Egyptian Alphabet
a this (demonstrative)
d and; with
f to give
g at (location); in (location); to be
(description); to do
i at; for; to
j in
k to give; to hand; to visit
-k you (M) (direct obj. pronoun)
n of
s by means of; to; with
t him (direct obj. pronoun)
-t it (M object) (direct obj. pronoun)
u and (time)

ḁ suff. 2nd pers. sg. imperative m.
-ḁ suff. pl. suffix
'ḁ, f. n. milk vocative suffix
d pl. the same f. pot, receptacle
d m. pl. the same
d pl. the
d do, make
h m. alcoholic drink of any sort
i f. cowry shell f, (acc. īt) pl.
i f. throat f, (acc. ēt) pl. abstemious (lit. throat blocked)
i f. narrow strips of matting f, pl.
-i genitive suffix
-i 2nd pers. f. imperative
i come
k where is to be found
l' m. oil obtained from butter,
m pl. f. women
ō m. the acc,sg, of m. def. art.
-ō his poss. pron. suffix
re pl. rǐ f. , well
š f. , meat acc. šāt
š ša'ḁ m., pl. cow
š f. urine
-t suffix, fem. imp.
u m. the nom. sg. of m. def. art
w suffix and
w def. art. before aspirates

Egyptian rule Turkey had ruled Egypt since 1260. At the beginning of the 19th century they no longer controlled the country efficiently, although a Turkish-speaking Ottoman elite was still influential. After the defeat of Napoleon, Mehmet Ali was appointed "vice-roy". Under this title he was to rule a relatively independent Egypt. In 1820, Mehmet sent his son Ismail Pasha to recover upper Nubia, where same survivors of the
Mamluk army had taken refuge (Holt and Daly 1979:47). It may be of
some interest to note that the Ababda provided the caravan transport and guidance for Ismail's expedition (ibid). Having been successful, Ismail proceeded to attack Sennar, the capital of the Funj kingdom, which was at this stage plagued by political chaos. Apart from the political motive behind this campaign, the conquest was also motivated by the very same prospects that had aroused pharaonic interest and brought the Arabs to the Sudan: the hope for gold and for secure access
to supplies of African slaves for the Egyptian army (Mohamed
1980:15; Schultze 1963:279). It appears, however, that the quest for
gold was less rewarding than was the slave trade, which prospered up till the time of British involvement. In Egypt, Mehmet Ali tried to launch cotton as a profitable alternative to grain cultivation about 1820. This venture later became another important focus for the Egyptian plans for Sudan. Three aspects of the Egyptian rule are important to consider here, as they were of significance for the Beja economy. The first is the degree of efficiency in the administrative and fiscal systems as relating to the Beja, the second the introduction of alternative models for land use
other than those pursued by the Beja, and the third the conditions prevalent for the caravan trade and the harbours during the Egyptian era.
The conquest of Sennar in itself naturally had immediate though
limited effects on the Beja. Whereas the riverine peoples were subject
to very harsh taxation, particularly in the form of confiscation of slaves, the nomads were at first left in peace by the Turks. However, in
1831-2 a major expedition was organized against the Hadendowa. It
ended with the Turko-Egyptian force being wiped out by a Hadendowa
contingent led by Mohamed Din (Holt and Daly 1979:63). The next
attempt to obtain tribute from the Hadendowa and the Halenga was
made in 1840, and was more successful in so far as the Hadendowa and Halenga leaders formally submitted themselves. On the suggestion of the Halenga leader, the Turko-Egyptian governor-general had the Gash river dammed, in order to force the unwilling Hadendowa to pay their tribute. The dam broke, and the scheme failed; the Hadendowa were able to take refuge in the dense bush around the lower Gash (op. cit: 66). In 1844 an attempted Hadendowa revolt was brutally crushed (op. cif: 69, Bom 1964:47). It was during these years that Kassala town was founded, about six km south of the place where the river forks out into the delta. Through its potential for cultivation and its strategic importance at the crossing between caravan routes, the original military camp soon grew into a centre of some importance. In the 1860s there were between 10,000 and 20,000 people living in the town and its suburbs (Bom 1964:48).1 For those who were living close to garrisons such as Kassala and Berber, tribute-paying may certainly have been a substantiaI problem.For other groups the information is scanty. Jackson (1926:35) was of the opinion that the Beja generally had less of a grudge against the Turko-Egyptian Government than other Sudanese people, because no government had been able to tax them efficiently. Sandars (1935:206) notes that the Amar'ar were charged with far smaller taxes than the Hadendowa, but that the burden of having to provide the government troops with camels was felt to be decidedly heavy. Until the time of the Turkish occupation, farming in the Beja lands had been limited to subsistence durra cultivation on a small scale. Foreign rule did not substantially threaten the land-use system of the Beja. Gash and Tokar were drought refuges for Beja herds looking for pasture, and some small-scale cultivation of durra could take place there as well. Now, however, the Turkish governor of Suakin, Mumtaz Pasha, introduced cotton to Kassala and Tokar in 1870. His ambition, according to Schultze (1963:39), was to put 16 million feddan (6.7 million hectares) under cotton. In contrast to such astonishing figures, Schultze quotes 50 acres 1 as the area put under cotton in Tokar the year 1871, and 2,500 acres as the corresponding figure for Gash (op.cit:44). Internal Sudanese problems with transport and the Mahdist insurrection of the mid-1880s, however, put an obstacle to the further development of this scheme at the same time as the end of the American war quenched the international interest in Sudanese cotton (Shami 1961:148, Holt and Daly 1979:81).

