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تجرحني انزف وفه

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مساء الخير 
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Did you know that the moon has less gravity?
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robotic cleaning crew with the new Braava jet Designed for cleaning like kitchens and bathrooms,including wet mopping,damp sweeping, and simple dusting
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Jenny Winder

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Astronauts harvest space lettuce
Sen—Astronauts aboard the International Space Station have harvested and tasted their first crop of space-grown Outredgeous red romaine lettuce from NASA's Veg-01 Veggie plant growth system.
#Internationalspacestation #ISS #ScottKelly #Expedition44
Read the full article at: http://sen.com/news/astronauts-harvest-space-lettuce#sthash.xk5tSDzI.dpuf
Sen—Astronauts aboard the International Space Station are harvesting and tasting their first crop of space grown
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Jenny Winder

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Winter survival and spacewalk training for British astronaut
Sen—A series of European Space Agency (ESA) videos show astronaut Tim Peake training for his mission to the International Space Station (ISS) which is due to begin in December. 
#ISS #ESA #TimPeake #Internationalspacestation #Expedition46 
Read the full article at: http://sen.com/news/winter-survival-and-spacewalk-training-for-british-astronaut#sthash.zP8OBnJf.dpuf
A series of European Space Agency (ESA) videos show astronaut Tim Peake training for his mission to the International Space Station (ISS).
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Jenny Winder

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Latest close-up of Ceres' bright spots
Sen—New images from NASA's Dawn spacecraft show the surface of the dwarf planet Ceres in sharper detail than ever before, yet certain features continue to puzzle scientists.
#Dawn #Ceres
Read the full article at: http://sen.com/news/latest-close-up-of-ceres-bright-spots#sthash.Pes76Dl6.dpuf
New images from NASA's Dawn spacecraft show the surface of the dwarf planet Ceres in sharper detail than ever before, yet certain features continue to puzzle scientists.
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Does the surface of Ceres looks like?
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Jenny Winder

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Samantha explains gravity of the situation from the ISS
Astronaut Samantha Cristoforetti has been demonstrating the principle of gravity in a new teaching video filmed in the best place imaginable—the microgravity environment of the International Space Station (ISS). 
#ISS #samanthacristoforetti #Expedition43
See more at: http://sen.com/news/samantha-explains-gravity-of-the-situation-from-the-iss#sthash.V6Mg3TI4.dpuf
European Space Agency astronaut Samantha Cristoforetti on the International Space Station (ISS) has been demonstrating the principle of gravity in a new teaching video.
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Samuel Reich

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Why Axial Doppler Shift should be In Relativistic Equations (the Michelson-Morley experiment is designed NOT have an net axial shift) (Error of Omission)

Significance of the axial Doppler shift observing items on a conveyor belt

By Samuel Lewis Reich, retired, Warrensville Heights, Ohio, September 4, 2016



Key words:

Relativity, axial Doppler, encoding, time, time dilation, Doppler, modulation

Abstract:

The following shows three reasons to consider the axial Doppler shift dilation or compression of time for the observer as opposed to just considering the transverse shift as that. At present most writing call only the transverse that. Because high energy beams are noisy for various reasons and it is impossible to make control experiments on objects light years away, the error remains. The following also shows the Doppler equations apply to motion of all periodic things (objects on conveyor belt or a beam of bullets not just waves). The three reasons are: One, the axial shift in only dependent on the geometry and velocities, which are relations between various time and space dimensions between the source and the observer. Two, the axial shift affects the rate of periodic things in a moving line are observed and rate (frequency) = 1/time. Three, there are no exceptions; the axial shift changes all rates observer sees from the source.

Analysis of a conveyor belt:

If one place an object every 1/ω seconds on a conveyor belt moving with some velocity c (a vector) taken relative to a stationary observer and the items are to be detected by a downward looking detector moving above the belt with a vector velocity v relative to the same stationary observer. Positive direction being a velocity moving the source to the observer. c is used because the belt speed has the same effect as the group velocity of light in the optical Doppler effect. Let v∙c= c v cos θ. θ being the angle between the two velocities. The closing velocity (the sum of the components of c and v moving the items toward the detector) is c-v cos θ. As a result, in one second, [ω (c-v cos θ)/c] items are detected. That is the same equation as the axial Doppler shift of frequency for waves moving with a speed c and an observer with a velocity v an angle θ to c. Likewise, the classic Doppler shift equation applies to all moving periodic items such as conveyor example and machine gun bullet stream not just waves. The term classic here is axial Doppler Shift factor. If information is encoded such that black item is a dot and a polished metal item a dash put the conveyor belt, the rate of Morse coded information observed by a reflected light sensor (the detector) also (like the other frequency) is changed the same shift factor (c - v cos θ)/c. Since all detectable properties of the items on the conveyor have their rate of detection shifted by the same factor. Time appears to have been compressed or dilated depending on the sign of v. Because the axial Doppler shift occurs in all waves and many other things like conveyor belts or a beam of bullets, Doppler shifts are due to the geometric properties (topology) of time and space not the physical properties of the observed items or mediums except that the later determines the group velocity (C) that the conveyor belt, bullets, or waves move.

