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Russian Federation
Российская Федерация
Rossiskaya Federatsiya

• President Vladimir Putin
• Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev
• Chairman of the Federation Council Valentina Matviyenko
• Chairman of the State Duma Vyacheslav Volodin

Largest City:
Москва (Moskva) (Moscow)
55°45′N 37°37′E

Москва (Moskva) (Moscow)
55°45′N 37°37′E

Ranked 1st
• Total 17,098,246 km2 (6,601,670 sq mi)
• Land 95.79%
• Water 4.21%

37,653 km (23,396 mi)

Eurasia (Europe, Asia)

Eastern Europe, Northern Asia

Norway 195.8 km (121.7 mi)
Finland 1,271.8 km (790.3 mi)
Estonia 138 km (86 mi)
Latvia 270.5 km (168.1 mi)
Lithuania 266 km (165 mi)
Poland 204.1 km (126.8 mi)
Belarus 1,239 km (770 mi)
Ukraine 1,925.8 km (1,196.6 mi)
Georgia 875.5 km (544.0 mi)
Azerbaijan 372.6 km (231.5 mi)
Kazakhstan 7,512.8 km (4,668.2 mi)
Mongolia 3,485 km (2,165 mi)
China 4,209.3 km (2,615.5 mi)
North Korea 17 km (11 mi)

Natural Resources:
minerals, oil, gas, coal, and timber

European and Asian Russia: mostly cool continental climate, extreme North: tundra, extreme southeast: temperate continental

Most of Russia consists of two plains (the East European Plain and the West Siberian Plain), two lowlands (the North Siberian and the Kolyma, in far northeastern Siberia), two plateaus (the Central Siberian Plateau and the Lena Plateau to its east), and a series of mountainous areas mainly concentrated in the extreme northeast or extending intermittently along the southern border.

The geography of Russia describes the geographic features of Russia, a country extending over much of northern Eurasia. Comprising much of eastern Europe and northern Asia, it is the world's largest country in total area. Due to its size, Russia displays both monotony and diversity. As with its topography, its climates, vegetation, and soils span vast distances. From north to south the East European Plain is clad sequentially in tundra, coniferous forest (taiga), mixed and broadleaf forests, grassland (steppe), and semi-desert (fringing the Caspian Sea) as the changes in vegetation reflect the changes in climate. Siberia supports a similar sequence but is predominantly taiga. The country contains forty UNESCO biosphere reserves.


Russian Ruble (RUB)

Fiscal Year:
Calendar Year

Trade Organizations:
WTO, CIS, APEC, EURASEC, G-20 and others


$1.2 trillion (2016) (nominal)
$3.5 trillion (2016) (PPP)

GPD Rank:
12th (nominal) / 6th (PPP) (2015)

GPD Growth:
0.7% (2014), 3.7% (2015),
1.2% (2016), 1.4% (2017)

GPD Per Capita:
$8,000 (2016) (nominal)
$24,000 (2016) (PPP)

GPD Rank:
12th (nominal) / 6th (PPP) (2015)

GPD By Sector:
Agriculture: 4%, Industry: 36.3%, Services: 59.7% (2014 est.)

Inflation (CPI):
12.9% (2015)

Population Below Poverty Line:
13.4% (2015)

Gini Coefficient:
Information Can Not be Found, Sorry.

Labour Force:
77 million (June 2016)

Labour Force by Occupation:
Agriculture: 9.7%, Industry: 27.8%, Services: 62.5% (2012 est.)

