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Dissociative identity disorder: An empirical overview
Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 2014, Vol. 48(5) 402–417
DOI: 10.1177/0004867414527523

Because the aetiology of DID is associated with childhood relational trauma, the discomfort caused by studying DID may serve as a potent disincentive to its investigation. Thus avoiding study of DID protects mainstream social institutions – at the expense of the children who are violated by them – as well as enabling researchers, clinicians and the public to retain a comforting denial of both the occurrence of abuse and its disabling psychiatric legacy.
Every study that has systematically examined aetiology has found that antecedent severe, chronic childhood trauma is present in the histories of almost all individuals with DID
DID is found around the globe in almost every culture
anomalies are evident in DID, with different neurobiological profiles found across identities than those in simulation #DISSOCIATIVEIDENTITYDISORDER

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Floris, J. &; McPherson, S. (2015) - Fighting the Whole System: Dissociative Identity Disorder, Labeling Theory, and Iatrogenic Doubting.
J Trauma Dissociation. 2015 Jul-Sep;16(4):476-93. doi: 10.1080/15299732.2014.990075. 2015 Apr 29. PMID 25923473.

This research examines how individuals diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder construe their experiences of being labeled with a contested diagnosis. Semistructured interviews were conducted in the United Kingdom with 5 women and 2 men diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder. A framework analysis was conducted. The analysis identified 2 overarching themes: diagnosis cross-examined and navigating care systems. The diagnosis appeared to be continually assessed by participants for its fit with symptoms, and the doubt among professionals seemed to be unhelpfully reflected in participants' attempts to understand and come to terms with their experiences. The findings are considered in light of labeling theory, the iatrogenic effects of professional doubt, and current debates concerning the reliability and validity of psychiatric diagnostic systems that have been reinvigorated by the publication of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition.

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The privatisation of incest: The neglect of familial sexual abuse in Australian publicinquiries Michael Salter
Recommended citation: Salter, M. (2016, forthcoming) The privatisation of incest:The neglect of familial sexual abuse in Australian public inquiries. In Findlay, M.,Kaladelfos, A., & Smaal, Y. The sexual abuse of children: Recognition and redress. Monash University Press: Melbourne.

This chapter reflects on the recurrent focus of Australian public inquiries into child abuse onextra-familial and out-of-home settings and the relative lack of attention paid to familialabuse. Since the 1970s, public inquiries have become an increasingly common methodthrough which governments respond to critical child protection incidents and public concernabout child abuse. It is therefore striking that the last public inquiry into child sexual abusethat addressed incest concluded in the late 1980s. Since then, public inquiry has focused onabuse outside the family, although it is evident that there are ongoing and systemic failures todetect incest and provide adequate support to victims.The chapter situates the avoidance of incest in public inquiries within the hegemonic norms of publicity and privacy in liberal democracies. It argues that incest’s position in the ‘private’ sphere of intimate and familial relations has delegitimised it as the focus of public inquiry.The privacy of incest was briefly disrupted by feminist activism in the 70s and 80s, whichwas reflected in a series of public inquiries into incest at the time However, familial privacyhas since been reasserted in a neoliberal milieu in which the state is defunding social supportsunder the expectation that families are self-sufficient, and social problems are increasinglyindividualised and medicalised.The reassertion of familial privacy is evident in the contemporary focus of public inquiries toextra-familial forms of abuse such as institutional abuse, clergy abuse and abuse in out-of – home care. The exception to this has been a number of state and federal inquiries into abusein Indigenous families and communities, which is indicative of the selective interpretation offamilial privacy by the state. While public inquiries have produced important learnings, theyhave granted abuse in extra-familial settings a public salience that is in contrast to relativeinvisibility of incest as a social problem. The chapter argues that incest remains an egregiousform of child sexual abuse that has yet to receive adequate public attention and response.

