Official Name : Republic of India
Capital : New Delhi
Nationality : Indian
Geographical Area (Sq. Km.) : 32,87,263
Population (2011) : 1,210,193,422
Males : 623,724,248
Females : 586,469,174
Pop. Density : 382 per sq. km.
Sex Ratio : 940 females per 1000 males
Literacy Rate (2011) : 77, 84, 54,120 (74.04 %)
Males : 44, 42, 03,762 (82.14 %)
Females : 33, 42, 50,358 (65.46 %)
States : 28
Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Gujarat, Karnataka, Odisha, Chhattisgarh, Tamil Nadu, Bihar, West Bengal, Arunachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Asom, Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Punjab, Haryana, Kerala, Meghalaya, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura, Sikkim, Goa.
Union Territories : 7
Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Delhi, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Pondicherry, Chandigarh, Daman & Diu, Lakshadweep.
Mountain Ranges : 7
1. The Himalayas 2. The Patkoi and other ranges bordering India in the north and north-east 3. The Vindhyan 4. The Aravalli 5. The Satpura 6. The Sahyadri 7. The Eastern Ghats.
Main Watersheds : 3
1. Himalyan range with its Karakoram branch in the north, 2. Vindhyan and Satpura ranges in Central India, and 3. Sahyadri or Western Ghats on the West Coast.
Situation : India is the seventh largest country and second most populous country of the world accounting for about 2.4% of the total world area. lying entirely in the northern hemisphere, the mainland extends between latitude 8°4' N and 37°6' N and 68°7' E and 97°25' E and is a part of the Asian continent. India measures about 3,214 km from north to south between the extreme longitudes and about 2,933 km from east to west between the extreme longitudes. It has a land frontier of about 15,200 km. The total length of the costline of the mainland, lakshdweep islands and Andaman and Nicobar Isalands, is 7,575.6 km. Total geographic land area 32,87,263 sq km. If we consider cultivable land, India is second only to USA. India is located mid-way between West Asia and East Asia. Many transoceanic routes pass through India which connect African continent, industrially developed European continent, Petroleum rich West Asia and South-eastern countries, namely, China, Japan, Australia and Western coast of USA.
Countries having a common border with India are Afghanistan and Pakistan to the north-west, China, Bhutan and Nepal to the north, Myanmar to the east and Bangladesh to the east of West Bengal.
Physical Characteristics : The mainland consists of four well-defined regions :
1. The great mountain zone
2. The Indo-Gangetic plain
3. The desert region
4. The Southern Peninsula
Rivers : The rivers of India may be classified as follows :
1. The Himalayan rivers
2. The Deccan rivers
3. The Coastal rivers
4. The rivers of the inland drainage basin
Climatic Conditions : The Indian meteorological department recognizes four seasons viz.,
1. The Cold Weather (Dec. – Feb.)
2. The Hot Weather (March – May)
3. The Rainy Season (June – Sept.)
4. The season of the retreating monsoon (Oct. – Nov.)
The climatic regions based on rainfall are granted recognition in India.
Dimensions : Distance from north to south 3,214 km
Distance from east to west 2,933 km
Length of coastline 6,100 km
ength of land frontier 15,200 km
North : The Himalayan range and Nepal separate India from Tibet. The protected state of Bhutan also lies in the north-east. The boundary line between India and China is called the MacMohan Line. India's holder with Nepal spans for (1,752 km); with Bhutan (587 km); and with China (3,917 km).
East : Myanmar (Burma) and Bangladesh form an enclave within India and the Bay of Bengal. Its international boundary with Myanmar is 1,458 km long and with Bangladesh is 4,096 km long.
West : In the north-west India shares a boundary mainly with Pakistan and the Arabian Sea on the west.
North-West : Afghanistan and Pakistan are situated on the north-west of India. India-Afghanistan border is only 80 km long whereas Indo-Pakistan border is 3,310 km long.
South : To the south of India are the Indian Ocean and Sri Lanka. The Gulf of Mannar and Palk Strait separate India from Sri Lanka on the eastern side.