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Science Policy & Practice  - 
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Dmitriy Bykov

Popular Science  - 
 
Difficult to comment here, just some new interesting facts discovered, which could be interpreted differently. 
A new study suggests that carbon dioxide emissions have caused a huge increase in plant greenery, amounting to about four billion sequoias.
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Ian Mathis's profile photoSkhirod kumar (javeen)'s profile photoJeff Johansen's profile photoDemiurge Lumacang's profile photo
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It's my Wife's Birthday. 
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Researchers examined the chemical identity and 3-D position of atoms in soft biological materials with a new approach using atom probe tomography, or APT. An extension of this new specimen preparation technique can further enhance the APT study of organic and inorganic materials and nanoparticles relevant to energy and the environment. Learn more at https://goo.gl/KHNvBv.
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Russ George

Popular Science  - 
 
Ocean oxygen will be measurably disappearing by 2030 as ocean photosynthesis is collapsing and ocean warming effects set in according to new scientific report. This is only a doomsday story if we do not restore our ocean pastures to revive the phyto-plankton photosynthesis and oxygen... remember 2 out of every 3 breaths you take supply you with oxygen from ocean pastures. http://russgeorge.net/2016/04/27/oceans-oxygen-producing-phytoplankton/
Ocean oxygen forecast to be disasterously low by 2030 to 2040 as a result of ocean pastures turning into lifeless blue deserts, immediate restoration needed
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Fabiana Bueno

Popular Science  - 
 
 Meanwhile, chemists and materials scientists are making progress on less controllable materials, like proteins and crystals. For example, a decade ago, Omar Yaghi, Michael O’Keeffe and four colleagues published a manifesto on “reticular synthesis” in nature. They observed that crystals have regular molecular structures, and proposed that chemists should design a structure and then make crystals from the design.
 
 The challenges of design-build planning
One of the great technological challenges of this century is to design novel materials to satisfy given specifications – and then, when the material is synthesized, have it meet those specifications. Just as builders can make a house out of bricks and beams and mortar using a blueprint indicating where the bricks and beams go, scientists conceive of synthesizing a material out of molecules using a blueprint indicating where the “molecular building blocks” go.
But there is a problem. Unlike bricks, beams and mortar, people cannot pick up atoms or molecules with their hands and place them in a structure. This must be done indirectly, rather like modern construction: just as we have cranes, pulleys and other devices for manipulating beams, panels and prefabricated modules, we need devices for manipulating the atoms or molecules to get them into place – and then welding them together.
read here:
http://theconversation.com/molecular-architects-how-scientists-design-new-materials-53207
One of the great technological challenges of this century is to design novel items and then make them – and have the results match the intent.
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Yashas Hardy's profile photoTawfiq Hazza's profile photoEnkhamgalan Nasanjargal's profile photoLorgenise Jean's profile photo
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+Minaim Tiznot If you could define "bio-friendly", that would help us make sense of your question. Thank you.
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Mohan Pathak

Popular Science  - 
 
Vertical motion of particles along a sine wave

A wave is a periodic movement of particles of the medium with a certain phase relationship between each other. In this animation of a sine wave, the particles, although they appear to move horizontally, if one watches closely, each of them is moving only along vertical lines. This makes the animation interesting and clarifies the phase relationship between the particles of the sine wave.

(Animation created with Java and Imagemagick)
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o.sai ,ogirala Sai, ogirala's profile photoHenrique Oliveira da Silva's profile photoKyle Ferguson's profile photoAlex Kambas's profile photo
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+scott wood​​​​​​​​​ oh woww so the ripples are some kind of illusion! Great! This is almost poetic!

LIFE IS AN ILLUSION
LIFE IS AN ILLUSION!

WHAT MEETS THE EYE
.....IS NOT THE REALITY......

LIFE IS AN ILLUSION!


Is 'phase shift' same as 'phase difference'? It is a new concept for me. Just checking wikipedia.

That is the phase shift... In action(in time).

Just curious, are there other types of phase shifts too, as you mentioned '(in time)' specifically?
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AstroCamp

Popular Science  - 
 

All objects with mass experience gravitational attraction to each other. This attraction grows stronger with larger mass and shorter distances. Two people standing next to each other could stand next to each other, but we just aren’t massive enough to pull significantly on each other compared to the much stronger attractive force Earth exerts on our bodies.

In deep space, it’s a different story. In the absence of larger gravitational influences, even dust particles pull each other closer. It’s this quiet, dark, and delicate dance that gives rise to the stars we see in the night sky. Nebulae are massive space clouds of gas and dust. Within these clouds, turbulence makes some areas denser than others. When a dense knot of dust reaches critical mass, it collapses under its own gravitational pull, heating up and becoming a protostar. This spinning collection of hot, dense debris drags nearby particles along with its rotation, and an embryonic solar system is formed.