I will be altering the name soon

a adv. only, just. Muk a töny. Carry only the pot.
a part. discourse marker to reference item new to a story.
a- SW v.pref. nominalizer marker on verbs. [Gram: used to create a verbal noun from a verb, may be archaic marker]
apac sweetness, something edible.
a- n.pref. archaic gender marker for feminine singular. Syn: ma-.
abiook herdsman. raan biok
anyingaak a type of ant.
aa SWr Sg: e-. aux. historical declarative marker for plural subject. [Gram: Unlike the normal declarative marker /a-/, the plural pronoun comes between the historical marker and the tense auxiliary thus setting the /aa/ apart from the tense auxiliary.] Syn: a-.
aao, aao cï we have been. [Gram: verb particle of narrative with plural pronouns] ɣok aao cï lœ keny we set out on a journey
aawe, aawe cï you-all have been.
aake, aake cï they have been.
aɣook SC It is us..
aa SWr Sg: ë-. v. to be (pl). [Gram: a before words beginning with /a/] Keek aa
Muœnyjçñ. They are Dinka. aux. historical
declarative marker for plural subject.
[Gram: Unlike the normal declarative
marker /a-/, the plural pronoun comes
between the historical marker and the
tense auxiliary thus setting the /aa/ apart
from the tense auxilary.] Syn: a-.
aao, aao cï we have been. [Gram: verb
particle of narrative with plural
pronouns] ɣok aao cï lœ keny we set out
on a journey
aawe, aawe cï you-all have been.
aake, aake cï they have been.
aɣook SC It is us..
aa- Sg: a-. v.pref. non-historical, declarative marker when the subject is plural.
aariäŋ they are playing.
a- / aa- v.pref. non-historical declarative marker, indicative verb particle of statement.
[Gram: omitted in questions, prefixes to PRS verb form or verb auxiliaries] Syn: ë-. anin
he sleeps Bï jaal? Abï jaal. Shall he leave?
He shall leave.
aba Pl: abak. aux. you will. [Gram: contracted form of yïn+abï]
aba Pl: abuk. aux. I will, I shall. [Gram: contracted from ɣɛn+abï] Aba tiŋ. I shall see.
abaa aux. will to me. [Gram: 1st person pronoun
object with future time; contracted from
abï+ɣa] Yïn abaa kony. You shall help me.
abac SWj adv. only. SWr: aril, arir.
abadha SWr n. wretch (starving, thief of food).
cf: cuär.
abak SWr v. ... abate.
apal abak abate.
abak SWr Pl: abɛk. n. part, half, remainder. abaŋ
tök one half
abak SWr Sg: aba. aux. you shall, you all will.
[Gram: contracted form of wek+abï] Abak
tïŋ. You shall see.
abal SWr Pl: adëijök. n. lustful person, whore.
cf: aguɛc, bal. SWm: apaŋyol.
abalany SWr n. little grey monkey. cf: agɔth,
londor. SCa: bindɔr.
abaltur SWr SEb n. big forest lizard. SWm: luil.
abanpoor SWr n. vegetable sponge. cf: makorweu.
abany SWr n. creeping plant with bitter eatable
abaany SWr n. small thorn tree with very pliable
wood, used in construction of roofs.
abaŋ See: abak. n. half, part of.
abaŋ aʼut SWr n. fabulous princess. Loi ɣɛn aba ciet
abaŋ aʼut. Treat me like a princess.


