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Learn more about geography of Peninsular India

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Learn about The Northern Mountains of Indian Subcontinent.

AMAZING UNDERGROUND HOUSES OF CENTRAL AUSTRALIA
In the ‘red centre’ of Australia, the surface temperature might be a hellish 40 degrees Centigrade or more. But in the underground miners’ homes called ‘dugouts,’ the mercury remains 19-25C, summer and winter.

The opal mining town of Coober Pedy has hundreds of dugouts. Half of Coober Pedy’s two thousand residents live in them. The words Coober Pedy mean ‘white man underground.’ This frontier town came about after WW1, when returned soldiers burrowed into the earth like meerkats in search of precious opal.

In my upcoming novel SORRY TIME, there’s an exciting scene set inside a dugout that’s been plunged into stygian darkness after the power is switched off.  For my research I visited Coober Pedy, where a number of locals welcomed me into their subterranean residences. You can check out this YouTube clip about my trip:
 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gc2fdwjw1Go

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Deforestation in Haiti along the border with Dominican Republic (2010).
Deforestation in Haiti along the border with Dominican Republic (2010).
Blog: http://pillandia.blogspot.com/2015/08/2010-do-ht-dominikaani-vabariik-haiti.html
Deforestation in Haiti is a severe environmental problem. Haitians burn wood charcoal for 60% of their domestic energy production.
In 1923 over 60% of Haiti's land was forested. In 2006, less than 2% of the land was forested.
Dynamics and impact
The rapid deforestation of Haiti began during the colonial period, and was intensified when coffee was introduced in 1730. Upland forest were cleared and fifty years later, a quarter of the colony's land was under coffee. The system of plantation monoculture and clean -cultivation between rows of coffee, indigo, tobacco, and sugarcane exhausted soil nutrients and led to rapid erosion (Paskett and Pholoctete, 1990).
Following the Haitian revolution, the government was forced to export timber throughout the 19th century to pay off a 90 million franc indemnity to France. No longer under colonial rule, land remained unequally distributed nevertheless, and peasants were granted access only to marginal slopes between 200 and 600m above the fertile plains and below the zones of coffee production. These hillside soils were particularly susceptible to erosion when cleared for farming.
Deforestation sped up after Hurricane Hazel drowned trees throughout the island in 1954. Beginning in about 1954, concessionaires stepped up their logging operations in response to Port-au-Prince's intensified demand for charcoal. Deforestation accelerated, which had already become a problem because of environmentally unsound agricultural practices, rapid population growth, and increased competition over land. Techniques that could make forestry more productive for fuel like coppicing and pollarding were not used.
Soil erosion
The most direct effect of deforestation is soil erosion. An estimated 15,000 acres (61 sq km) of topsoil are washed away each year, with erosion also damaging other productive infrastructure such as dams, irrigation systems, roads, and coastal marine ecosystems. Soil erosion also lowers the productivity of the land, worsens droughts, and eventually leads to desertification, all of which increase the pressure on the remaining land and trees.
Targeting of Dominican Republic forests
Because of Haiti running out of plant material to burn, Haitians have created an illegal market for coal on the Dominican side. Conservative estimates calculate the illegal movement of 115 tons of charcoal per week from the Dominican Republic to Haiti in 2014. Dominican officials estimate that at least 10 trucks per week are crossing the border loaded with charcoal.
Environmental efforts
Most of Haiti's governments have paid only lip service to the imperative of reforestation. The main impetus to act came from abroad. USAID's Agroforestry Outreach Program, Pwojè Pyebwa, was Haiti's major reforestation program in the 1980s. Peasants planted more than 25 million trees under Projè Pyebwa, but as many as seven trees were cut for each new tree planted.
Later efforts to save Haiti's trees focused on intensifying reforestation programs, reducing waste in charcoal production, introducing more wood-efficient stoves, and importing wood under USAID's Food for Peace program. Because most Haitians depend upon wood and charcoal as their primary fuel source, energy alternatives are needed to save the forests. A 15-year Environment Action Plan, authorized in 1999, proposed to stop deforestation by developing alternative fuel sources. Political instability and lack of funding have limited the impact of this reform effort.
Several agencies and companies that produce solar cookers as an alternative to using wood and charcoal have been working in Haiti to establish solutions to the poverty and fuel issues, though their effectiveness and the degree to which they are used are questionable.

