyam Profile.jpg
Omar Khayyam bust in Nishapur, Iran
Born 18 May[1] 1048[2]
Nishapur, Khorasan, Iran
Died 4 December[1] 1131 (aged 83)[2]
Nishapur, Khorasan, Iran
Nationality Persian
School Islamic mathematics, Persian poetry, Persian philosophy
Main interests
Mathematics, Astronomy, Philosophy, Poetry
Influences[show]
Influenced[show]
Omar Khayyám ; born Ghiyāth ad-Dīn Abu'l-Fatḥ ʿOmar ibn Ibrāhīm Khayyām Neīshāhpūrī (/ˈoʊmɑːr kaɪˈjɑːm, -ˈjæm, ˈoʊmər/; Persian: غیاث‌الدین ابوالفتح عمر ابراهیم خیام نیشابوری‎‎, pronounced [xæjˈjɑːm]; 18 May 1048 – 4 December 1131), was a Persian polymath[3], scholar, mathematician, astronomer, philosopher, and poet, widely considered to be one of the most influential thinkers of the Middle Ages. He also wrote numerous treatises on mechanics, geography, mineralogy, astronomy and music.

Born in Nishapur, in northeastern Iran, at a young age he moved to Samarkand and obtained his education there. Afterwards he moved to Bukhara and became established as one of the major mathematicians and astronomers of the Islamic Golden Age. He wrote one of the most important treatises on algebra written before modern times, the Treatise on Demonstration of Problems of Algebra (1070) which includes a geometric method for solving cubic equations by intersecting a hyperbola with a circle.[4] He contributed to a calendar reform.

His significance as a philosopher and teacher, and his few remaining philosophical works, have not received the same attention as his scientific and poetic writings. Al-Zamakhshari referred to him as "the philosopher of the world". Avicenna taught him philosophy for decades in Nishapur.[5]

Outside Iran and Persian-speaking countries, Khayyám has influenced literature and societies through the translation of his works and popularization by other scholars. The greatest such effect was in English-speaking countries. The English scholar Thomas Hyde (1636–1703) was the first non-Persian known to have studied his works. The most influential, however, was Edward FitzGerald (1809–83),[6] who made Khayyám famous in the West through his translation and adaptations of Khayyám's quatrains (Persian: رباعیات‎‎ rubāʿiyāt) in the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam.

Khayyám died in 1131, and is buried in the Khayyám Garden in Nishapur. The reconstruction of the tombs of Persian icons like Hafez, Saadi, Attar, Pour Sina and others were built by Reza Shah and in 1963, the Mausoleum of Omar Khayyám was reconstructed on the site by Hooshang Seyhoun.



Omar Khayyam

You melted an ice shell directly on my heart,
Who wasn’t in love wouldn’t know swings and slides.
Just a phenomenon, there is no attraction anymore,
You’re the one to blame for many years.

Smooth your heart on the edges,
Take my soul to iron it out a little.
As Omar Khayyam wrote:
“Only the best, no one else, is required.”
Smooth my heart on the edges,
Take my soul to iron it out a little.
I’ll give it out for you,
If it’ll be needed.

I’ll find wings if a road is to the clouds,
I’ll turn into dust the waits by a window.
I’m better with you, it’s safer as you know,
No worthy ones, you got me the wonders.

Smooth your heart on the edges,
Take my soul to iron it out a little.
As Omar Khayyam wrote:
“Only the best, no one else, is required.”
Smooth my heart on the edges,
Take my soul to iron it out a little.
I’ll give it out for you,
If it’ll be needed.

We are happy together like children
Dancing near this precipice.
Look as the clock froze for us.

[x2]
Smooth your heart on the edges,
Take my soul to iron it out a little.
As Omar Khayyam wrote:
“Only the best, no one else, is required.”
Smooth my heart on the edges,
Take my soul to iron it out a little.
I’ll give it out for you,
If it’ll be needed.

Translation By Russian Language !!!!
Omar Khayyam (Омар Хайям)

Ледяную корку прямо на сердце растопил,
Качели и горки не знает тот, кто не любил.
Чистый феномен, притяженья больше нет.
Это ты виновен, на протяжении долгих лет.

Разгладь мое сердце по краям,
Возьми мою душу подутюжить.
Как писал Омар Хайям:
"Никто другой, только лучший нужен".

Разгладь мое сердце по краям,
Возьми мою душу подутюжить.
Я за тебя ее отдам,
Если будет нужно.

Я найду крылья, если дорога в облака
Превращу в пыль я, ожиданье у окна.
Лучше с тобой мне, так спокойней, знаешь сам.
Нету достойней, ты достал мне чудеса.

Разгладь мое сердце по краям,
Возьми мою душу подутюжить.
Как писал Омар Хайям:
"Никто другой, только лучший нужен".

Разгладь мое сердце по краям,
Возьми мою душу подутюжить.
Я за тебя ее отдам,
Если будет нужно.

Мы счастливы с тобой, как дети
В танце над обрывом этим.
Ты посмотри, как часы застыли для нас.