gain (n) Yuto, nueng’o
gale (n) Yamb auka.
gall(n) Kedhno. (idiomatic expression) Kethi rach- you are an antipathic
person; Opp. or kind
gallon (n) )ndong’. Smth for measuring. Or Gallan
game (n) Tugo.
garbagge (n) Yugi; gik molil; taka.
gas (n) Muya.
gather (v) Choko kanyakla.
geese (n) Mbata Msinga
gentile (adj.) Mang’won. A gentleman => Ng’at mangwon
genuine (adj.) Madieri, mowinjore, maratiro.
get(v) Yudo; nuang’o gimoro
gift(n) Mich, Chiwo.
girl(n) Nyako, nyathi manyako.
give (v) Miyo.
glad (adj) Mamor.
go (v) Dhiyo; dhi. *see the verbs.
go-between (n) Jagam kata jatuto, wangira
god (n) Nyasaye; Were, Ruoth
gold (n) Kidi mar dhahabu.
good (adj.) Maber
gospel (n) injili
gossip(n) Kuoth (v) Kuotho
gourd (n) Apiga (for drinking); puga (for keeping liquid staff, or seeds.
government(n) Sirikal; Piny owacho.
grain (n) Cham.
granny(n) Dayo.
grass(n) Lum
grasshopper (n) dede.
grave (n) bur ng’at maotho.
great (adj) mang’ongo.
greed (adj) wuoro.
greedy (adj) mowuor.
green (n) Ralum, majan.
greeting (n) mos, mosruok.
greet (v) moso.
group (n) kanyakla, kueth, unji.
grow (v) ti, twi, dongo, nya.
guard (v) rito.
gun (n) bunde.

Hailstone (n) pe.
Hair (n) yier, yiere.
Half (n) nus, diere, marom e diere.
hand (n) lwedo.
handicap (n) rang’ol, ng’at maong’ol.
handle (n) ramak.
Hang (v) liero, ng’awo e gi moro.
happen (v) timore.
harm (n) hinyruok, (v) hinyo.
harvest (n) keyo, (v) kayo, keyo.
hat (n) ogudu, kondo.
hawk (n) otenga.
harzard (n)
health (n) ngima.
hear (v) winjo.
heart (n) adundo.
heat (n) liet, kuok.
heavy (adj) mapek.
he-goat (n) nyuok.
help (n) kony (v) konyo, konyruok.
Hen (n) gueno.
Hero (adj.) mathuon, marachir, rachir (n) rachir, thuon.
hide (v) pondo, buto ni.
high (adj) mamalo, malo.
holiday (n) kinde yueyo, diro, odira
Honest (adj) maodimbore, makare; maja adiera.
Honey (n) mor kih, mo mar kich.
honour (n) luor.
hope (n) geno.
hot (adj) maliet.
hour (n) sa, kinde.
house (n) ot, abila, duol, kar dak…
huge (adj.) mang’ongo/maduong’.
humble (adj.) mamos, maodimbore.
hunger (n) kech, denyo.
hurry (n) reto, rikni.
husband (n) wuon ot madichuo, chuor…
hut (n) duol, abila, kiri.

ice (n) pe.
idea (n) paro.
idle (adj.) bet maonge tich
Ill (adj) matuo.
image (n) kido, ranyisi mar gimoro maogor.
imbecil (n) ng’ama oran, rariwa, ng’atma orundore.
immigrant (n) Jabuoro, ng’atma manyo kama odakie.
imprison (v) tueyo ng’ato e od tuech.
impregnate (v) miyo ich, miyo nyako (dhako) ich
incapable (adj) maoknyal, maongetich.
Income (n) nueng’o gigo madonjo.
incorrect (adj) maoknikar, maokowinjorego.
inferior (adj) machien.
information (n) lendo.
inform (v) lando.
ink (n) wino mar kalam.
inn (n) od buoro to gi chiemo.
insane (adj.) ng’at ma wiye rach.
inside (adj.) ei-ye, ei ot — inside the house.
instruct (v) puonjo, nyiso ng’ato kaka ginmoro obedo.
insult (v) yanyo ng’ato, kata chiwo wichkuot.
intercourse (n) nindruok, haro, ng’otho, terruok.
interprete (v) loko wach, fulo tiend wach e yo maler.
intestine (n) nyimbich, dhokchin, gik ich.
invitation (n) luong, gwelo.
iron (n) nywinyo, nyinyo.
island (n) chula e.g. chula Rusinga
Ivory (n) lak liech.