Einstein’s theory of relativity describes spacetime as a three-dimensional fabric that can be stretched in a fourth dimension. This spandex table is a classic way of attempting to visualize this idea and show how objects follow the curvature of space time. Usually it is done with marbles or bouncy balls. We decided to try it with liquid nitrogen, which is a liquid at -321 degrees Fahrenheit. Due to this immense cold, pouring it onto the table causes immediate condensation of the water vapor in the air. We can then see these clouds which are more dense than air follow the curvature of the spandex table.

This does both a better and worse job of showing what is happening. In a sense it is better because the visual is more in line with what a collapsing cloud of dust into a protostar looks like, rather than s handful of marbles. However, the water vapor doesn't have the required mass to bend the fabric show how the cloud can interact gravitationally. Instead, we had to gravitationally "seed" the table with a shot put.

To see more of what we did here, and learn more about how stars form, check out the article on our blog!

http://astrocampschool.org/liquidnitro-stars/
Where do stars come from? The short answer is: gravity.
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Very Interesting.
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Where exactly are the words in your head
.. Scientists have created an interactive map showing which brain areas respond to hearing different words. The map reveals how language is spread throughout the cortex and across both hemispheres, showing groups of words clustered together by meaning. The beautiful interactive model allows us to explore the complex organisation of the enormous dictionaries in our heads ..
via zeit.de goo.gl/HnSVy7 (german) +ZEIT ONLINE 
Explore the brain model for yourself here: gallantlab.org/huth2016 
read the paper: 
www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/nature17637
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interesting
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Raees Ahmad

Popular Science  - 
 
Aliens are NOT sending us messages from space: Bizarre signals coming from a far-flung planet were caused by ferocious lightning storms
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Arbaz Chaudhary

Ask the Community  - 
 
In terms of philosophy, time is difficult to define. Scientists and philosophers have disagreed on our understanding of time for many years. Some argue it is a ‘real’ part of the Universe while others argue it is just the way humans think, comparing events and putting them in sequence. It’s a little confusing but fun to think about, what do you think???
& also represent your view on time travel.
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William Draper's profile photoArbaz Chaudhary's profile photoDiVinci Leonardo's profile photoMelanie Adkins's profile photo
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I'm already aware of time dilation, from the measurement of time by a scientist on the summit of Mount Everest @ 29,000 ft with an identical time clock, and someone at the base of the mountain with exactly the same type of clock. The cesium clock airliner experiment I referred to in my comments was really done. Another example of time dilation.noting that dilation of time speeds up as you go higher and faster, this is due to the reduced effects of the earth's gravitational force as you move further way from the ground and Earth.That is why if you go to Mars and stay for some quantifiable period of time, when you return to Earth, you will have not aged as much as the people on Earth that you left behind. Yes, time is relative, I never said it was not, Our Earth time is base on our Sun. Look at my comments again, I said and I quote," In our Sol system, time measures our hours, days, weeks and years. It is quantifiable like light, but more ethereal in its true substance",Einstein proved its fundamental relativity." As far as the Philosophical view of what time is as being empirical. I spoke of a Philosopher's viewpoint NOT MINE, I also quoted, "Philosophy may lament on what time is, and unable empirically to prove it is without scientific proof! I was merely saying that a Philosopher cannot define time in an empirical way without scientific proof via, observation , investigation , experimentation, data collection, and analysis. (It is called the Scientific Method ) No, I did not say that time was empirical. Furthermore, I was referring to the probe sent by NASA to confirm Einstein's theory about the relativity of the the Space-Time continuum. The very definition of empirical is: Empirical evidence, also known as sense experience, is a collective term for the knowledge or source of knowledge acquired by means of the senses(That is Philosophy!observation by the senses!).

 You go on to say that time is empirical and as you say "we make that up as we go", You also said that "Because of the fact of us not having an original origin to measure from"  What is an original origin ??? are you saying that time has no origin ???, no beginning, That is far from the truth, were you born??? do you exist???, if you do, did you have an origin of time from the beginning of your life???. Do you work??? do you punch a time clock???? Unless you can go to work when you want, and leave if you feel like it, Time does have an origin,It has a beginning!! A stop watch at the Olympics for the 100 yard dash has an origin. Usain Bolt would not be the fastest man on Earth without a time zero starting point!!!. Usain Bolt had to push off of the starting blocks at the Olympic track.  The origin of time is and will always be the rising and the setting of our Sun, SOL in our solar  system, we do not determine time, the Earth revolving around on its axis every 24 hours does. Every year it takes 365 days based on our solar system, to orbit around our Sun. We are merely a satellite. Man-made satellites are equipped with tiny orbital rocket thrusters to correct their orbit whether it is a Geo-synchronous, or a stationary orbit. Variations in gravitation forces and orbit decay and variations in centripetal force!. 

