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Center of Mass

The animations in the link shows how the barycenter shifts depending on the relative masses of the orbiting bodies (Wiki:
The barycenter is the point in space around which two objects orbit. For the Moon and Earth, that point is about 1000 miles (1700 km) beneath your feet, or about three-quarters of the way from the Earth’s center to its surface. That means the Earth actually wobbles around a point deep in its interior, pulled around by the Moon.


#space   #astronomy  
Gus Johnson III's profile photoDaniel Whitehouse's profile photoJohn D.London's profile photoYUMI MAEHATA前畑 由美's profile photo
+Victor Huerta As +Bruce Elliott​ said the atmosphere is part of the planet and moves with it. So even standing still while you may not be moving relative to the ground you are still moving through space as the Earth rotates around it's axis, plus the motions(vectors) of the Earth orbiting the sun and the sun orbiting the centre of the galaxy and even add in the Moorish of the galaxy itself as it moves through space.
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James Cranston

Science Outreach  - 
Dear colleagues, would you please give me a piece of advice? 
I'm currently working on my Master Thesis in economics and I develop my own theoretical taxation system. I want to put my efforts to implement some of my ideas, but I'm afraid that my professor would use it in case he finds it really serious. So I would like to protect it somehow. Is patenting the only possible solution?

I also attach an article that I found concerning such cases. Actually having read it I started to worry. Thank you in advance, and good luck with your studies and work!
Turning the tables in academic environment – now teachers are accused of plagiarism as well.
Rajini Rao's profile photoRégis Décamps's profile photo
Aren't you supposed to be helped by your teacher before publishing a paper? 
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Dwight Dunker

Science News (Pop Sci)  - 
StarTalk: Is 'Tomorrowland' Achievable? Ft. Bill Nye, Neil deGrasse Tyson (Full Interview) | GE
Mike Oswald's profile photoDwight Dunker's profile photoZach Hartley's profile photoDaniel Godfrey's profile photo
Love this show. Listen everyday 
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Nikhil N astro

Science News (Pop Sci)  - 
CONE nebula and CHRISTMAS TREE cluster!!                                   
 NGC 2264 is a young galactic cluster of stars in the Monoceros OB 1 association which resides in the Orion arm of the galaxy. The cluster has a total of over 600 stars ranging in age from from 1 to 4 million years old. The diverse population of the cluster includes several dozen OB stars and over 400 lower mass stars. The brightest members of the cluster resemble a "Christmas Tree" with S Monocerotis at its base and the Cone Nebula at its apex. The juxtaposition of dark dust clouds and glowing gas has carved out the landscape we see in the cone nebula region. The conical shaped pillar of gas and dust is called the Cone Nebula. It spans about 7 light years in length. A protruding portion of the cloud near S Monocerotis has been compared to the shape of a fox and was nicknamed the "Foxfur" nebula by the astrophotographer David Malin.  
                   pic by: Robert Gendler/ Subaru telescope
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Jose Sanchez

Science News (Pop Sci)  - 
Meet the most sensitive radio telescope in the world!

Deep inside a forest in Arecibo Puerto Rico is located the biggest single radio telescope in the world. What are some of their discoveries? First let's me explain how it work.

The radio waves are part of the electromagnetic spectrum. So radio wave is light that we can't see with our eyes. Human eyes only see part of the spectrum of the wavelength between 400-700 nm(nanometers). The equivalent for the color rage of violet through red. The radio waves are on the 1 meter and more, invisible to our eyes. But the big dish in Arecibo captures with a unique sensitivity those wavelengths.

With a diameter of 305 m(meters), the RT in Arecibo receive radio signals all around the universe, from distant pulsars to a near meteoroid(the RT in Arecibo is capable of sending radio signals to a near meteoroid to map it's topography)

When a radio signal is captured is concentrated on the dish and then reflected to the dome to a secondary reflector. In the dome the signal is reflected again to a third reflector and then directed to a receiving room for processing(see photos).

You may know obout the VLA(very large array) RT in New Mexico. Without doubt the VLR is more powerful and have more resolution. But the sensitive of the RT in Arecibo is by far much better. Why? The sensitive of a RT is given by the weak or strong of the radio signal. So, bigger dish = better sensitivity.

Well, is time to see some of their discoveries:
.1964 - Mercury rotates avery 59 days
.1968 - The neutron strar (pulsar) of the crap nebula rotates +/- 30 times x sec.
.1992 - The discovery of the first two exoplanets around a pulsar.

