The name Russia is derived from Rus, a medieval state populated mostly by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the later history, and the country typically was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля" (russkaja zemlja), which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography. The name Rus itself comes from Rus people, a group of Varangians (possibly SwedishVikings)who founded the state of Rus (Русь)
Russia is the largest country in the world; its total area is 17,075,200 square kilometres (6,592,800 sq mi).There are 23 UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Russia, 40 UNESCO biosphere reserves, 41 national parks and 101 nature reserves. It lies between latitudes 41° and 82° N, and longitudes 19° E and 169° W.
There are over 160 different ethnic groups and indigenous peoples in Russia .The country's vast cultural diversity spans ethnic Russians with their Slavic Orthodox traditions, Tatars and Bashkirs with their Turkic Muslim culture, Buddhist nomadic Buryats and Kalmyks, Shamanistic peoples of the Extreme North and Siberia, highlanders of the Northern Caucasus, and Finno-Ugric peoples of the Russian North West and Volga Region.
Russia has a developed, high-income market economy with enormous natural resources, particularly oil and natural gas. It has the 15th largest economy in the world by nominal GDP and the 6th largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). Since the turn of the 21st century, higher domestic consumption and greater political stability have bolstered economic growth in Russia. The country ended 2008 with its ninth straight year of growth, but growth has slowed with the decline in the price of oil and gas. Real GDP per capita, PPP (current international) was 19,840 in 2010. Growth was primarily driven by non-traded services and goods for the domestic market, as opposed to oil or mineral extraction and exports .The average nominal salary in Russia was $967 per month in early 2013, up from $80 in 2000 . In March 2014 the average nominal monthly wages reached 30,000 RUR (or US$980),while tax on the income of individuals is payable at the rate of 13% on most incomes. Approximately 12.8% of Russians lived below the national poverty line in 2011,significantly down from 40% in 1998 at the worst point of the post-Soviet collapse. Unemployment in Russia was 5.4% in 2014, down from about 12.4% in 1999 . The middle class has grown from just 8 million persons in 2000 to 104 million persons in 2013 . However, after United States-led sanctions since 2014 and a collapse in oil prices, the proportion of middle-class could halve to 20%.Sugar imports reportedly dropped 82% between 2012 and 2013 as a result of the increase in domestic output.