By extension the observation rate of all information in the type observations above (have been changed by the same Doppler factor as frequencies above. It therefore, can be said like the relativistic optical shift, the axial factor of all Doppler shifts is also time dilation or compression depending if it is a red or blue shift. Because all observables about the stream of objects or waves is compressed or dilated depending if it is red or blue shift. Since the propagation velocity or light and sound is a constant independent of any Doppler shift, when time is multiplied by a factor so is the space dimension along the propagation.
In the Michelson-Morley experiment did not have the conditions for the axial Doppler shift only the transverse Doppler shift. The mirrors did not move relative to one another. Only transverse shift is said to be time dilation by writers on relativity. But due to design of the Michelson-Morley experiment therefore the results do not include the axial shift and those analyzing never put back in the general case. But by the above conveyor belt example it is plain the all detectable rate properties (1/time period properties) of waves and periodic moving objects see a classic axial Doppler shift. As a result a significance of the axial shift is that the axial shift is time compression or dilation.
Because high energy beams are noisy for various reasons and it is impossible to make control experiments on objects light years away, the error remains. Various people have made some correction.
Since this paper is about the axial Doppler shift’s significance not the exact formulas for the magnitudes of the transverse Doppler shift (Kt), the axial Doppler shift (Ka) or the total Doppler shift (K). The transverse Doppler shift’s magnitude will be ω'/ω=K_t, without defining the equation for Kt (were ω=frequency of a moving source as measured moving with it and ω’ magnitude of ω as detected by a stationary observer). This will avoid any error due to the difficulty in measuring light coming from objects going at significant portions of light velocity. Another difficulty in the measurement which would give for most angles the axial Doppler shifts are much larger then transverse Doppler shifts. Still this paper in most areas will use Ka for the magnitude of the axial shift and K(=Ka Kt ) for the total shift to avoid the effect of experimental errors in them as well.

2.0 Fourier series proof of the effect of Doppler shifts on modulation in time periodic objects:

Any set of periodic objects or events (including any modulation on them) observed for a length of time G is a piece wise continuous function and therefore has a convergent Fourier series representation. The value of each nth harmonic has the form An sin (n ω0 T +c), where ω0 is the fundamental frequency and An are constants. The Doppler shift multiplies the frequency of each of harmonics by a factor K. So the value of at time T now happens at T/K. Therefore the value of the sum of all harmonic at T by superposition also now happens at T/K. That means the whole function of a G time period is now has a period of G/k not G. It is left to reader to verify by calculation that for T greater than G the values of the Fourier series representation just repeat in original wave and does the same for values of T greater than G/K in the shifted function. That it has been compressed or dilated in time depending on if K is greater than one or less than one. K is greater than one in the blue shift and less than one in the red shift.

3.0 Significance of the axial shift being time dilation like the transverse shift:

3.1 For a light beam:

For energy and mass in a light beam (assume steady state waves except for encoding and boundaries far from the examples, positive v and c is moving source to observer):
The axial shift has an angle term. It is well known that the total shift for light is:
ω/ω'=[1+v/c cos⁡θ ] K_t=K=K_a K_t and ω'/ω=1⁄((K_t K_a ) ) . Were K= the total shift, Kt is the transverse shift and Ka = the axial shift =[1+v/c cos⁡θ ].
θ is the angle between light beam and the closing velocity between the observer and the source. v= closing velocity of the observer to the source, c= speed of light, ω’=frequency observed by the observer, ω = frequency relative to the source. Since time=1/frequency=t’/t=ω/ω’= 1/K.
The energy in one photon (e) is proportional to ω: e’/e = ω'/ω=K.