The different scientific investigations in the RT in Arecibo are:
.Planetary science
.Astronomy / Astrophysics science
.Atmospheric science

The truth is that the FAST (five hundred meters spherical telescope) radio telescope in China, when finished, would be the largest single and most sensitive. But till then the biggest RT is in my backyard.

Information source:
.Some of the information is based on:
   -A visit to the facilities of the RT in Arecibo, Puerto Rico
   -A course of astronomy by professor Armando Caussade, vice president of  the Puerto Rico Society of Astronomy. Metropolitan University, Cupey, Puerto Rico
.Photos: The rights belongs to the respectives owners.
Ian Tompsett's profile photoRichard Santana's profile photoDerrik Broadfield's profile photoOscar Rodríguez Pardo's profile photo
+Laurent Duflot Yes, we need to be there to appreciate it well. I included a photo(the third one) with somes cars near the dish to have a idea of the size of it.
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christine ford

Science News (Pop Sci)  - 
According to the authors, the injuries are unlikely to be the result of an accidental fall down the vertical shaft. Rather, the type of fracture, their location, and that they appear to have been produced by two blows with the same object lead the authors to interpret them as the result of an act of lethal interpersonal aggression–or what may constitute the earliest case of murder in human history.
Lethal wounds identified on a human skull in the Sima de los Huesos, Spain, may indicate one of the first cases of murder in human history, some...
Don FWP's profile photoRajini Rao's profile photopadmakar andhra's profile photoDebasish Majumder's profile photo
+Don FWP the Plos One paper used the term hominin throughout, and not human. You could try the link at the bottom of the news article in this post. I copied/pasted it here:
Let me know if that works.
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Juana Leilani

Science News (Pop Sci)  - 
3-D brain mapping and neropsychological assessments finds that military "veterans with TBI have decreased metabolic rates in parts of their brains . .. .their results were similar to patients with cerebellar lesions."
By John Crawford Before the anger and the divorce, before four tours to Iraq and Afghanistan, before the explosions and the pain, Staff Sgt. Daedan Jackson had been just a kid planning to go to sch...
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+Lillian Black
You're welcome, ☺
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Alexander Biebricher

Science News (Pop Sci)  - 
This was referred to in the Daily Telegraph with the following title: “Why do men still exist? Scientists finally find the answer.” Followed by an ingress where the words “find the answer” are substituted with “new research suggests”...

I will not give the newspaper the satisfaction of linking to them, when I can link to the scientific article itself. Not in this case. I will not tag them either. Not in this case. If you produce clickbait titles you will find that you attract clickbait-searching people - well, ok, I am one those, too, but for a slightly non-mainstream reason. ;)

Besides, it is bad enough that a 3-page report on a study on flour beetles has 11 authors.

Besides, one of the authors is called Tracey Chapman (Hearing “Here in subcity…” in my head now)

+Nature News & Comment
+Nature Publishing Group

#science #biology #evolution
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Rajini Rao's profile photoAlexander Biebricher's profile photo
+Rajini Rao First of all, thank you for taking the time to reply. If I have worded myself badly, I will, of course, apologize. I am posting this a a former scientist who now makes a living trying to explain science and its inner workings to people who, in fact, very often dismiss its content in a rather flippant manner.

11 authors on what looks to be short scientific paper is difficult to explain in this context, and this is probably my main point with that particular sentence. Please note that I have posted in the Outreach section, so I fully expect at least some of the community members to share this particular experience.
Again, if it comes across badly, I apologize.

I have noticed the supplemental material, too, and I am also familiar with Nature as a magazine. Interestingly, I have found the link to the Daily Telegraph article through Nature's own posts on social media. They are just as guilty of selling themselves just a little bit for exposure as are many others despite how thorough the review process at the magazine itself works.