Разгладь мое сердце по краям,
Возьми мою душу подутюжить.
Как писал Омар Хайям:
"Никто другой, только лучший нужен".

Разгладь мое сердце по краям,
Возьми мою душу подутюжить.
Я за тебя ее отдам,
Если будет нужно.

Разгладь мое сердце по краям,
Возьми мою душу подутюжить.
Как писал Омар Хайям:
"Никто другой, только лучший нужен".

Разгладь мое сердце по краям,
Возьми мою душу подутюжить.
Я за тебя ее отдам,
Если будет нужно.
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Tajikistan - Travel Guide
Tajiks are one of the most ancient nations of the world. Life in area situated at the main crossroads of eastern civilizations has given them continuous access to the achievements of other cultures. First settlement on the territory of today's Tajikistan date back to the end of upper Paleolithic period (15-20 thousand years ago). Archaeological finds, the works of Herodotus and other written evidence provide information on trading relations, customs, and rituals of the nation. For many centuries the country, involved mainly in trading with neighbors suffered from foreign invasions by the troops of Alexander the Great, steppe nomads, Arabs and Tatar-Mongols.
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Welcome to Tajikistan

Where ‘Great Game’ spies and explorers once ventured, Tajikistan's awesomely dramatic highland landscapes are now testing playgrounds for hardy climbers, trekkers and adventure travellers. Nascent rural homestay programs mean you might stay in timelessly photogenic rural villages hosted by gold-toothed, white-bearded patriarchs in iridescent joma robes. The people, predominantly Persian- rather than Turkic-speaking, are enormously hospitable but little English is spoken and rural transport is so irregular that you will probably want to fork out for a rented 4WD.

But the marvels of the Wakhan Valley, the starkly beautiful 'Roof of the World' Pamirs and the breathtaking lakes and pinnacles of the Fan Mountains all contribute to making Tajikistan arguably Central Asia's most exciting destination.
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Penjikent - Tajikistan
The city of Penjikent ("five villages") is located in Khujand area of Tajikistan in a picturesque Zeravshan river valley. Quite possibly the five villages started the history of this remarkable city which originated in the 5th-8th centuries AD. Penjikent of that time was one of the most important cultural and crafts centers of Sogd. It was even named "Central Asian Pompeii". It was a superbly fortified well-organized city with a ruler's palace, two temples, markets, rich dwelling houses decorated with numerous paintings, wooden and clay statues of ancient gods.

Penjikent, TajikistanPenjikent, TajikistanPenjikent, Tajikistan
Penjikent was the last city on the way from Samarkand in Kukhistan Mountains. It was a very favorable location since no caravan or person going from the mountains or returning to Samarkand could bypass Penjikent. The city was destroyed by Arabs in the eighth century (the key battle took place on Mount Mug). The ruins of this ancient city were found only in the last century. Today the tourists can see the remains of dwelling houses and office buildings, the citadel with the palace, the house of craftsmen, and fire worshipers church.

Penjikent Sights:
In the outskirts of Penjikent one can find a "piece" of the past: a site of ancient settlement with the medieval citadel surrounded by dwelling and public buildings, some of which still have wall paintings. Nearby there is a necropolis. The clay and wooden figures found during excavations are kept in Rudaki History and Local Lore Museum. The place of excavation ha been turned into the memorial reserve.

Not far from Penjikent on Mount Mug the archive of documents belonging to a Penjikent ruler, written in Sogdian language was found. The interpretation of these documents offers a possibility to judge about social, economic and political life of the population of Central Asia in the 8th century.
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Kurgan Tube, Tajikistan
It is located in Vakhsh Valley (100 km to the south of Dushanbe). Some sources mention Kurgan Tube in the 7th century, others do it much later. The city perches in the top part of the valley in the center of a rich oasis. The territory of modern Kurgan Tube was known as Khuttal and city itself - as Levakend or Vakhsh in the Middle Ages. These places were famous for good shots and special breed of sheep.

12 km to the east of Kurgan Tube stands a hill named Ajina-Teppe with the remains of Buddhist monastery built in the 7th -the 8thI centuries (sanctuaries, cells, vessels, sculptures, wall paintings) including a 12-meter figure of the lying Buddha.

Today Kurgan Tube is one of the largest cities of the republic, the regional center of Khatlon area. There are several large industrial enterprises, universities, colleges, licea, hotels. Not far from the city there is an airport; the new railway station has just been opened.

To find out about the history of the place one can in the Museum of History and Local Lore. The total number of its collection makes up 700 items. The museum "tells" the original story about the past and the present of the city. The main attraction of the museum is Teppai Kurgon and Rastai Kosibon diorama. First comes the picture showing the past of Vakhsh Valley where there was nothing but the burnt ground, the ruthless sun and rare caravans. Then before the eyes of spectators there is beautiful panorama of the new valley - with cities and modern buildings. The museum's collection contains a lot of the most interesting data related to national crafts of Tajiks such as suzane embroidery, ceramics, wooden and copper items.