3.2 For a mass:

When mass is measured by gravitational pull or the impact on an object. Assume gravity and fields transferring an impact travels the speed of light c. Also view the mass as the source of those fields. Then the Doppler shift should be the same as for light, also Einstein’s E=mc^2:

m’/m= E’/E = e’/e= ω'/ω=K_a K_t=K
Care must be taken not to put a Doppler shift twice on the same field. The current practice is put a transverse shift on the emitted filed and also the same transverse on the mass (the transverse shift is small so can get lost in errors). The axial shift is not used or only on emitted field not the mass. So there only one or no axial shift calculated. Note: when cos θ =0 in the above equation one has the normal relativistic mass equation (only the transverse shift). Since each direction can have a different value of mass or energy as θ varies, mass is now better represented as a vector than a scalar quantity. Note that axial shift factor average over all angles is 1. Therefore the observed average of a property of random moving objects with no net motion has no axial Doppler shift only the transverse shift.

Kinetic energy = (m^'-m) c^2=(K-1)m c^2. This should go into the Hamiltonian in developing relativistic quantum mechanics.

4.0 A new law of time (to be used on blue shift):

Exact observations of the future is impossible because of some unknown noise or multiple futures.
The reason is: In a universe with only one future, any group that had a future observing device, would try to negate undesirable avoidable events. But in the macroscopic world with only one future an event and its negation cannot exist at the same time. So the group could not get an exact observation of an avoidable undesirable event until at least that event is no longer avoidable. Therefore, there exists some undocumented noise or multiple futures in the nature of time.
5.0 Problem with information reflected from mirrors:
If a modulated beam of duration G is reflected by moving mirror back to the source, the source sees a Doppler shift factor not just K but K^2. An observer on the mirror sees a shift of K when looking at source and source sees a shift K when looking at the mirror. So for round trip it is K^2. That means in a shifted wave the information all the information came out in G/K^2 time units or K^2 times as fast. The time of travel for the round trip from source to mirror to source is doubled of source to mirror. But for closing velocity more than 75% of the speed of light, K^2 is greater than 2. But from the time law above: In the nature of time there is noise or jamming or uncertainty in information about an avoidable event until at least the event is no longer avoidable.

6.0 Summary:

The total Doppler shift (product of axial and transverse Doppler shifts) is a time dilation (red shift) or compression (blue shift). The magnitude of mass is determined by measuring the effects of the mass’s gravitational field or other fields, therefore the mass and those fields have the same Doppler shift. Therefore, the observed magnitude of a moving mass changes with the position angles and velocity in same fraction as the total Doppler shift (K =K_(a ) K_t) including angular changes. The Doppler shift does affect encoded information. Something in the nature of time acts as uncertainty, noise or jamming preventing information about any avoidable event from being observed exactly before the event is no longer avoidable.
7.0 References showing the majority view only the transverse shift is time dilation:
1, Search “time dilation” on www.Wikipedia.com. (2016)
2, Van Bladel, J. (1984) Relativity and engineering, New York, Springer-Verlag (pp. 12-15)
3, Einstein, A. (1955) The meaning of relativity (5 ed.), Princeton, New Jersey, Princeton University Press (pp. 36)
4, Ugarov, V.A.(1979) Special theory of relativity, Moscow, MIR Publishers (pp. 83-84)

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Sorry you do not like it. But I gave multiple reasons from mathematical principles older and stronger than the writings on relativity for my statements. But it was pasted from an MS Word document and some symbols may not pasted in HTML format missing. I corrected what I saw missing. Sam Reich
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Jenny Winder

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LEGO joins sprint mission to the ISS
Sen—The European Space Agency (ESA) has teamed up with LEGO Education, to inspire school children to make their own LEGO movies based around a mission to the International Space Station. 
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Read the full article at: http://sen.com/news/lego-joins-sprint-mission-to-the-iss#sthash.0xa0MAJY.dpuf
The European Space Agency have teamed up with LEGO Education, to inspire schoolchildren to make their own LEGO movies based around a mission to the International Space Station.
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Jenny Winder

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The crew of the International Space Station (ISS) have been given the 'all clear' after being forced to shelter from the close approach of a piece of space debris.
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The European Space Agency has teamed up with international photojournalism agency Sipa Press to highlight the important contribution of women in space exploration.
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Jenny Winder

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http://sen.com/news/towel-day-greeting-from-the-iss
European Space Agency Astronaut Samantha Cristoforetti has sent a message from the International Space Station celebrating Towel Day!
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Jenny Winder

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Worms hitch a ride aboard the ISS
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Read the full article at: http://sen.com/news/worms-hitch-a-ride-aboard-the-iss
You could be forgiven for thinking that worms have little in common with us humans, yet astronaut Samantha Cristoforetti has been using nematode worms aboard the International Space Station, to study the effects of space on the human body.
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