The two concepts of definition about  Philosophical perception of time and Scientific evidence and definition of time are incongruant and should not be discussed in the same context. As far as acceleration goes, acceleration is defined by the average change in velocity divided by the average change in time: each variable in the equation has an origin or zero starting point , starting velocity, starting time, else if one of these  variable quantities v or t was without an origin the formula would not be true. To have acceleration you start accelerating from V=0, and T =0. Otherwise,there would not be any acceleration! You would be at some constant velocity with no beginning and no end. That simply does not exist in this Universe!We do not! as you say make it up as we go!!
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Fabiana Bueno

Popular Science  - 
 
 By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the 'inverse spin Hall effect' works in several organic semiconductors -- including carbon-60 buckyballs -- physicists changed magnetic 'spin current' into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers
 
 By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors -- including carbon-60 buckyballs -- University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers.

"This paper is the first to demonstrate the inverse spin Hall effect in a range of organic semiconductors with unprecedented sensitivity," although a 2013 study by other researchers demonstrated it with less sensitivity in one such material, says Christoph Boehme, a senior author of the study published April 18 in the journal Nature Materials.
"The inverse spin Hall effect is a remarkable phenomenon that turns so-called spin current into an electric current. The effect is so odd that nobody really knows what this will be used for eventually, but many technical applications are conceivable, including very odd new power-conversion schemes," says Boehme, a physics professor.
His fellow senior author, distinguished professor Z. Valy Vardeny, says that by using pulses of microwaves, the inverse spin Hall effect and organic semiconductors to convert spin current into electricity, this new electromotive force generates electrical current in a way different than existing sources.
Coal, gas, hydroelectric, wind and nuclear plants all use dynamos to convert mechanical force into magnetic-field changes and then electricity. Chemical reactions power modern batteries and solar cells convert light to electrical current. Converting spin current into electrical current is another method.
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/04/160418120049.htm
By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the 'inverse spin Hall effect' works in several organic semiconductors -- including carbon-60 buckyballs -- physicists changed magnetic 'spin current' into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers.
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About this community

Science on Google+ is a community moderated by scientists, for all people interested in science, both professionals and the general public. The primary goal of this community is to bring real scientists to the public, for science outreach. A secondary and long-term goal is to create an environment that fosters interdisciplinary collaborations; thus, enabling and promoting cloud collaboration between scientists. See Guidelines and Rules section for additional details.

Carry Li

Applied  - 
 
Anyone can explain the physics behind this water tower for cat please...?

The first picture shows the device feeds water from the bottle to the cat feeding water pool. When the water level lowers in the cat pool, the device draws water from the bottle automatically from the bottle and stops drawing when the cat pool water level fills back.

I am wondering how device starts/stops the water feeding with the water level from the cat pool? ( the device is purely machanic as shown in the third pic. There is no buoy in this device so it can't be the same principle as that of a toilet ) The third picture shows water tower without bottle. The picture in the middle is the cap of the bottle , when joined with the tip,. gets pushed up and allows water from the bottle to go into the bottle pool.
Given the height difference, how can the device stop the water from flowing from the bottle to the cat pool? 
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Phil Tubb's profile photoCarry Li's profile photo
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+Mat Jones could you elaborate on "air can't get in" part? Doesn't the height difference gives more pressure for the water to flow into the cat feeding pool , and that pressure should be enough to displace the water of same level ? 
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SpaceTime

Popular Science  - 
 
Nature Journal news

Antibody infusions provide long-term defence against HIV-like infection
(Specialized proteins can protect monkeys against the virus for months)

Researchers tested antibody treatments with a chimeric virus containing fragments of HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus.

A single infusion of antibodies can protect monkeys from infection with a virus that is similar to HIV for nearly six months.

The finding provides further evidence that antibodies - specialized proteins that the body produces to fight infections - could one day be used as a method to prevent people from becoming infected with HIV.

Read more at>>
http://www.nature.com/news/antibody-infusions-provide-long-term-defence-against-hiv-like-infection-1.19832
Specialized proteins can protect monkeys against the virus for months.
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Keisha Heflin's profile photoSpaceTime's profile photoAussie Gay Horizons's profile photo
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+Keisha Heflin
The research analyzes the potential use of antibodies as preventive tools against HIV.

However, previous studies had found that antibodies derived from HIV-infected people can drastically reduce the amount of HIV in an infected person's blood for short periods of time.
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Pasan Madhusankha

Popular Science  - 
 
 
Here's a view from overhead of the golden James Webb Space Telescope, with its secondary mirror booms stowed. This is the position the secondary mirror will be in during launch. Preparations are being done to rotate the telescope in order to install the flight instrument module behind the primary mirror.

JWST's mirrors are covered in a microscopically thin layer of gold, which optimizes them for reflecting infrared light, which is the primary wavelength of light this telescope will observe.

