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Software Testing Interview Questions for Beginners and Professionals - JavaTpoint
#What is PDCA cycle and where testing fits in? #SoftwareTestingTutorial
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Top 6 Software Testing Methods

Whitebox testing:
This kind of testing checks the developed structure and the continuous flow of the software. Each code and is checked in the testing helping generate strong and efficient software.      

Blackbox testing:
This testing main intention is to specifically check the Software functionality, this processing ignores the software programming structure.

Performance testing:
This testing does the part of checking the load time and usability in terms of performance of the software.

Unit testing:
This kind of testing is performed by programmers who keep themselves updated with the latest technology. They check the internal codes and the design structure of the specific software.

Automated Testing:
This kind of testing is performed by QA testers. Latest tools and techniques are implemented under controlled condition. QA Services strategies plans for individual deleted bug software and define a goal on how to be enable to deliver you risk free product.

Acceptability Testing:
This is the final test that ensures each product has gone through the detailed testing platform and matches the results asked by the Client.

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What is Automated Software Testing Tools?

Software testing is one of the most important phases of software development process. Though hundreds of software applications are released every year by different companies, many of them fail to reach people as they are loaded with bugs and other errors. Since most of the companies are using software to automate their business process, quality is extremely important and any error in the software can be disastrous to the company. Hence, software testing is very important to maintain quality. Usually any piece of software is first tested for its effectiveness.

Testers check if the application does its task. For example, an application meant for a retail store will be tested if does all calculations correctly. If it doesn't, that can lead to loss to the company. There are many types of software testing to ensure all aspects of product quality are ensured and that theapplication is fit for mass adoption.

All software applications that we use are tested by software testing professionals with different software testing tools. These tests may include load testing, stress testing performance testing, data driven testing, web application load testing and many more. There are certain situations where the tester can't repeatedly test. For this they use automated software testing tools for automation testing. Automation testing can be very useful to test large-scale test scenarios that can't be manually tested in limited time.

Many software testing tools like Quicktest Pro are available to test standalone and web applications. These automated software testing tools can be used check different test cases as they are configurable to test all types of software. If you are building a standalone application, you need a testing tool to automate the testing. If you are into web application, you need a different application. But some of the software testing tools allow you to test both types of applications.

If you develop a web or ajax development, you will a web testing software for web application load testing and application performance management. When getting an automated tool to test, check if your application can be configured so that it can be used test all types of software. Application performance management is crucial for any application to ensure optimal quality. To ensure that, testing professionals do load testing, performance testing etc.

Automated software testing tools are efficient and economical. They save lots of time and effort. These tools save hundreds and even thousands of human hours and even provide the best value for the money.

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How to write a System Test Plan?

 Imagine for a moment you've just finished a web application for a client. Swimming around within that application is 100 bugs. What proportion of those bugs would you say is acceptable for the client to find (e.g. 50, 30, 10)? The point is, those bugs are going to be found by someone, and its either going to be you or the client. You can think of it as a sliding scale, the more bugs the client finds, the more your creditability suffers and the more damage you do to the business relationship.

In the martial arts there's a saying; "expect the best, but prepare for the worst". The US Navy Seals have a slightly more gun-ho version which goes; "The more you sweat in training, the less you bleed in battle." Notice how it says the ‘less' you bleed in battle, implying that if you enter into combat, you are going to get bloody. Software development is like this too, if you're going to create software, you are going to get bugs.

As a rough guide, you want to try catch at least 80% of all bugs. Ideally, you would go for 100%, a worthwhile but lofty goal. Your best bet for catching as many bugs as possible is to create a system test plan. Creating a decent system test plan is easier said then done. A good place to start is your functional specification (assuming you have one). In effect, your specification gets converted into the system test plan. What you are doing is checking to see if the things you said you were going to do have actually been done.

A test plan is nothing new, in fact, the structure I use was developed by Microsoft years ago. It's a simple format, a test case has a title, some steps, and an expected result. 

I write my test plans with the intent of having an independent QA tester run through it, so no prior knowledge of the system should be assumed. You want someone who has never used the system before because they will take a fresh approach. You're counting on them to use it in a manner which was never intended (e.g. on the ‘My Profile' page, they type in a really long name for the ‘Company' field and crash the system because the database only has room for a 32 character string).

You should keep your test cases short, to the point, and self contained (i.e. they generally don't link to other test cases). If you have a test case that goes over a page, consider breaking it into smaller units. The document itself should be self contained as well, that is; it shouldn't require the QA tester to get up and ask programmers questions like "what's the login password?"

Instruct your QA tester to log any bugs they find in your bug tracking system and also to write a proper description rather then just saying "Test Case 16 failed." You may want to read my article on Logging Bugs Like a Pro for some suggestions on good bug logging practices.


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What Is a Test Plan?

A test plan refers to a document that describes the scope, resource, schedule and approach of the projected testing activities.

The test plan identifies the test items, features that need to be tester, the tasks that need to be carried out, the designated person who would perform each of these tasks as well as any risks that may be require contingency planning. In terms of software testing, test plans provide detailed information about the forthcoming testing efforts.