5.4% (June 2016)

Average Gross Salary:
RUB 433,000/€6,200/$7,000 annual (2016-09)

Average Net Salary:
RUB 377,000/€5,500/$6,000 annual (2016-09)

Main Industries:
Oil and gas, Chemicals, Mining, Processed metals, Defense equipment, Shipbuilding, Aerospace, Automotive, Communications equipment, Electric power generating and transmitting equipment,Consumer durables, Textiles, Food and beverages, Retailing, Real estate, Healthcare, Utilities

Ease-Of-Doing-Buisness Rank:
51st (2016)


$82 billion (Jan-Apr 2016)

Export Goods:
Petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, metals, wood and wood products, chemicals, and a wide variety of civilian and military manufactures

Main Export Partners:
Netherlands 11.9%
China 8.3%
Germany 7.4%
Italy 6.5%
Turkey 5.6%
Belarus 4.4%
*Japan 4.2% (2015)

$53 billion (Jan-Apr 2016)

Import Goods:
Consumer goods, machinery, vehicles, pharmaceutical products, plastic, semi-finished metal products, meat, fruits and nuts, optical and medical instruments, iron, steel

Main Import Partners:
China 19.2%
Germany 11.2%
United States 6.4%
Belarus 4.8%
Italy 4.6% (2015)

FDI Stock:
$361 billion (2015 est.)

Current Account:
$29 billion (Jan-Apr 2016)

Gross External Debt:
$538 billion (December 2015)

•Public Finances•

Public Debt:
14% of GDP (2016)

$182 billion (2014 est.)

$213 billion (2014 est.)

Credit Rating:
• Standard & Poor's:
BBB (Domestic)
BB+ (Foreign)
BB+ (T&C Assessment)
Outlook: Negative
• Moody's:
Outlook: Negative
• Fitch:
Outlook: Negative

Foreign Reserves:
$0.4 trillion (August 2016)

Economy Description:
Russia has an upper-middle income mixed economy with state ownership in strategic areas of the economy. Market reforms in the 1990s privatized much of Russian industry and agriculture, with notable exceptions to this privatization occurring in the energy and defense-related sectors.

Russia's vast geography is an important determinant of its economic activity, with some sources estimating that Russia contains over 30 percent of the world's natural resources. The World Bank estimates the total value of Russia's natural resources at $75 trillion US dollars. Russia relies on energy revenues to drive most of its growth. Russia has an abundance of oil, natural gas and precious metals, which make up a major share of Russia's exports. As of 2012 the oil-and-gas sector accounted for 16% of the GDP, 52% of federal budget revenues and over 70% of total exports.

Russia has a large and sophisticated arms industry, capable of designing and manufacturing high-tech military equipment, including a fifth-generation fighter jet, nuclear powered submarines, firearms, short range/long range ballistic missiles. The value of Russian arms exports totalled $15.7 billion in 2013—second only to the US. Top military exports from Russia include combat aircraft, air defence systems, ships and submarines.

In 2015, the Russian economy was the sixth largest in the world by PPP and twelfth largest at market exchange rates. Between 2000 and 2012 Russia's energy exports fueled a rapid growth in living standards, with real disposable income rising by 160%. In dollar-denominated terms this amounted to a more than sevenfold increase in disposable incomes since 2000. In the same period, unemployment and poverty more than halved and Russians' self-assessed life satisfaction also rose significantly. This growth was a combined result of the 2000s commodities boom, high oil prices, as well as prudent economic and fiscal policies. However, these gains have been distributed unevenly, as the 110 wealthiest individuals were found in a report by Credit Suisse to own 35% of all financial assets held by Russian households. Poor governance means that Russia also has the second-largest volume of illicit money outflows, having lost over $880 billion between 2002 and 2011 in this way. Since 2008 Forbes has repeatedly named Moscow the "billionaire capital of the world".

The Russian economy risked going into recession from early 2014 - mainly as a result of the falling oil prices, the 2014 Russian military intervention in Ukraine and the subsequent capital flight. However, the 2014 GDP growth remained positive at 0.6%. In 2015, the Russian economy shrunk by 3.7% and is expected to shrink further in 2016. However, the World Bank and the IMF estimate that Russia's economy will begin to recover by 2017.

In January 2016, the US company Bloomberg rated Russia's economy as the 12th most innovative in the world, up from 14th in January 2015 and 18th in January 2014. Russia has the world's 15th highest patent application rate, the 8th highest concentration of high-tech public companies, such as internet and aerospace and the third highest graduation rate of scientists and engineers. Former finance minister Alexei Kudrin has said that Russia needs to reduce geopolitical tensions to improve its economic conditions.


