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Reginald Murphy

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I always find funny me mez
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Jamie Watson

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Spot the famous professor and name him.....
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Its Brian cox
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E.ON SE

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Satellites can be used to look at chemical emissions. NASA now plans to do a little carbon dioxide & methane surveillance.
Surveillance probe can monitor each country's emissions and help reduce global levels of carbon dioxide and methane gas
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Contrary to long-standing assumptions, laboratory and field data show that carbon-rich secondary organic aerosols are highly viscous semi-solids, trap volatile organic molecules during formation, evaporate orders of magnitude slower than assumed, and, therefore, are not at equilibrium with the gas phase. This assumption-changing research, led by PNNL chemical physics scientist Dr. Alla Zelenyuk, reduces uncertainty in climate projections. Read more at https://www.pnnl.gov/science/highlights/highlight.asp?id=3983.
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Ted Pavlic

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Scientists have done some fascinating evolutionary developmental biology work here, where they silence an evolutionary novel pathway in birds and restore an ancestral phenotype of dinosaurs. The result: chickens with dinosaur teeth. I give more background in my original post below, which also links to the primary source that was just published. Note that the image from the news article is an artistic interpretation; these chickens were never hatched out in this study.
 
In this fascinating result, scientists resurrect an ancestral phenotype (dinosaur teeth) that has been lost in the species we know today (chicken). The result is a chicken with teeth, confirming that the hypothesized molecular mechanism for the major evolutionary transition from teeth to beak.

Background: Dinosaurs didn't totally disappear from earth. They live on today as birds. The reptiles you see today are a relatively separate line of evolution. We can group all birds and reptiles into a monophyletic group (thus birds really are reptiles), and the birds would be today's remnant of dinosaurs.

But birds have beaks. That means that some developmental pathways changed that used to be used for teeth development. To test this idea, scientists inhibited certain pathways thought to be responsible for this transition to beakiness, and the result was a chicken with teeth. The ancestral dinosaur phenotype has been restored.

So this is a fascinating result speaking to the mechanisms behind major evolutionary transitions.

Important note: Picture shown in +BBC Earth​ article heading below is an artistic representation. The birds were never hatched out in this study.

Here is the primary source:

"A molecular mechanism for the origin of a key evolutionary innovation, the bird beak and palate, revealed by an integrative approach to major transitions in vertebrate history"
by Bhullar et al.
Evolution (2015), online first
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/evo.12684

Abstract
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The avian beak is a key evolutionary innovation whose flexibility has permitted birds to diversify into a range of disparate ecological niches. We approached the problem of the mechanism behind this innovation using an approach bridging paleontology, comparative anatomy, and experimental developmental biology. First we used fossil and extant data to show the beak is distinctive in consisting of fused premaxillae that are geometrically distinct from those of ancestral archosaurs. To elucidate underlying developmental mechanisms, we examined candidate gene expression domains in the embryonic face: the earlier frontonasal ectodermal zone (FEZ) and the later midfacial Wnt-responsive region, in birds and several reptiles. This permitted the identification of an autapomorphic median gene expression region in Aves. In order to test the mechanism, we used inhibitors of both pathways to replicate in chicken the ancestral amniote expression. Altering the FEZ altered later Wnt responsiveness to the ancestral pattern. Skeletal phenotypes from both types of experiments had premaxillae that clustered geometrically with ancestral fossil forms instead of beaked birds. The palatal region was also altered to a more ancestral phenotype. This is consistent with the fossil record and with the tight functional association of avian premaxillae and palate in forming a kinetic beak.
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[ #evolution #science #biology #paleontology #dinosaurs #development #evodevo #devoevo #nature #research #news #birds #chicken #teeth #beak #developmentalbiology #evolutionarybiology ]
A chicken embryo with a dinosaur-like snout instead of a beak has been developed by scientists
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Tomas Hood

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Check out the largest solar flare so far in 2015.  It measured at X2.7.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VQUFRrlqJLk
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Jeffrey Duddles

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Fresh, But Not Clean: Moon Craters in Mare Tranquillitatis | NASA
Similarly sized craters, one is fresh and the other is old.
LROC NAC image M131515002R showing two similarly sized craters, ~500 m in diameter, but one is littered with boulders and the other is not.  This boulder discrepancy is most likely due to age differences between the two craters. Image width is ~2 km, and North points up. Courtesy of NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO).
 
