I recently saw an ad saying that the chance of the universe existing according to evolution is 1 in a zillion or something like that. Is this true?

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"Rare microbes lead scientists to discover new branch on the tree of life:
Hemimastigotes are more different from all other living things than animals are from fungi" (Nova Scotia, Canada) by Emily Chung (+CBC News).

[Caption with featured image: "This is an electron microscope image of Hemimastix kukwesjijk, named after Kukwes, a greedy, hairy ogre from Mi'kmaq mythology. Its 'mouth' or capitulum is on the left. (Submitted by Yana Eglit {+Yana Eglit}.)"]

From the attached article...

Canadian researchers have discovered a new kind of organism that's so different from other living things that it doesn't fit into the plant kingdom, the animal kingdom, or any other kingdom used to classify known organisms.

Two species of the microscopic organisms, called hemimastigotes, were found in dirt collected on a whim during a hike in Nova Scotia by Dalhousie University (+Dalhousie University) graduate student Yana Eglit.

A genetic analysis shows they're more different from other organisms than animals and fungi (which are in different kingdoms) are from each other, representing a completely new part of the tree of life, Eglit and her colleagues report this week in the journal Nature (+NATURE).

"They represent a major branch… that we didn't know we were missing," said Dalhousie biology professor Alastair Simpson (+Alastair Simpson), Eglit's supervisor and co-author of the new study.

"There's nothing we know that's closely related to them."

In fact, he estimates you'd have to go back a billion years — about 500 million years before the first animals arose — before you could find a common ancestor of hemimastigotes and any other known living things.

The hemimastigotes analyzed by the Dalhousie team were found by Eglit during a spring hike with some other students along the Bluff Wilderness Trail (+The Bluff Wilderness Hiking Trail) outside Halifax a couple of years ago. She often has empty sample vials in her pockets or bags, and scooped a few tablespoons of dirt into one of them from the side of the trail.

Back at the lab, she soaked the soil in water, which often revives microbes that have gone dormant, waiting for the next big rainstorm. Over the next few weeks, she checked on the dish through a microscope to see what might be swimming around.

=== Strange movements ===

Then, one day, about three weeks later, she saw something that caught her eye — something shaped like the partially opened shell of a pistachio. It had lots of hairs, called flagella, sticking out. Most known microbes with lots of flagella move them in co-ordinated waves, but not this one, which waved them in a more random fashion.

"It's as if these cells never really learned that they have many flagella," Eglit said with a laugh. She had seen something with that strange motion once before, a few years ago, and recognized it as a rare hemimastigote.

Hemimastigotes were first seen and described in the 19th century. But at that time, no one could figure out how they fit into the evolutionary tree of life. Consequently, they've been "a tantalizing mystery" to microbiologists for quite a long time, Eglit said.

Like animals, plants, fungi and ameobas — but unlike bacteria — hemimastigotes have complex cells with mini-organs called organelles, making them part of the "domain" of organisms called eukaryotes rather than bacteria or archaea.

About 10 species of hemimastigotes have been described over more than 100 years. But up until now, no one had been able to do a genetic analysis to see how they were related to other living things.

Realizing that she had something very rare and special, Eglit flagged another graduate student Gordon Lax (+Gordon Lax), who specializes in genetic analyses of individual microbes — a new and tricky technique — to see where they fit in the evolutionary tree. The pair dropped everything to analyze the new microbe.

[See attached article for additional photographs, audio recording, and the remaining paragraphs...]

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With the demise of G+. I"ll be available over on Pluspora


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Something that this group might find interesting and amusing. What happens when evolutionary algorithms go way beyond what the authors intended? A series of anecdotes.

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Since its a known fact that modern humans have de- evolve muscles mass to accommodate brain energy consumption which results in humans being the weakest but smartest primates comparing to the other hominid's today. Explain why other primates are physically stronger than us. Then it's fair to say that humans are "better" then apes, or we evolve which implies getting better over time.

Or are humans built for a different reason and not necessarily better than any apes.

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I find lots of people being confused about evolution, people who reject evolution are quick to say evolution is just a theory while evolution supports reply, no it’s not a theory like other theories it’s a scientific theory and that means it’s a fact.

The thing is that evolution isn’t a theory but theory of evolution isn't a fact either, most people don’t understand the difference between the theory of evolution and evolution by natural selection. Theory of evolution is a theory and it’s not a fact, it has mistakes and unexplained parts that we do not understand yet properly.

Evolution by itself is just a word, it has nothing to do with evolution by natural selection, many evolution rejectors think it is, which is a mistake, word evolution is used to describe how changes happened in different species, it simply means things happened slowly, then they want to see a cross between duck and an alligator.

Evolution by natural Selection is a fact that happened, this is what we see, this is clearly seen in nature, it's not the theory of anything, it's a simple fact which is explained by Theory of evolution.

Which we cannot call a fact because it might have mistakes, it may or may not explain all the processes perfectly, many things are missing and not understood properly. There are many things that aren't accurate other things have many different approaches, so it's not a fact (this is my friends who support evolution), so yes, theory of evolution isn't a fact but natural selection is a fact, but how it came about is understood but far from being perfect.


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Epigenetics affects physiology and behavior for GENERATIONS! But what is it, exactly? Here's a short primer (pun intended).


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L'Odyssée de l'espèce मानव इतिहास - التاريخ البشري - sejarah manusia - lịch sử nhân loại. L'histoire des #hommes en 3 mn sur la musique Toccata et fugue en ré mineur,
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