These include: 
The scope of testing
-Test Schedule
-Test Deliverables
-Contingencies and Risks
-Release Criteria

Test plan can also be considered to be the detailed document describing how the process of testing would proceed, who would perform the testing, what are the things that would be tested, how much time it would require to complete the testing process and the quality level to which the testing would be performed. Due to its importance, it is a frequently asked testing interview question in most IT related job interviews.

Creating Test Plans

In the earliest phases of deployment planning, it is the job of the testing team to develop a test plan. This plan defines the scope and objective of all testing efforts as well as identifies the tools, software and hardware that are required for performing the testing. It also specifies the functions and features that would be tested during the process. An all-inclusive test plan also contains information about any potential risk factors that may jeopardize the process of testing.

In case the testing team has been divided into several technology sub-teams, then each of the sub-teams would be responsible for developing a test plan for the specific technology area pertaining to that particular team. For instance, the networking team is required to prepare a test plan related to the testing networking features. Each member of the respective sub-team must review and approve the test plan of that particular team before it can be integrated into the main test plan.

Types of Test Plan

There are a variety of different types of test plans. These include:

Master Test Plan: This is a unified advanced test plan that brings together all the test plans for any particular project / product.

Test Plans for Specific Testing Levels: There are different test plans for each of the levels of the testing process. These include:

-Unit Testing Plan
-System Testing Plan
-Integration Testing Plan
-Acceptance Testing Plan

Test Plans for Specific Testing Types: There are a variety of test plans for the major kinds of testing such as Security Test Plan and Performance Test Plan.

Template for Test Plan

The content and format of any test plan varies greatly depending on the standards, processes as well as test management tools that are being used in the process of testing.

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What is an inspection in software testing?

The key characteristics of an Inspection consists of:
-Led by trained moderator (not the author)
-Usually peer examination
-Defined roles
-Includes metrics
-Formal process based on rules and checklists with entry and exit criteria
-Pre-meeting preparation
-Inspection report, list of findings
-Formal follow-up process
-Optionally, process improvement and reader
-Find defects

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What Is Embedded Software Testing?

Testing is one of the most important aspects of any industry. It is very critical that the software developed has to be examined to make sure it works as per the specifications and requirements. It is aimed that the software need to give the preferred benefits in accordance to the organization specifications and should be free from bugs. There are various varieties of testing including system testing, Unit testing and integration testing.

It has been noticed that if the application is not ready to give the desired output, it is mostly due to the purpose that there are some unexpected bugs in the application produced. These bugs are noted to the growth team and they repair them and attempt to get the outcome which is as per the requirements and project necessities.

One of the most effective methods of software testing is Automation testing. It has been observed that unit and integration testing if completed manually can be very expensive and time consuming. This is 1 of the good reasons why testing has to be automated. There are different testing tools which can carry out testing in few hours and produce the testing reports. Nevertheless, it should be noted that automation is needed for those elements of code which take a good deal of time to get examined. Comprehensive automation testing is not employed in real time environments. It depends upon the software specifications and management if they want to make use of testing tools.

Manual testing is typically relevant to the performance of the application to check if it is operating as desired or not. However, automation is required to examine the code of the programming and how application works. With the help of these instruments, the method of testing are sped up which can finish the job in short length. Large data set and mixtures can be examined effectively with automation programming. It has also been noticed that they are capable to give much more accurate results as human error can take place while testing software due to the fact of carelessness or boredom.

Software testing is performed by the software testers who have complete information and information about testing and how to use various tools. It is also one of the most crucial phases of software improvement. Men and women can make profession in this stream and can get profitable career presents. You can test on the internet that a lot of companies recruit individuals who are effectively-versed with the testing methodologies and techniques.

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What is a successful software testing  review?

In software Testing a sucessful review consists of:
-Each review has a clear predefined objective
-The right people for the review objectives are involved.
-Defects found are welcomed, and expressed objectively.
-People issues and psychological aspects are dealt with (e.g. making it a positive experience for the author)
-Review techniques are applied that are suitable to the type and level of software work products and reviewers.
-Checklists or roles are used if appropriate to increase effectiveness of defect identification
-Training is given in review techniques, especially the more formal techniques, such as inspection.
-Management supports a good review process (e.g. by incorporating adequate time for review activities in project schedules).
-There is an emphasis on learning and process improvement.
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What is Black box testing?

Black box techniques don't explicitly use knowledge of the internal structure or code. i.e. the Test Engineer doesn't need to know the internal working of the Black box or application.

The advantages of black box can be:
-Tester can be non-technical.
-Ideal for UAT by End User or Business Analyst
-Used to verify contradictions in actual system and the specifications.
-Test cases can be designed as soon as the functional specifications are complete

The disadvantages can be:
-The test inputs needs to be from large sample space.
-It is difficult to identify all possible inputs in limited testing time. So writing test cases is slow and difficult
-Chances of having unidentified paths during this testing

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