January (n) Due mar achiel, Due mar chak higa
Japanese (n) Jajapan.
Jaw (n) chok lem, chok lak.
jealous (adj.) maranyiego: jealousy-nyiego.
Jew (n) Jayahudi.
job (n) tich.
Join (n) riwo, chomo kanyakla, tudo ginmoro to gi moro.
joke (n) ngera, oyuma
joke (v) timo oyuma, timo ngera, chuoyo wach.
jouney (n) wuoth.
joy (n) mor, yilo.
judge (v) ng’ado bura
Judge (n) jang’ad bura.
June (n) Due mar auchiel mar hig.
just (adj) makare; a just person — ng’at makare.

keep (v) rito; keep my words — rit wechena.
key (n) rayaw, gir yepo, ofungu.
kick (v) gueyo gi tielo; giyo — to yell.
kidney (n) rogno; nyiroke — many kidnys.
kill 9v) nengo ng’ato kata ginmoro.
king (n) ruoth; miruka — chief.
kiss (v) nyodho.
knee (n) chong’; pl. chonge.
know (v) ng’eyo; ng’eyo ginmoro — to know something

Lack (v) chando ginmoro; achando pesa — I lack money; bedo maonge kod
Lad (n) rawera matin.
ladder (n) raidh. ngas.
ladle (n) gir toko chiemo, ratok, ojiko.
lady (n) nyako.
lake (n) nam/ataro.
lamb (n) nyarombo.
lame (n) ng’ol (adj.) maong’ol, maofurema
lament (v) yuagruok.
lamp (n) taya, rameny.
lance (n) tong, rachuo.
land (n) lowo
language (n) dhok (it is not mouth, not cows.
Large (adj.) malach, mang’ongo.
laugh (v) nyiero.
law (n) chik/chike.
leader (n) jatelo.
leaf (n) oboke, it yien.
learn (v) puonjruok rifl. verb)
leave (v) wuok; when do you leav? —Iwuok sadi?
lend (v) holo; lend me money — hola pesa.
leopard (n) kwach.
leprosy (n) dhoho, tuo maduong’, nyinyo.
letter (n) narua, otas, maondiki.
liar (n) jamriambo, jahang wach.
liberty (n) thuolo.
lice (n) onyuogo. mar nanga
lick (n) nang’o (nd. it is not, why ?)
lid (n) raum.
life (n) ngima.
light (n) ler.
lightning (n) mil mar polo, polo.
like (v) here; ahero goyo abal — I like swimming.
link (v) tudo, row kanyakla. (see join)
little (adj.) matin, manok.
lier (n) chuny.
lizard (n) ogwe.
loan (n) hola.
long (adj.) mabor, mochwalore.
look (v) ng’iyo, manyo.
Lord (n) Ruoth.
love (n) hera.
low (adj.) mapiny, mapiny, mantie piny.
lunch (n) gago mar odieching’.
lung (n) Obo, oboye dhano kata le moro amora

mad-man (n) ng’at mawiye rach, janeko.
maid (n) japidi, jatich ot.
maize (n) bando, oduma.
make (v) loso, (losó is to speak) NB. the accent is to go down at the end.
man (n) dichuo (dhano is mankind); dichuo is only a male.
manhood (n)
mankind (n) dhano, ochung’ tir.
many (adj.) mang’eny.
March (n) Due mar adek.
marriage (n) kendruok, nyombo, kend, keny.
marry (v) keno. (Nb, it is not a stoe, nor again)
martire (n) jachung’ kuom yie mar dini
mask (n) ong’eng’ore, kido moro maok en adieri.
mass (n) misa (for the catholics)
massage (n) ote.
mat (n) par
match (n)
May (n) Due mar abich mar higa.
mean (adj.) mangudi.
meat (n) ring’o.
meet (v) romo.
middle (n) diere, dier ginmoro.
milk (n) chak (It is not the imper. of “chako”)
mill (n) pong’ orego mar mogo.
mind (n)
mine (pro.) mara.
ministry (n) migawo.
miracle (n) hono.
mirror (n) rang’i.
mistake (n) ketho, kosa.
mix (v0 riwo kanyakla.
modern (adj.) manyien, masani, mandalogi
Monday (n) Wuok tich.
Money (n) pesa, “omenda” (not very much in use)
month (n) Due mar higa
monument (n)
moon (n) due marieny; due.
morning (n) okinyi, odikinyi.
mosquito (n) suna.
montain (n) got.
mourn (v) yuago.
mouse (n) oyieyo, oyieyini.
mouth (n) dhok (not cows, not language.
move (v) sudo.
mud (n) chuodho, thuodho.
music (n) thum
my (poss. pro.) mara, -a, chiega — my wife.