#incest #childsexualabuse

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Childhood Trauma and Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in Older Adults: A Study of Direct Effects and Social-Interpersonal Factors as Potential Mediators DOI:10.1080/15299732.2014.991861
Sandy Krammer, Birgit Kleim, Keti Simmen-Janevska & Andreas Maercker. Accepted author version posted online: 26 May 2015. Journal of Trauma and Dissociation
Childhood traumatic events may lead to long-lasting psychological effects and contribute to the development of complex posttraumatic sequelae. These might be captured by the diagnostic concept of complex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD) as an alternative to classic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). CPTSD comprises a further set of symptoms in addition to those of PTSD, namely, changes in affect, self, and interpersonal relationships. Previous empirical research on CPTSD has focused on middle-aged adults but not on older adults. Moreover, predictor models of CPTSD are still rare. The current study investigated the association between traumatic events in childhood and complex posttraumatic stress symptoms in older adults. The mediation of this association by 2 social-interpersonal factors (social acknowledgment as a survivor and dysfunctional disclosure) was investigated. These 2 factors focus on the perception of acknowledgment by others and either the inability to disclose traumatic experiences or the ability to do so only with negative emotional reactions. A total of 116 older individuals (age range = 59–98 years) who had experienced childhood traumatic events completed standardized self-report questionnaires indexing childhood trauma, complex trauma sequelae, social acknowledgment, and dysfunctional disclosure of trauma.

The results showed that traumatic events during childhood were associated with later posttraumatic stress symptoms but with classic rather than complex symptoms. Social acknowledgment and dysfunctional disclosure partially mediated this relationship. These findings suggest that childhood traumatic stress impacts individuals across the life span and may be associated with particular adverse psychopathological consequences.

#complexPTSD #PTSD

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Disinformation About Dissociation: Dr Joel Paris's Notions About Dissociative Identity Disorder.

Brand, Bethany; Loewenstein, Richard J., Spiegel, David (2013). Disinformation about dissociation: Dr Joel Paris's notions about dissociative identity disorder. Letters to the Editor. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, volume 201, issue 4, page 354–356. (doi:10.1097/NMD.0b013e318288d2ee)

This letter gives background on basic lack of scholarship by Dr Joel Paris and comments on the poor peer review process prior to the publication for his paper, e.g. not realizing he had omitted papers from his search results which did not support his marginalized ideas. Paris is a BPD specialist, not a dissociation researcher.
FULL PAPER -'s_Notions_About_Dissociative_Identity_Disorder

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Association of Childhood Complex Trauma and Dissociation with Complex PTSD Symptoms in Adulthood
Annemiek van Dijke, Julian D Ford , Laurence E Frank, Onno van der Hart
Journal of Trauma & Dissociation. 04/2015; 16(4). DOI: 10.1080/15299732.2015.1016253 Source: PubMed

This study replicates and extends prior research on the relationship of childhood complex trauma with complex post-traumatic stress disorder (cPTSD) in adulthood, examining the role of psychoform and somatoform dissociation as a potential mediator. Childhood Complex Trauma (CCT), dissociation, and cPTSD were assessed in a large sample of adult psychiatric inpatients. Almost two-thirds of participants reported having experienced CCT. Path analyses with bootstrap confidence intervals demonstrated a relationship between CCT, psychoform (but not somatoform) dissociation, and cPTSD. In addition, psychoform dissociation partially mediated the relationship between CCT and adult cPTSD-symptoms. Dissociation (pathological or non-pathological psychoform and somatoform symptoms) warrants further clinical and scientific study as a potential link between childhood complex trauma and the presence of adult cPTSD-symptoms and/ or dissociative subtype of PTSD.

FULL paper -

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Reality versus fantasy: Reply to Lynn et al. (2014).

Dalenberg, Constance J.; Brand, Bethany L.; Loewenstein, Richard J.; Gleaves, David H.; Dorahy, Martin J.; Cardeña, Etzel; Frewen, Paul A.; Carlson, Eve B.; Spiegel, David
Psychological Bulletin, Vol 140(3), May 2014, 911-920.

We respond to Lynn et al.’s (2014) comments on our review (Dalenberg et al., 2012) demonstrating the superiority of the trauma model (TM) over the fantasy model (FM) in explaining the trauma–dissociation relationship. Lynn et al. conceded that our meta-analytic results support the TM hypothesis that trauma exposure is a causal risk factor for the development of dissociation. Although Lynn et al. suggested that our meta-analyses were selective, we respond that each omitted study failed to meet inclusion criteria; our meta-analyses thus reflect a balanced view of the predominant trauma–dissociation findings. In contrast, Lynn et al. were hypercritical of studies that supported the TM while ignoring methodological problems in studies presented as supportive of the FM. We clarify Lynn et al.’s misunderstandings of the TM and demonstrate consistent superiority in prediction of time course of dissociative symptoms, response to psychotherapy of dissociative patients, and pattern of relationships of trauma to dissociation. We defend our decision not to include studies using the Dissociative Experiences Scale—Comparison, a rarely used revision of the Dissociative Experiences Scale that shares less than 10% of the variance with the original scale.