Image credit: NASA/Chris Gunn
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Today we are excited to be at AOL Inc. for our Founder's Society Fundraising Event! Please like and share to show your support of the Children's Science Center!
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Ivan Raszl

Popular Science  - 
 
For her new IMAX documentary about planet Earth, director Toni Myers knew she wanted footage from the International Space Station. But she couldn’t send up a crate of old-school IMAX equipment—transport ships have more important cargo to carry. So astronauts shot A Beautiful Planet, which comes out in April, entirely with digital cameras. They’re smaller and easier to use than their analog predecessors, and Myers didn’t have to wait around for the footage—it downloaded straight to the Johnson Space Center in Houston. Cinematographer James Neihouse trained the astronauts to frame, light, and shoot footage from aboard the ISS. The crew—which included social media sensations Scott Kelly and Italian astronaut Samantha Cristoforetti—set up Canon DSLRs around the station, shooting through windows to capture rare views of earthly phenomena, like the northern lights. The astronauts even replaced the interior panel of one window to get a smudge- and scratch-free shot, which “pretty much took an act of Congress,” Neihouse says. Over the course of filming, the cameras circled Earth more than 7,000 times, eventually traveling some 189 million miles. But the cameras are unlikely to make the 250-mile trip back to the surface. It’s cheaper to let them burn up on reentry with the rest of the station’s trash.

Via: http://www.wired.com/2016/04/a-beautiful-planet/
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Minaim Tiznot's profile photoYouR Beautiful's profile photocolleen Novit Ugwu's profile photoOpoku Afriyie-Asante's profile photo
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Even with some of it's un-green friendly discarding, technology can be awesome. Hate to say.
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Russ George

Popular Science  - 
 
New Physics and amongst it the EM Drive is rising and illustrates the crisis in physics being senselessly thrust upon the world by the dogmatic science communities in this and many other fields where real revolutionary results are rejected by puppy mill pups and professors.
http://atom-ecology.russgeorge.net/2016/04/27/em-drive-rises-despite-pathoskeptic-dirge/
New Physics is rising despite legions of puppy farmed Phd pip-squeaks and professors making a ridiculous ruckus in defense of their mindless dogma
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Johnathan Chung's profile photoMinaim Tiznot's profile photocolleen Novit Ugwu's profile photo
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Are Puppie-mill pups the same as, or similar to some tabloid critics??...
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Kevin Clift

Popular Science  - 
 
 
Insect Portraiture

Photographer Levon Biss is more used to taking pictures of famous athletes for international brand advertising, but when his young son showed him insects he'd found at their London home, Biss started to light and photograph these insects in the same way.  Later, when he showed the muscular portraits to Oxford University's Museum of Natural History they became interested in having Biss photograph some of their most beautiful specimens – in phenomenal detail.  The result is an in-person exhibition in Oxford, a behind-the-scenes video and thankfully a beautiful, zoomable, online exhibition for those of us who can't get to the main court of the museum between 2016/05/27 and 2016/10/30.

The amount of work that went into each of these images boggles the mind. As he explains in the behind the scenes video embedded below, each final image is made up of between 8,000 and 10,000 individual photos, because the depth of field of a microscope lens is so incredibly shallow.

More at picture link or here (article, pictures and links): http://goo.gl/qN86H5

Online exhibition: http://goo.gl/lq9o5i

Video (Vimeo 5:25): https://goo.gl/wSpZIw
Levon Biss's exhibit Microscuplture is one of the most entrancing macro photography projects we've run across. A "unique visual experience," the series and
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Aussie Gay Horizons's profile photoFrank Jung's profile photoTharushi Amasha Fernando's profile photoMelanie Adkins's profile photo
 
Fantastic focus on earth's tiny creatures 
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Ciro Villa

Popular Science  - 
 
 
Scientists develop programmable DNA thermometer 20,000 times smaller than a human hair!

"Researchers at University of Montreal have created a programmable DNA thermometer that is 20,000x smaller than a human hair. This scientific advance reported this week in the journal Nano Letters may significantly aid our understanding of natural and human designed nanotechnologies by enabling to measure temperature at the nanoscale."

Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2016-04-chemists-dna-world-tiniest-thermometer.html

The study: David Gareau et al, Programmable Quantitative DNA Nanothermometers, Nano Letters(2016). http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b00156

Image: Vallée-Bélisle et al. have developed DNA-based thermometers that allow to measure temperature at the nanoscale. Thess nanothermometer may significantly aid efforts to understand the effect of temperature at the nanoscale in both natural and human made nanotechnologies. Credit: Kotkoa

#nanotechnology   #science   #biology   #chemistry   #dna  
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David Aguilera's profile photoAlex Ric's profile photoGraham Punderkat's profile photoAussie Gay Horizons's profile photo
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Amazing....
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