naked (adj.) maduk; a naked person — ng’at man-duk.
name (n) nying , nying.
narrow (adj,) madiny.
nation (n) piny, oganda.
native (n) weg piny, jo-piny; native of a notion (jopiny)
near (adj.) machiegni.
needle (n) rariw, riw, sindan mar tweng’o.
new (adj.) manyien
news (n) gimaotimore.
next (pron) machielo.
niece (n) nyakewo manyako.
night (n) otieno.
nine (n) ochiko; ongachiel.
ninth (n) marochiko, mar-onga-achiel.
noble (adj) maokebe, mango.
noise (n) koko.
noon (n) odiehieng’. tir.
norm (n) chik
North (n) Masawa.
nose (n) um, uma (my nose).
November (n) Due mar apar gi achiel.
now (n) Sani; sechegi; adhi sani — I am going now.
nowadays (n) kindegi, ndalogi, tinde, odiechiengegi.
number (n) kweno.

oath (n) singruok, kuongruok; akuong’ora — I take an oath.
old (adj) maoti, maonyoch.
once (adv.) nyadichiel, dichiel.
only (dist. pron.) kende; kel mano kende —bring only that.
open (adj) maoyawore, mantie thuolo.
oppose (v) ng’eng’o ng’ato kata ginmoro.
orange (n) machunga.
order (n) chenro; kama nitie chenro maber — where there is a good order.
origin (n) karcharuok; chakruok — the begining..
Orphan (n) kich (*not bees); nyathi makich — an ophan child.
ostrich (n) udo.
our (poss. pron.) marwa. girwa (our thing)
owl (n) tula.
ox (n) rwath, dher pur.

Pain (n) lit, body pain — lit mar del.
paint (n) rangi mar wiro (buko).
pair (n)
pajama (n) nanga mar nindo, law nindo.
paper (n) otas.
parable (n) ngero mar puonj kaka mantie e muma.
paradise (n) polo, piny polo.
pardon (n) ng’uono.
parent (n) janyuol.
parliament (n) od bura mar piny owacho kar yalo weche mag piny.
path (n) apaya, yoo. wang’ yoo.
pay (v) chulo.
pace (n) kue.
pen (n) gir ndiko, kalam.
penance (n) chulo.
people (n) ji, oganda.
perhaps (pron.) kanmoro, nyalo bedo (maybe).
person (n) ng’ato…
picture (n) ranyisi, kido.
pig (n) anguro, ngurume.
place (n) kamoro.
plain (n) tambarare, kama tambarare (a plain place).
poison (n) kwiri manyalo nego dhano kata le.
poor (adj) maodhier, ng;at maodhier (a poor person), jachan ( a poor person),
jakech (a miserable person esp. on who is starving).
Pope (n) Japapa.
potato (n) rabuon, nguachi (Irish potato), rabuond nyaluo (sweet potato)
pray (v) lemo; alemo — I am praying.
prach (v) yalo; yalo wach nyasaye — to preach the word of God.
prefudice (n) sunga, nyadhi.
price (n) nengo.
pride (n)
prison (n) od tuech.
progress (n) dongruok
prostitute (n) jachodo, malaya.
project (n) migawo maoyangi.
protect (v) rito; rito ot — to protect a house.
puppy (n) nyaguok.
pus (n) tutu.
push (v) dhiro
put (v) keto.

quail (n) aluru.
quantity (n) ng’ny, thoth, ngundho.
quick (adv.) piyo, piyo piyo.
quiet (adj.) maoling thi, maokue (cool).