And that to me does a real disservice to the scientists of this study and science in general. If Nature and Science and the others do not hold themselves to higher standards in terms of outreach, then who will?
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Nikhil N astro

Science News (Pop Sci)  - 
The merging galaxies NGC 4038 and 4039, popularly referred to as the "Antennae" are the prototypical model of merging galactic systems. The interaction between the two galaxies began between 300 and 450 million years ago and will likely end in the full merger of the two in some 300 million years. The "Antennae" have been investigated in detail at almost every wavelength. The effects of the merger can be observed on two separate fronts. The disturbed inner region comprising the central mass of the two colliding galaxies contain many young clusters of giant O and B type stars and even superclusters of massive stars arising from recently formed giant molecular clouds. The formation of superclusters of stars are a phenomenon clearly associated with galactic mergers. The sweeping tidal tails of the two galaxies contain gas and stars, mutually stripped from both galaxies that extend out almost 500,000 light years from their respective centers. Detailed studies of the tidal tails reveal many older stars present before the encounter but also new star clusters triggered as a direct result of the massive collision. There appears to be a very large gravitationally bound mass of new stars near the end of the southern tail. This stellar mass is so large it may qualify as an independent "Tidal Dwarf Galaxy", a new dwarf galaxy created through the tidal effects of the collision. This remains to be confirmed.         pic BY: Robert gendler m
Carolyn Stafford's profile photoMalreddy Pranay's profile photoLee Cherrington's profile photoJahnavi Sci's profile photo
So amazing and beautiful! Thanks for sharing!
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Understanding Animal Research

Science News (Pop Sci)  - 

Bigger brains help female fish outwit predators and live longer. Bigger brains meant smarter guppies which meant they were more likely to outwit predators and live longer. However, this didn’t seem to work for males, whose bright colours may have countered any benefit of higher intelligence. The researchers did find that large-brained males were faster swimmers and better at learning and remembering the location of females. Size is a critical trait underlying cognitive ability but it is not the only trait, and there is enormous variation in brain size of vertebrates – both relatively and absolutely. Given that brains are energetically costly this means there is an optimal brain size that balances these costs and benefits. 


Studies in mice have suggested that telomeres, the caps at the end of each of our DNA strands, may provide a useful target for anti-cancer drugs. Since cancer cells require intact telomeres to replicate, researchers have tried blocking the growth of the protective covers at the ends of the telomeres (called shelterin). Studies in mice with an aggressive lung cancer showed that tumour growth could be prevented by using chemicals which block shelterin growth.

Maria Blasco, from the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre, said:
"First, we showed that TRF1 genetic abrogation was sufficient to stop aggressive lung cancer from growing. Second, we screened for chemical compounds that were able to achieve TRF1 targeting in vivo and show efficiency en decreasing the growth of these tumors without showing loss of mouse or organ viability."…/telomere-drug-target-slows-tumor-gr… 

Fish are proving themselves smarter than many scientists have given them credit for. In 1998 Bshary observed a grouper fish and a giant moray eel cooperating to hunt. Bshary created artificial reefs and found many the behaviours he spotted in the wild could be repeated in laboratory conditions. 

“In one experiment, he showed that when cleaners work in male and female pairs, as frequently happens in the wild, they are much less likely to cheat than when they work alone; and that this is mostly because the female gets punished by being chased around by the male if she slacks off.”


Having children can permanently affect the female brain. The surge in female sex hormones during pregnancy can influence the development of key parts of the central nervous system. The research on rats looked at 2 of the oestrogen hormones used to treat the symptoms of menopausal women and found that they had a complex effect depending on the age of the women and whether they had previously given birth. The surge in oestrogen hormones during pregnancy can influence the plasticity of nerve cells in the hippocampus, the area in the brain responsible for memory and spatial awareness.

Mice in space develop thin skin. The mice stayed an equivalent of 7 ‘human years’ in space and scientists found these ‘astromice’ had thinner skin than mice that had stayed on the ground, as well as changes to their muscles and hair. Astronauts tend to experience increased skin irritation and find that minor wounds, such as scratches and abrasions, take longer to heal.


A mystery diseases is killing off the saiga antelopes. Around 120,000 saiga antelopes, almost half of the world’s remaining population have been killed and we don’t know why. The animals began dying from an unidentified cause around may 10.

"It's very dramatic and traumatic, with 100 per cent mortality," said Richard Kock of the Royal Veterinary College in Hatfield. "I know of no example in history with this level of mortality, killing all the animals and all the calves." The animals die through severe diarrhoea and difficulty breathing.

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About this community

Science on Google+ is a community moderated by scientists, for all people interested in science, both professionals and the general public. The primary goal of this community is to bring real scientists to the public, for science outreach. A secondary and long-term goal is to create an environment that fosters interdisciplinary collaborations; thus, enabling and promoting cloud collaboration between scientists. See Guidelines and Rules section for additional details.

