Marine biodiversity present in the country’s coastal zone is relatively little known. Many regions, ecosystems and environments have yet to be adequately sampled. Still, the number of species of fish cataloged in biome ranges between 705 and 1,209, considering estuary those areas.

Marine mammals add 57 species, and cetaceans (whales and dolphins) amounts to 53. Of this group, four animals are at risk of state: the frank whale, the humpback, the Franciscan or porpoise and the estuarine dolphin. Of the four species of the existing world order Sirenia, two occur in Brazil, one of the Manatee Seal, most endangered aquatic mammal extinction.

More than 100 bird species are associated with coastal and marine biome. Some are residents and others migrants. Besides maned, endangered species live and breed in the North. The coastal islands of the South and Southeast regions are sites where there is the presence of the terns, the shearwater-winged large, the shears, and the booby The gull.

Of the seven species of sea turtles known in the world, five live in Brazilian waters: the loggerhead or yellow; green; Giant or leather; the hawksbill turtle and the turtle-small. Brazil has also the only South Atlantic coral reefs. Of the more than 350 species of reef corals in the world, at least 20 were recorded in the country, eight are found only in our territory. In Brazilian mangroves can also be found at least 776 species of fish, birds, shellfish, plants and arthropods.


The main threats to marine biodiversity are national aquaculture, unsustainable fishing, the expansion of urban areas and tourism, beyond pollution, reduction of water resources, wood cutting mangroves and climate change.
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