rabbit (n) Apuoyo
rain (n) koth.
raining (v) koth chue.
raise (v) ting’o ginmoro malo — to raise something up.
ran (v) ringo; nene aringo — I ran); see run
rat (n) oyieyo; oyiech nyamundhe; oyiech dero; oyiech lum;
raw (adj.) manumu; maokochiek
razor (n) mirich, gir lielo yiere wich; wembe.
reach (v) chopo, tundo kamoro.
read (v) somo.
ready (adj.) maoyikore.
reason (n) gimaomiyo.
rebuke (v) rogo; rogo ni ng’ato — to rebuke somebody).
recive (v) kawo mich — to receive the gift); nuang’o/yudo; yudo chudo — to
receive the payment.
red (adj.) makwar
redeem (v) waro.
refrigerator (n) rang’ich mar chiemo kata pi.
reject (v) dagi, tamruok; dagi ginmoro — to reject something.
rejoyce (v) bedo mayil; bedo gi mamor; bedo gi mor.
religion (n) dini.
request (n) kwayo, yuak; Ruoth yie yuakna — Lord accept my request.
rescue (v) reso; reso ng’ato — rescue somebody.
rest (v) yueyo.
resurrection (n) chier.
return (v) duogo; wiro (not to smear, to paint etc.)
rib (n) ng’et.
rice (n) ochele.
rich (adj.) maomewo, mantiegi muandu, majamoko.
right (adj.) mankare, makare, maodimbore.
road (n) ndara, apaya maduong’.
rob (v) mayo, kualo.
rock (n) kidi, luanda.
roof (n) tado.
room (n)
root (n) misi, musi, tiend yien.
rope (n) tol, thol, ngoro, uno.
round (adj) maoluorore.
run (v) ringo.
rush (v)

sack (n) gunia.
sad (adj.) maosin, maok mor, maok yil.
saint (n)
salary (n) chudo.
salt (n) chumbi, kado.
sandal (n) ngato, champat, akala.
satan (n) jachien, obel.
Saturday (n) chieng’ ngesa jumamosi
save (v) waro.
scar (n) mbala.
scare away (v) buogo.
scatter (v) kyo (not to harvest).
school (n) od tiegruok, kar puonjruok.
search (v) manyo.
seat (n) kar bet.
sea (n) ataro.
second (adj) mar ariyo.
secretary (n) jagoro, karan.
secrt (n) wach maling’ling’, wach maopondo.
see (v) neno.
seed (n) kodhi.
seem (v) nenore.
select (v) yiero.
sell (v) uso.
send (v) oro.
September (n) Due mar ochiko/onga-chiel.
servant (n) misumba, jatich ot , mgeso.
seven (n) abiriyo.
sex (n) terruok.
shame (n) wichkuot
shoulder (n) gok.
shout (v) goyo koko.
shy (adj,) wichkuot, mawiye kuot
sick (adj) matuo.
sign (n) ranyisi
sin (n) richo.
single (n)
six (n) auchiel.
skull (n) chok wich.
sky (n) polo.
slap (v) thalo, pado.
slave (n) misumba.
small (adj) matin.
smell (v) ng’weyo — to smell; (n) tik, ng’uche, muya marach.
smile (v) buonjo
smog (n) ong’weng’o.
smoke (n) yiro.
snail (n) tungkamnio.
snake (n) thuol.
soap (n) sabun
soldier (n) Jakedo, jalueny.
sound (n) koko.
soup (n) kado.
sour (adj) mawachwach.
south (n) milambo.
sow (v) komo, chwowo.
space (n) kinde.
sparrow (n) opija.
spirit (n) chuny nono.
spoil (v) ketho, ketho ginmoro (spoil something).
spoon (n) ojiko.
sport (n) tugo.
spy (n) jambetre, jadiwang’e.
stand (v) chung’.
start (v) chako.
stick (n) kde, luth; ludh wuoth — a walking stick.
stomach (n) ich.
stone (n) kidi.
stop (v) chung’ (not stand)
story (n) sigana.
stove (n) kendo (not again, to marry).
strangle (v) deyo.
stream (n) aora.
strong (adj.) maratego.
sugar (n) sikar.
suicide (v) derruok.
summer (n) oro.
sun (n) chieng’.
Sunday (n) Jumapili, odira.
supper (n) gago mar otieno.
sweat (n) luya, kuok.
sweep (v) yueyo (not to rest or breathe).
swet adj.) Mamit.
swell (v) kuot, kuodo.
swim (n) goyo abal.
sword (n) ligangla mar kedo.