We highlight several areas of agreement: (a) Trauma plays a complex role in dissociation, involving indirect and direct paths; (b) dissociation–suggestibility relationships are small; and (c) controls and measurement issues should be addressed in future suggestibility and dissociation research. Considering the lack of evidence that dissociative individuals simply fantasize trauma, future researchers should examine more complex models of trauma and valid measures of dissociation.

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Surgenor, L. J., Snell, D. L. and Dorahy, M. J. (2015), Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in Police Staff 12–18 Months After the Canterbury Earthquakes. J. Traum. Stress, 28: 162–166. doi: 10.1002/jts.21991

Abstract only
Understanding posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in police first-responders is an underdeveloped field.

Using a cross-sectional survey, this study investigated demographic and occupational characteristics, coping resources and processes, along with first-responder roles and consequences 18 months following a disaster.

Hierarchical linear regression (N = 576) showed that greater symptom levels were significantly positively associated with negative emotional coping (β = .31), a communications role (β = .08) and distress following exposure to resource losses (β = .14), grotesque scenes (β = .21), personal harm (β = .14), and concern for significant others (β = .17). Optimism alone was negatively associated (β = -.15), with the overall model being a modest fit (adjusted R2 = .39). The findings highlight variables for further study in police.

#ptsd #police #newzealand

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Ford, J. D., & Gómez, J. M. (2015). Self injury & suicidality: the impact of trauma and dissociation. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, (just-accepted)
Julian D. Ford & Jennifer M. Gómez
Accepted author version posted online: 11 Mar 2015
Abstract In the growing research literature on non-suicidal self injury (NSSI) and suicidality (SA), there are many questions still unresolved about the role played by exposure to traumatic stressors (including but not limited to childhood maltreatment) and post-traumatic disorders (including dissociative features and disorders). In this Special Issue of the Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, a review paper and four empirical studies attempt to provide additional insight into the relationship of traumatization and dissociation to NSSI and SA. The review paper describes similarities and differences in the relationships that have been empirically documented between trauma exposure and post-traumatic stress or dissociative symptoms with NSSI versus SA, and highlights the need for research to identify and test integrative clinical constructs, such as emotion dysregulation, in order to develop systematic risk, assessment, and intervention models. The empirical reports provide illustrative examples of conceptually and clinically integrated research on traumatic stress, dissociation, and NSSI and SA. Their findings offer a more nuanced picture of the potential role of different forms and degrees of dissociation in SA and NSSI, and suggest that dissociation and emotion dysregulation may play a mediating role linking childhood maltreatment and adult or adolescent NSSI. In this Introduction, we briefly summarize key points from the Special Issue articles and point out directions that their findings suggest for future research, including incorporating multiple predictors in studies of NSSI and SA, utilizing longitudinal studies to assess etiology and course of NSSI and SA, and sampling diverse populations.
#selfharm #suicide #trauma #dissociation

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Trauma typology as a risk factor for aggression and self-harm in a complex PTSD population: the mediating role of alterations in self-perception.

Dyer KF, Dorahy MJ, Shannon M, Corry M.
J Trauma Dissociation. 2013;14(1):56-68. doi: 10.1080/15299732.2012.710184.


This study examined the role of prolonged, repeated traumatic experiences such as childhood and sectarian trauma in the development of posttraumatic aggression and self-harm. Forty-four adult participants attending therapy for complex trauma in Northern Ireland were obtained via convenience sampling. When social desirability was controlled, childhood emotional and physical neglect were significant correlates of posttraumatic hostility and history of self-harm. These relationships were mediated by alterations in self-perception (e.g., shame, guilt). Severity of sectarian-related experiences was not related to self-destructive behaviors. Moreover, none of the trauma factors were related to overt aggressive behavior. The findings have implications for understanding risk factors for posttraumatic aggression and self-harm, as well as their treatment.PMID: 23282047

#ptsd #selfharm #trauma
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