Near the city of Kurgan Tyube, on the riverbank of the Vakhsh stands an interesting historical place - the ruins of Lagman settlement (the 10-13th centuries). In the middle of the 20th century the archeologists found the pipes of ancient water pipeline, the brick wells, and fortifications with towers. This city was one of the largest settlements of ancient Bactria and occupied a relatively big territory of 43 hectares.
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Tajikistan
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Dushanbe city Capital of Tajikistan .
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Istaravshan, Tajikistan
Istaravshan, TajikistanIstaravshan is a museum city, the ancient center of trade and crafts, one of the most ancient cities of the Central Asia. In 2002 Istaravshan widely celebrated 2,500 anniversary of the city. The city was founded in the sixth century B.C. by a Akhemenid king Cyrus who fortified the settlement by means of three wall lines and a citadel.

In the second -seventh centuries B.C. the ancient sentiment Mugteppa was located on the territory of Istaravshan. Mugteppa was the residence of the local aristocracy who erected there numerous palaces distinguished by original expressive architecture. The evidence of that was found in Bundzhikat (Kala and Kakh-Kakh) and Chil'khudzhra settlements which had fortified structures with palaces and cult buildings decorated with paintings and carved panels. For example in Bundzhikat the archaeologists found the painting with the image of a she-wolf feeding two babies - the symbol of contacts between the West and the Orient.

Only the gate with a dome and columns on the sides has survived on Mug Hill where the residence of the local governor used to be. During the years of Arabian sovereignty Istaravshan became a province Arabian Caliphate. It was at this time when Islamic architectural structures of portal-dome design such as mosques, madrasahs, mausoleums, minarets, etc. started to appear.

The rapid development of Istaravshan is connected with the rule of the first ethnic Tajik Samanid dynasty (the 9th - the 10th centuries). In the 13th century the city was destroyed by Mongols.The second period of Istaravshan development began in the 14th century when the powerful Timurid Empire was formed. Now the city is called Ura-Tube.In the 16th century Maverannakhr (along with Ura-Tube) lost its significance as a result of formation on a new Shejbanid state with the capital in Bukhara.

In the 18th century Ura-Tube entered another stage of its development. It was then that the citadel and the fortress walls were restored and reinforced and new structures capable of resisting attacks of numerous nomadic tribes were erected. In 1886 Ura-Tube became a part of Russia. Today Istaravshan has a number of interesting historical and architectural monuments which bear the evidence of its bright historical past.
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Central Asia's Tajikistan Pamir Highway: 7-day road trip to adventure
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Khujand, Tajikistan
Khujand - the capital of northern Tajikistan
Khujand is one of the oldest cities of Central Asia, according to some sources it was founded in the VII-VI centuries BC. It was conquered by Alexander the Great, who rebuilt, fortified and re-named it to Alexandria Eskhata (Extreme). Located on the Great Silk Road, and connecting Samarkand with Fergana Valley, Khujand enjoyed a favorable geopolitical location and significant transport importance. Later, it was conquered by the Arabs (in the VIII century), and then it maintained resistance to the army of Genghis Khan, but eventually was destroyed (in the XIII century). However, very soon the city revived, becoming one of the largest commercial, cultural and scientific centers of the Central Asian region. And even today, Khujand is an important industrial, scientific and cultural center of northern Tajikistan.

Khujand, TajikistanKhujand, TajikistanKhujand, Tajikistan
Khujand, occupying, mainly, the left bank of the Syr-Darya River, is surrounded by mountains with the slopes planted with orchards. A few kilometers upstream, there is a place where the Kayrakkum reservoir starts, stretching for 55 km. The Khujand citizens and tourists like to go swimming, sunbathing or fishing on the lakeside. The city’s climate is as beautiful as nature – the hot summers are softened by the winds and the waters of the Syr-Darya, while the winters are mild with little snowing.

As a thousand years ago, nowadays Khujand still plays an important transport role. The city is crossed by the shortest route, coming from Central Uzbekistan to the Fergana Valley, and afterwards to Kyrgyzstan. The city has a railway station, as well as an airport located 11 km from its center. The nearest major cities are Bekabad (40 km to the west) and Kokand (140 km to the east).

Khujand, TajikistanKhujand, TajikistanKhujand, Tajikistan
Being home of famous scientists, writers and musicians, Khujand preserves the status of the scientific and cultural center in Tajikistan. The city has a theater, regional history museum and an archaeological museum as well as the Khujand State University, with an enrollment exceeding 10,000 students from all over the country.

Khujand managed to preserve some monuments dating back from the XVI-XVII centuries - the Sheikh Muslihiddin Mausoleum and Jami Masjidi Jami Mosque as well as Khujand Fortress, which was built together with the city more than 2,500 years ago, and underwent several stages of complete destruction and restoration.

And today, following the tracks of the Great Silk Road, it is impossible to travel in Central Asia without visiting Khujand, the city which become a corridor in the snowy mountains.
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