Federal Assembly
Федеральное Собрание
Federalnoye Sobraniye



Federation Council
State Duma


December 12th, 1991

Preceded By:
Supreme Soviet of Russia
Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union


Chairman of the Federation Council:
Valentina Matviyenko
Since 21 September 2011

Chairman of the State Duma:
Vyacheslav Volodin, United Russia
Since 5 October 2016


620 (450+170)

Federation Council Political Groups:
Non-Partisan (170)

[State Duma Political Groups:]
Government (342)
United Russia (341)
Independent (1)

Opposition (104)
Communist Party (42)
Liberal Democratic Party (39)
A Just Russia (23)

Other (2)
Rodina (1)
Civic Platform (1)
Vacant (2)


Federation Council Voting System:
Chosen by Territorial Politicians

State Duma Voting System:
Parallel Voting

Federation Council Last Election:
December 13th, 1993

State Duma last election:
September 18th, 2016

State Duma Next Election:
September 2021 or earlier


The Federal Assembly (Russian: Федера́льное Собра́ние, tr. Federalnoye Sobraniye; IPA: [fʲɪdʲɪˈralʲnəjə sɐˈbranʲɪjə]) is the national legislature of the Russian Federation, according to the Constitution of Russian Federation (1993). It was preceded by the Congress of People's Deputies of the Russian Federation and its Supreme Soviet.

It consists of the State Duma, which is the lower house, and the Federation Council, which is the upper house. Both houses are located in Moscow. The Chairman of the Federation Council is the third most important position after the President and the Prime Minister. In the case of incapacity of the President and the Prime Minister, the Chairman of the upper house of the Russian parliament becomes Acting President of Russia.

The jurisdiction of the State Duma includes: consent to the appointment of the Chairman of the Government, deciding the issue of confidence in the Government, appointment and dismissal of the Chairman of the Central Bank, appointment and dismissal of the Chairman and half of the auditors of the Accounting Chamber, appointment and dismissal of the Commissioner for Human Rights, proclamation of amnesty, advancing of charges against the President for his impeachment and others.

The jurisdiction of the Council of the Federation includes: approval of changes in borders between subjects of the Russian Federation, approval of the decree of the President on the introduction of a martial law or on the introduction of a state of emergency, deciding on the possibility of using the Armed Forces of Russia outside the territory of the Russia, appointment of elections of the President, impeachment of the President, appointment of judges of higher courts of Russia, appointment and dismissal of the Procurator-General of the Russian Federation, appointment and dismissal of Deputy Chairman and half of the auditors of the all Accounting Chamber and others.


Armed Forces of the Russian Federation
Вооружённые Си́лы Росси́йской Федера́ции

Information cannot be found, Sorry.

May 7th, 1992

Service branches:
Russian Ground Forces
Russian Aerospace Forces
Russian Navy
Strategic Missile Troops
Russian Airborne Troops


Supreme Commander-in-Chief:
President Vladimir Putin

Minister of Defence :
General of the Army Sergey Shoigu

Chief of the General Staff :
General of the Army Valery Gerasimov


12 Months

Active personnel:
~771,000 (771.0K) (2016) (ranked 5th)

Reserve personnel:
~2,000,000 (2.0M)


$65.6 billion (2015) (ranked 4th)

Percent of GPD:
5.4% (FY 2015)

•Industry & Description•

Domestic Suppliers:
•Mil Moscow Helicopter Plant
•Tikhomirov Scientific Research Institute of Instrument Design
•Moscow Institute of Thermal Technology
•Kalashnikov Concern
•Admiralty Shipyard
•Yantar Shipyard
•Northern Shipyard
•Zalenodolsk Shipyard
•Kerch Shipyard
•Zvezda Shipyard

Annual Exports:
•New Zealand
•United Kingdom
•Czech Republic

The Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (Russian: Вооружённые Си́лы Росси́йской Федера́ции, tr. Vooruzhonnije Síly Rossíyskoj Federátsii) are the military service of Russia, established after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. On 7 May 1992, Boris Yeltsin signed a presidential decree establishing the Russian Ministry of Defence and placing all Soviet Armed Forces troops on the territory of the Russian SFSR under Russian control. The Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces is the President of Russia. The Russian Armed Forces were formed in 1992.

