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Generic disruption awaits veterinary medicine

Sanofi’s new CEO Olivier Brandicourt has been in news for being in talks to either sell or list Merial, its animal health division. While Merial may not be a household name, the expected valuation of Euro 12 billion, makes us focus this week on the business of veterinary drugs.

If Brandicourt succeeds in its plans for Merial, the deal will play a pivotal role in getting France's most valuable company back on track and delivering on its five-year strategic plan, after the business was hit by lagging diabetes sales and boardroom rows.

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ValGenesis paperless validation software Review : 

"ValGenesis spares us the walking around and mailing time by
providing simultaneous access to multiple reviewers and approvers at
different sites. This solution eliminates paper, duplication, and waiting. But its greatest value is in helping uscommunicate effectively.”

— Validation Manager
QU Validation and Validation Systems

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'The PRECISE working of sleep and sleeping pills'

It is still draft and I would be very happy with peer-critique! (internet avenue at outlook dot com)

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NEURON: REST POTENTIAL - some questions I am struggling with....

Rest potential: appr. 70 mV, more CL ions inside, therefore negative load inside, potential across membrane, fine.

But why is it called 'rest potential'? Is the neuron then at rest?

Yes...probably if one means that nothing is changing and no ions are going in and out.

But NO in terms of 'excitability' - no neuron is more excitable than the neuron at rest, it seems!

The least excitable neuron is the 'accomodated neuron', with wide open ion channels, where ions can freely 'swim in and out' and there is no potential across the membrane. 

So, what is desirable in order to sleep? (my personal goal) - having neurons at reast potential 70 mV with re-closed CL ion gates (at rest, but very excitable!) or

accomodated neurons, that have a tension BELOW threshold tension, with open ion channels, that CANNOT be excited?

Sleeping pills work by 'working' on the Cl- ion channel, as it that opening in order to let CL- in to reach 'rest potential' OR in order to 'accomodate' the neuron so there is no more potential anymore across the membrane?

What is the difference between people WITHOUT sleeping pills during SWS = Slow Wave Sleep and people WITH sleeping pills during SWS? Former having neurons at rest potential, only firing within the pattern of neural oscillation of SWS, and second....having no neural oscillation because all neurons are 'accomodated' ('flat out open, 'vast drunk' so to speak and not reacting to anything')?

Thanks for helping me out!

Philippe -

14 september 2013

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Insomnia-video page how sleeping pills work EXACTLY (2 short video's)

As well as: other possibilities for sleeping pills, than acting on the GABA A receptor? 

Like: 'prevention of synaptic transmission', or 'greater capacitance of membranes' or 'less conductivity of neurons' or 'reduction of conductivity and 'electric length' - preventing passing on electric signals'

Insomnia Clients Foundation - 6 September 2013

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GABA and metabolims - questions to clear up...

At first instance, GABA looks ideal to quiet down: anxuety, falling asleep....but:
a) sleep can also be caused without GABA, as long as sleeping pills as strong enough to open ion channels Cl- at GABA receptors
b) there is metabolism from GABA into glutamate and the other way round.

Who knows more about b)?

And has the metabolic syndrome for insomnias have to do anything with that?

In attached article, the metabolic syndrome is also mentioned...

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Thank you for the invite, I'm honored and hope to contribute much.
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