There are several distinguishing properties of craters that help lunar scientists determine their ages. As craters get older their appearance changes through exposure to solar wind bombardment and other impacts (collectively called space weathering), and even gravity has an effect. Effects of the solar wind lower the reflectance of the surface; so regolith (soil) that was excavated by recent impacts has higher reflectance than the background surface, this is why small young craters have visible crater rays. New impacts pulverize rocks that were ejected during the formation of an older crater and disturb the shape by causing moonquakes. Also, gravity works to alter the shape of a crater by pulling material down its walls in a process called slumping, this causes craters to have a smoother appearance.

This image showcases two similarly sized adjacent craters (each ~500 m in diameter) located in Mare Tranquillitatis (see WAC context image below) with very different appearances. The area surrounding the top crater is littered with boulders in all directions. Wheras the more southerly crater has only a few rocks near its rim. Where did the boulders come from in the first place? And did the lower crater originally have boulders?

Since the mare basalt formed from layers of lava that hardened into solid rock, it is likely the boulders are coherent fragments of those thick layers (a few to tens of meters thick) that were broken up and ejected during the impact event. Since these two craters are so close and both formed in the mare it is very likely that the lower crater also had a large grouping of boulders in its ejecta field. The dissimilarity between these two craters is most likely due to age difference. Over time (perhaps a couple of billion years) the original boulders around the lower crater were slowly ground down by micro-meteorite bombardment - think of this process as cosmic sand-blasting! The boulders around the younger crater (top) have not had time to be pulverized by other impacts, but stick around for a billion years and you can watch these boulders slowly disappear!

Credit: NASA/GSFC/Arizona State University

+NASA Goddard 
+Arizona State University 
+NASA Lunar 
+Lunar and Planetary Institute 

#NASA #Space #Moon #Lunar #Astronomy #Craters #Mare #Tranquillitatis #Science #LRO #Reconnaissance #Orbiter
#Spacecraft #GSFC #Goddard 
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Luis Guillermo

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Tips para ser más felices, son muy buenos la mayoria
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Sharing cutting-edge science on Google+! Note: This Community is in no way associated with Google, Inc. Just fans of their technology sharing and learning. Thanks Google! =)

Ryder Hendry

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Haha
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Partha Dutta

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Hey, guys! I've just joined this community. Wanted to share my first post! #lovescience  
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Welcome to the community.  It's brilliant that, through the internet, we can be introduced to the marvellous world of science.
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Pritha Dey

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Anees Anwar

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It is usually thought that mostly animals on land are warm blooded. But now World`s First Warm Blooded fish has been discovered
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So cool 
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A shift in ocean temperature in one part of the world may have profound effects on another. PNNL scientists identified a connection between the variations in temperature of the sea surface in the North Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea and variations in Atlantic tropical cyclones from year to year. Their research, published in Geophysical Research Letters, is the first to use 30 years of observations to systematically identify the physical and statistical linkages between the two.  Read more at http://www.pnnl.gov/science/highlights/highlight.asp?id=3982.
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Beautiful
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Professor Ursula Keller’s area of expertise is ultrashort laser pulses.
She is to receive renowned OSA Charles H. Townes Award in recognition of her achievements.
Another interesting aspect to this story is that UNESCO have declared 2015 to be "The year of light". So well done to the Professor for all her research and discoveries.
#Science   #Research   #Light   #laser   #UNESCO   #disovery   #Russtafa  
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FELICIDADES.........
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Even as computing power increases, current climate model formulas struggle to handle storm clouds at today's higher resolutions and smaller model grid sizes. Cumulus storm cloud systems are still only partially resolved. Armed with a new formula developed by a research team led by PNNL, scientists can now represent cumulus in grid sizes as fine as 2 kilometers to as coarse as 256 kilometers. The team's approach breaks the storm cloud gridlock by more accurately depicting how cumulus clouds transport moisture through the atmosphere.  Read more at http://www.pnnl.gov/science/highlights/highlight.asp?id=3966.
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Teresa Velasco

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Científicos rusos han publicado imágenes desde un telescopio robótico que demuestran que la nave espacial Progress M-27M, que afrontó problemas técnicos tras su lanzamiento, estalló sobre el cielo de Sudáfrica.
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Luis Guillermo

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differential equations applications in real life
 
Aplicaciones de ODEs
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las ecuaciones diferenciales son una herramienta para la lucha contra la pandemia de nuestro siglo, el VIH.
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