Vladimir Putin and Defence Minister Sergey Shoygu, Victory Day Parade in Moscow, 9 May 2013.

Armed forces under the Ministry of Defence are divided into:

•the three "branches of Armed Forces" (вида вооружённых сил): the Ground Force, Aerospace Forces, and the Navy

•the two "separate troop branches" (Отдельные рода войск): the Strategic Missile Troops and the Airborne Troops

•the Rear of the Armed Forces, which has a separate status of its own

There are additionally two further "separate troop branches" maintained by the Ministry of the Interior, the Internal Troops and the Border Service. These are not normally included as branches of the "Armed Forces" but are nonetheless used in armed conflicts.

The number of personnel is specified by decree of the President of Russia. On 1 January 2008, a number of 2,019,629 units, including military of 1,134,800 units, was set. In 2010 the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) estimated that the Russian Armed Forces numbered about 1,027,000 active troops and in the region of 2,035,000 reserves (largely ex-conscripts). As opposed to personnel specified by decree, actual personnel in the forces are paid was reported by the Audit Chamber of Russia as 766,000 in October 2013. As of December 2013, the armed forces are at 82 percent of the required manpower.[unreliable source?]

According to SIPRI, Russia spent $66.4 billion on arms in 2015. Between the years 2005-2009 and 2010-2014, Russian exports of major weapons increased by 37 percent according to SIPRI. According to the Russian Defense Ministry, share of modern weapons in the Armed Forces reached from 26 to 48% among different kinds of troops in December 2014. This was raised to 30.5–70.7% as of July 2015. Average was 48 per cent over the first half of 2016.


"Государственный гимн Российской Федерации"
"Gosudarstvenný gimn Rossijskoj Federací"
"State Anthem of the Russian Federation"
The State Anthem of the Russian Federation (Russian: Госуда́рственный гимн Росси́йской Федера́ции, tr. Gosudarstvenný gimn Rossijskoj Federací; IPA: [ɡɐsʊˈdarstvʲɪnɨj ˈɡʲimn rɐˈsʲijskoj fʲɪdʲɪˈratsɨj]) is the name of the official national anthem of Russia. Its musical composition and lyrics were adopted from the State Anthem of the Soviet Union, composed by Alexander Alexandrov, and lyricists Sergey Mikhalkov and Gabriel El-Registan. The Soviet anthem was used from 1944, replacing "The Internationale" with a more Sovietcentric and Russiacentric song. The anthem had no lyrics after 1956, due to the original lyrics having references to former leader Joseph Stalin. New lyrics were introduced in 1977 by Mikhalkov with lyrics placing less emphasis on World War II and more on the victory of communism.

No Official Motto

National Animal(s):
Russian Bear

National Bird(s):
Information cannot be found, Sorry.

National Fruit(s):
Information cannot be found, Sorry.

National Tree(s):
Information cannot be found, Sorry.

National Flower(s):
Information cannot be found, Sorry.

National Year Designation/Calendar:
Information cannot be found, Sorry.

Official Language(s):

Indigenous Languages:
Information cannot be found, Sorry.

Regional Languages:
Information cannot be found, Sorry.

Minority Languages:
Information cannot be found, Sorry.

Ethnic Groups:
81.0% Russian
3.7% Tatar
1.4% Ukrainian
1.1% Bashkir
1.0% Chuvash
0.8% Chechen
11.0% others / unspecified


Flag [Visual/Detailed Description]:
The flag of Russia is a tricolor flag consisting of three equal horizontal fields: white on the top, blue in the middle and red on the bottom. The flag was first used as an ensign for Russian merchant ships and became official as the flag of the Tsardom of Russia in 1696. It remained in use until the establishment of the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic in 1917. It was re-introduced as the flag of the Russian Federation in 1991

