For Herbert Blumer a social movement is composed of four stage:

1. Emergence
2. Coalescence
3. Bureaucratisation
4. Decline



Social movements are distinct from social movement organizations (SMOs). An SMO is a formally organized component of a social movement, and as such it may represent only one facet of an entire movement.


4 DOMAINS OF MODERN SOCIETY...(According to Anthony Giddens)

According to Anthony Giddens, the four domains of modern society in which social movements are active include the POLITICAL SPHERE , the WORKPLACE, the ENVIRONMENT, and ISSUES RELATED TO PEACE.


Several principles must be applied in the field of Medical rehabilitation in relation to disability, and one of them is : "Involvement in life situations (or participation)"

You can not expect someone who has lived in a restricted social environment to integrate a society(or an other environment) in which he has never experienced his current situation in the past.


The Social Work's Code of Ethics is based on 6 core values:

1. Integrity
2. Social justice
3. Dignity and worth of the person
4. Service to people
5. Importance and centrality of human relationships
6. Competence


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One definition of emotional abuse is: "any act including confinement, isolation, verbal assault, humiliation, intimidation, infantilization, or any other treatment which may diminish the sense of identity, dignity, and self-worth."


Community organization is currently one of the most popular methods of social work worldwide. This method or approach places much emphasis on self-help projects and programs which are undertaken by the people themselves to meet their own felt needs and advance their overall economic and social development. In some countries, the Department of Community Development is almost exclusively responsible for rural development. Apart from rural areas, community welfare programmes play an important part in urban development schemes. Slum clearance, rehabilitation of mental patients, vocational rehabilitation, provision of recreational facilities and low-income housing programmes are common examples.
(The Role of Social Work in National Development

Apollo Rwomire, Department of Social Work, University of Botswana)


Community organization entails bringing people together to deal with shared problems and to increase their say about decisions that affect their lives. This approach also entails engaging in a broad range of social change activities, including advocacy with and on behalf of the community for reform underlying social, political, and economic conditions that undermine human dignity, and social workers are normally the primary professional leaders of highly effective community welfare organization worldwide (Estes, 1997:43). Community organization addresses problem such as lack affordable housing, drug abuse, discrimination and lack of access to health care.
(The Role of Social Work in National Development

Apollo Rwomire, Department of Social Work, University of Botswana)


Falsus in Uno, Falsus in Omnibus is a legal maxim which means false in one thing, false in everything. A Roman legal principle indicating that a witness who willfully falsifies one matter is not credible on any matter.
(US Legal Inc,)


Child abuse can result from physical, emotional, or sexual harm. While child abuse is often in the form of an action, there are also examples of inaction that cause harm, such as neglect. Some households that suffer from alcoholism/substance abuse and anger issues have higher occurrences of child abuse as compared to households without. Outcomes of child abuse can result in both short and long term injury, or even death. There are some children who may be unaware that they are victims of child abuse.
(Psychology today)
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