Table (n) kar chiemo maolosi maber gi bawo.
tablet (n) yath mar amuonya.
tailor (n) jakuo nanga, jatweng’o
take (v) kawo.
talent (n) talenta.
talk (v) wuoyo.
tall (adj.) mabor.
tax (n) osuru.
teeth (n) leke.
tell (v) nyiso, wacho.
tent (n) hema.
tenth (n) mar apar.
thank (n) erokamano.
theatre (n) od tuke maopogore.
these (dmonst. pron) magi.
thigh (n) em.
thin (aj.) maodhero.
thing (n) ginmoro, gin.
think (v) paro.
third (adj.) mar adek.
thirst (n) riyo.
this (dmonstrativ pron.) mae.
thorn (n) kudho.
Throat (n) duol.
throw (v) wito.
thumb (n)
thunder (n) mor mar polo.
thunder (v) polo mor.
Thursday (n) tich ang’wen
time (n) saa.
tiptoa (v) lidho e wi tilo
toad (n) ogwal matin.
today (n) kawuono, gonyo.
together (conj.) kanyakla.
toilet (n0 od konyruok, cho.
tomato (n) nyanya.
tomb (n) kama oyikie dhano, liel
tomorrow (n) kiny
tongue (n) lep.
tooth (n) lak.
top (n)
torch (n) rameny
tortoise (n) opuk
tradition (n) timbe mag dak.
tremble (v) tetni, kirni.
tribe (n) jokabila moro, oganda mag dhok moko
true (adj.) madier.
truth (n) adiera
try (v) temo.
turn (v) loko.
twice (ad) marariyo.
two (n) ariyo.

ugly (adj.) mararach.
uncle (n) neyo.
under (pron.) e bwo.
undress (v) lonyo.
unlock (v) yawo
untill (pron.) nyaka, chil.
unus (n) olulu, thir.
up (pron.) malo.
use (v) tiyo gi.

vice (n) jalup.
village (n) gweng’, mier.
virgin (adj) masilili.
visit (v) limo.
vocation (n) luong mar nyasaye.
voice (n) duol.
void (adj.) man nono.
vomit (v) ng’ogo.
vote (n) ombulu, (goyo ombulu).
vow (v) singruok ni nyasaye
vulture (n) achuth.

wait (v) rito.
wake (v) chiewo.
walk (v) wuotho.
wallet (n) kibet, kar keto pesa.
warmth (n) liet, kuok.
warm (adj.) mamor mor.
watch (n) saa mar luedo. (v) ng’iyo.
water (n) pi.
wax (n)
way (n) apaya, yoo.
we (pers. pron.) wan.
weak (adj) manyap, mayomyom.
wealth (n) muandu.
wapon (n)
weather (n)
weed (v) doyo.
weep (v) yuak.
weigh (v) pimo pek gi moro.
welcome (v) rwako ng’ato.
well (n) soko. (adj.) ber
west (n) podho chieng’ milambo. 891998 fr. Charles odeng e. Anyango
Mqary Awino
wet (adj) mang’ich, modhiek.
what (inter. pron) ang’o?
wheat (n) ng’ano.
wheel (n) ndiga.
when (interr. pron) karang’o?
where (interr. pron) kanye?
which (interr. pron) mane?
whip (v) chwado, (n) del.
write (v) ndiko.
who (interr. pron.) ng’a?
whole (adj)
whose (interr. pron) mar ng’a?
why (interr. pron) mar ang’o? nang’o?
wide (adj) malach, maohuyanga.
widow (n) chi liel.
winter (n) chwiri kata ndalo mag koth to gi koyo.
wisdom (n)rieko.
witness (n) janeno.
wives (n) mon mokendi.
wizard (n) jajuok, jayido mar otieno.
woman (n) dhako.
women (n) mon.
womb (n) Ich.
wood (n) yien.
word (n) wach, wach nene odoko dhano — the word became flesh.
work (n) tich.
World (n) piny.
worm (n) kudni, njokni.
wound (n) adhola.
writee (v) ndiko.
wrong (adj.) maok owinjore ngang’.

Xmas (n) chieng’ paro nyuol Yesu.

yellow (adj) maratong’ gweno.
yes (n) kamano, ee.
yesterday (n) nyoro.
yoke (n) jok.
you (pers. pron) 2nd pers sing.) in; 2nd pers pl. un.
young (adj.) matin, nyathi marawera — a young child.
your (poss. pron) 2nd pers singl. mari: 2nd pers pl. maru.
youths (n) rawere.

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