Emblem [Visual/Detailed Description]:
The coat of arms of the Russian Federation derives from the earlier coat of arms of the Russian Empire which was abolished with the Russian Revolution in 1917 and restored in 1993 after the constitutional crisis. Though modified more than once since the reign of Ivan III (1462–1505), the current coat of arms is directly derived from its mediaeval original, with the double-headed eagle having Byzantine and earlier antecedents from long before the emergence of any Russian state. The general tincture corresponds to the early fifteenth-century standard [citation needed]. The shape of the eagle can be traced back to the reign of Peter the Great (1682–1725), although the eagle charge on the present coat of arms is golden rather than the traditional, imperial black.


144,221,341 (excluding Crimea), 146.5 million (including Crimea)

Growth Rate:
0.19% (2014 est.)

Birth Rate:
13.3 births/1,000 population (2014)

Death Rate:
13.1 deaths/1,000 population (2014)

Life Expectancy:
71.4 years (2015)
• male 65.9 years
• female 76.7 years

Fertility Rate:
1.78 (2015)

Infant mortality rate:
7.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2014)

•Age Structure•

0–14 years:

15–64 years:

65 and over:
13.9% (2015 end year)


Major ethnic:

Minor ethnic:
Information cannot be found, Sorry.

The demographics of Russia is about the demographic features of the population of the Russian Federation including population growth, population density, ethnic composition, education level, health, economic status and other aspects.

The population of Russia is 144,221,341 excluding Crimea, whose annexation is not recognized by the majority of the global community. Including Crimea and Sevastopol, the population stands at 146,544,710 million.

As of 2015, Russian TFR of 1.777 children per woman was the highest in Eastern, Southern and Central Europe. In 2013, Russia experienced the first natural population growth since 1990 at 22,700 people. Taking into account immigration, the population grew by 294,500 people.

According to the 2010 census, ethnic Russian people make up 81% of the total population. This share remained steady over the last few decades. Six other ethnicities have a population exceeding 1 million – Tatars (3.9%), Ukrainians (1.4%), Bashkir (1.1%), Chuvash (1%), Chechens (1%) and Armenians (0.9%). In total, 160 different ethnic groups live within the Russian Federation's borders.

Russia's population density is 8.4 people per square kilometre (22 per square mile), making it one of the most sparsely populated countries in the world. The population is most dense in the European part of the country, with milder climate, centering on Moscow and Saint Petersburg. 74% of the population is urban, making Russia a highly urbanized country.


Russia (; Russian: Росси́я, tr. Rossija; IPA: [rɐˈsʲijə]; from the Greek: Ρωσία — Rus'), also officially known as the Russian Federation (Russian: Росси́йская Федера́ция, tr. Rossijskaja Federacija; IPA: [rɐˈsʲijskəjə fʲɪdʲɪˈratsɨjə]), is a federal state in Eurasia. At 17,075,200 square kilometres (6,592,800 sq mi), Russia is the largest country in the world by surface area, covering more than one eighth of Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 146.6 million people at the end of March 2016. The European western part of the country is much more populated and urbanised than the East, about 77% of the population live in European Russia. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world, other major urban centers include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod and Samara.

Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia, and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait.

The nation's history began with that of the East Slavs, who emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde, and came to dominate the cultural and political legacy of Kievan Rus'. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east.

Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the partition of the Soviet Union in 1991, fourteen independent republics emerged from the USSR; as the largest, most populous, and most economically developed republic, the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and sole successor state of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic.

The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, as well as a member of the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan.


• Arrival of Rurik 862
• Kievan Rus' 882
• Grand Duchy 1283
• Tsardom January 16, 1547
• Empire October 22, 1721
• Republic September 14, 1917
• Russian SFSR November 6, 1917
• Soviet Union December 30, 1922
• Sovereignty Declaration June 12, 1990
• Independence December 25, 1991
• Current Constitution December 12, 1993 
Russian Federation
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Government: Capitalist

Leader: Hermann Fegelein

Date Founded:September 18,1822



Population:205.000 MILLIONS




Reserve:1 MILLION


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