#haiti #deforestation #border #dominicanrepublic  
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On the top of a mountain (1,509 m - German: Gipfel des Ofen, Slovene: Peč gora, Italian: Monte Forno) there is the tripoint among Austria, Italy and Slovenia.
It is also the only point of intersection of three major European cultures and groups of languages: the Romanic, the Germanic and the Slavic.
This point is called Dreiländereck by Austrians, Tromeja by Slovenes and Triplice confine by Italians.
On the top of a mountain (1,509 m - German: Gipfel des Ofen, Slovene: Peč gora, Italian: Monte Forno) there is the tripoint among Austria, Italy and Slovenia.
It is also the only point of intersection of three major European cultures and groups of languages: the Romanic, the Germanic and the Slavic.
This point is called Dreiländereck by Austrians, Tromeja by Slovenes and Triplice confine by Italians.

Blog: http://pillandia.blogspot.com/2015/08/2011-at-it-si-austria-itaalia-sloveenia.html
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 دورات النيبش
دورة تدريبية  عالمية  تؤهلك إلى وظيفة مرشد صحة وسلامة في القطاع الخاص ( شركات قطاع النفط والغاز وغيرها من الشركات) والقطاع الحكومي 
دورة تدريبية تهم جميع العاملين في قطاع الصحة والسلامة وحماية البيئة والمهتمين بالمجال نفسه من جميع القطاعات والمؤسسات. 
مخطط الدورة  :
الوحدة الأولي: إدارة السلامة والصحة المهنية
أساسيات في الصحة والسلامة
وضع سياسة للصحة والسلامة
التنظيم للصحة والسلامة
تشجيع ثقافة الصحة والسلامة
تقييم المخاطر
مبادئ السيطرة في الصحة والسلامة
مراقبة ومراجعة الصحة والسلامة
التحقيق والتسجيل للحوادث المتعلقة بالصحة والسلامة 
الوحدة الثانية: السيطرة على مخاطر بيئة العمل
حركة البشر والعربات
التحميل والتنزيل والنقل اليدوي
معدات العمل
المخاطر الكهربائية
مخاطر الحريق
المخاطر الكيميائية والبيولوجية
المخاطر الفيزيائية والنفسية
عمليات البناء والحفر والهدم 
تكلفة الكورس :عرض خاص بمناسبة شهر رمضان اعادة عليكم باليمن والبركات 
التكلفة  شامله كل شئ في حالة التسجيل باللغة العربية أو الإنجليزية . 
المادة العلمية
يحصل المتدرب علي المادة العلمية مطبوعة وأيضاً ملفات العرض والشرح للكورس (باوربوينت) بالإضافة لشرح صوتي لكل المحاضرات للمراجعة والتأهيل للإختبار
الشهادات 
يحصل الحاضرون على شهادة حضور الدورة من المركز
بعد الإنتهاء من حضور البرنامج يكون المتدربون قادرون للتقدم لإختبار الشهادة العامة الدولية "النيبوش" 
شهادة النيبوش العامة الدولية في مجال الصحة والسلامة المهنية تقدم شهادة في السلامة والصحة المهنية معترف بها عالميا من قبل مجلس الامتحانات بالمملكة المتحدة  
لغة الإختبار
الإختبار متاح باللغة العربية والإنجليزية علي حسب رغبة المتدرب
ملحوظة لمن يريد الإختبار باللغة العربية
تصدر الشهادة مكتوبة باللغة الانجليزية ولا يوجد بها أى اشارة من أى نوع أن الكورس تم إجتيازه باللغة العربية, أى أنه لا فرق على الإطلاق بين من إجتاز الإختبار باللغة الإنجليزية أو العربية
عرض خاص للمجموعات والشركات والموسسات 
- يشرفنا اتصالك بنا للتعرف اكثر علي تفاصيل اكثر عن العرض :
- Te /01098406200- 01019383097
- Email / surveywork47@gmail.com
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The border between Republic of Crimea (since 2014: Russian Federation; claimed by Ukraine) and Ukraine.

Blog:
http://pillandia.blogspot.com
Community:
https://plus.google.com/communities/112801523437501412730

+Jack Poison +Ludmilla Webb +Maria Meshechkina +Bojana P. 
The border between Republic of Crimea (since 2014: Russian Federation; claimed by Ukraine) and Ukraine.

Blog:
http://pillandia.blogspot.com
Community:
https://plus.google.com/communities/112801523437501412730

#crimea #Крым #Крим #russia #ukraine  
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2015-06-17
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