Guanqing Pan

Science News (Pop Sci)  - 
A new YouTube video explains where all this dinosaur pee has come from.
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Robin Kirkpatrick

Science News (Pop Sci)  - 
This is truly an amazing technology - Soon to be in our grasp (well actually just sensing our grasp!

Very cool!
Google unveils Project Soli: a radar-based wearable to control anything
Would you like to be able to Force Push and turn on your lights... yeah this will let you do that. This isn't a smart watch, this is a smart YOU that can interact with real objects... virtually. 

It's like you can pinch and zoom but you don't to touch anything. The radar in a wearable will detect your hand movements and allow you to interact with virtual objects in the real world. This looks awesome. 

The video is worth a Saturday morning watch... and you can read more about it here:
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Dwight Dunker

Science News (Pop Sci)  - 
StarTalk: Is 'Mad Max' Our Future? W. Neil deGrasse Tyson & Bill Nye (Full Interview) | GE
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christine ford

Science News (Pop Sci)  - 
While their attention may be inland on the San Andreas Fault, residents of coastal Southern California could be surprised by very large earthquakes – and even tsunamis – from several major faults that lie offshore, a new study finds.
                                                         Credit: Mark Legg This map shows the California Borderland and its major tectonic features,...
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Meek Peace

Science News (Pop Sci)  - 
Miniature Origami Robot Self-folds, Walks, Swims, and Degrades
Adam Thick's profile photoJonathan Woodcock's profile photoRobert Poole's profile photoAlhex Whada's profile photo
+Csáki Péter I know but check the YouTube channel it's by, and also +Michael Hogue 's link. Surprised to see a link in a YouTube comment outside of a Google spam filter by the way.
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Hussain Nashydhu Moosa

Science Bytes (Memes, Cartoons, Images)  - 
Do you ever wonder, where all those dinosaurs went ??? 
Maybe some of them are still around ... 
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Michele Briere's profile photoLorenzo Ciani's profile photoViktor Schmidt (viktorianer)'s profile photoMikael Werngren's profile photo
No one has ever seen what a dinosaur looks like. When designing them, artists used ... birds! So when we see a bird like this and think of those dinosaur images we've seen in books and movies, it's a bit circular.

I think it is far more convincing to see chickens embryos grow teeth by unlocking some of their own DNA that isn't normally expressed. If you haven't seen it, look up chicken teeth.
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James Clarke

Science News (Pop Sci)  - 
Robot Cheetah Uses Laser Sight To Jump Over Obstacles
Gaurav Yadav's profile photoDan G.'s profile photo
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cuma demir

Science News (Pop Sci)  - 
Physicists solve quantum tunneling mystery

An international team of scientists studying ultrafast physics have solved a mystery of quantum mechanics, and found that quantum tunneling is an instantaneous process.

The new theory could lead to faster and smaller electronic components, for which quantum tunneling is a significant factor. It will also lead to a better understanding of diverse areas such as electron microscopy, nuclear fusion and DNA mutations.

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Speaking of Research

Science News (Pop Sci)  - 
Richard Marble, Laboratory Animal Facility Coordinator at Ferris State University, explains how, he provides an insight into animal facilities from the perspective of a lab animal facility manager. Technicians like Richard play a key role in maintaining high standards of animal welfare within labs. The article also gives an interesting perspective on how technicians can play a key role in the take up of replacement methods.

"Moving to the afternoon I might attend a meeting with IACUC members to review incoming protocols and discuss our legal/ethical obligations or training/ updating them on current best practices. This may include ways of reducing the number of animals needed for the research by suggesting utilizing animals from a behavioral study that has ended, refining a procedure by providing input on the latest/ least invasive way of performing it, or offering a scientifically validated option to replace some of the animals with cell or computer based options to obtain the same data."
The following guest post is by Richard Marble RLATg, CMAR, Laboratory Animal Facility Coordinator at Ferris State University. In this article, he provides an insight into animal facilities from the...
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In case readers don't know what these are, the 3Rs that guide animal research are Replacement, Reduction and Refinement. These principles were put in place 50 years ago and are taught to all scientists who seek certification on using animals for research.
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Nilesh Kurhade

Science Bytes (Memes, Cartoons, Images)  - 
Some tribes in Africa use ants as makeshift emergency staples by letting them bite the skin then decapitating them so the jaws hold the wound closed.

Maxime Tougne's profile photomark mesolella's profile photoOscar Rodríguez Pardo's profile photoMatthew Rosin's profile photo
They've got good brains!
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