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Henry Nathan

Science Outreach  - 
 
My question may be a basic one and not trouble the scientific minds here. But I have this question. When you are driving a car and see a mosquito hovering inside...what makes the mosquito hover in the same place while the car is being driven at say 50 MPH? How is it able to keep up with the pace of the car while not in physical contact with it?
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Karl Jordan's profile photoAlkame Water's profile photo
21 comments
 
Deep.
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Ciro Villa

Science News (Pop Sci)  - 
 
 
Researchers create a laboratory model of artificial life as we might find it on Titan!

In an exciting experiment researchers have artificially created a model of hypothetical Methane based life form that could be in existence on Saturn's Moon Titan

"A new type of methane-based, oxygen-free life form that can metabolize and reproduce similar to life on Earth has been modeled by a team of Cornell University researchers.

Taking a simultaneously imaginative and rigidly scientific view, chemical engineers and astronomers offer a template for life that could thrive in a harsh, cold world - specifically Titan, the giant moon of Saturn. A planetary body awash with seas not of water, but of liquid methane, Titan could harbor methane-based, oxygen-free cells.

Their theorized cell membrane, composed of small organic nitrogen compounds and capable of functioning in liquid methane temperatures of 292 degrees below zero, is published in Science Advances, Feb. 27. The work is led by chemical molecular dynamics expert Paulette Clancy and first author James Stevenson, a graduate student in chemical engineering. The paper's co-author is Jonathan Lunine, director for Cornell's Center for Radiophysics and Space Research."

Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2015-02-life-saturn-moon-titan.html#jCp

Image: A representation of a 9-nanometer azotosome, about the size of a virus, with a piece of the membrane cut away to show the hollow interior. Credit: James Stevenson
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chao yang Men's profile photo
 
Awsome
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Thales

Science News (Pop Sci)  - 
 
"Tomorrow's Factory" The transformation of industry is driven by ‪‎robotics‬ and ‪cobotics‬ http://thls.co/JJCUU
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Francine Moccio's profile photo
 
so why do our children have to take the PARCC test, they should be reading Aldous Huxlet instead?
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Rezik Agbaria

Science News (Pop Sci)  - 
 
Recent developments in experimental Physics suggest that a new line of thought must be introduced regarding the big bang, black holes, and other cosmological matters. The current line of thought is meant to stimulate a thoughtful exercise about avenues that can be visited in order to overcome the hurdles that we have positioned in our ways of understanding and uncovering the secrets of nature... Sometimes we are required to go as far as the limits of imagination without falling into illusions. This is the ingenuity as it was described by Einstein... The shortcomings in our understanding are becoming clearer than ever before and the need to fill such void is obvious... 
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Rezik Agbaria's profile photoMy First Book's profile photoJames S's profile photoLuciano Vidal Lyra Pereira's profile photo
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I do not know which experimental physics you are referring to, but from theoretical physics, there are very interesting ideas. The most recent I read some weeks ago, makes also a tweak on dark energy and gravity:
phys.org/news/2015-02-big-quantum-equation-universe.html
The point being: there is a lot of room for hypothesis that could be falsified within the natural world, unlike "metaphysical" assumptions and disquisitions.
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Justin Chen

Science News (Pop Sci)  - 
 
RUT
22 votes
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50%
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Carrie Ives's profile photokillian montgomery's profile photo
2 comments
 
Awe no option for zero :-(
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What is gravity, really? Physicist +Brian Koberlein writes an interesting and accessible article on our understanding of gravity. 

"...we found gravity wasn’t a force at all...[it's] a warping of spacetime. Basically, mass tells space how to bend, and space tells mass how to move."

[emphasis mine]

#physics  #gravity #spacetime
 
Cradle to Grave

Gravity is perhaps the best known of the four fundamental forces. It’s also the one that’s easiest to understand. At a basic level, gravity is simply the mutual attraction between any two masses. It’s the force that lets the Sun hold the planets in their orbits, and the force that holds the Earth to you. The force is always attractive, and the strength of the force between two masses depends inversely on the square of their distances, making it an inverse square force. But gravity’s simplicity is just a veneer that hides a deeply subtle and complex phenomenon.

When Newton proposed his model of universal gravity, one criticism of the model was how gravity could act at a distance. How does the Moon “detect” the presence of Earth and “know” to be pulled in Earth’s direction? A few ideas were proposed, but never really panned out. Since Newton’s model was so incredibly accurate, the action-at-a-distance problem was largely swept under the rug. Regardless of how masses detected each other, Newton’s model let us calculate their motion. Another difficulty came to be known as the 3-body problem. Calculating the gravitational motion of any two masses was straight forward, but the motion of three or more masses was impossible to calculate exactly. The motion could be approximated to great precision, and was even used to discover Neptune, but an exact, general solution for three masses would never be found. Newton’s idea was simple, but it’s application was complex.

In the early 1900s, we found that gravity wasn’t a force at all. In Einstein’s model, gravity isn’t a force, but rather a warping of spacetime. Basically, mass tells space how to bend, and space tells mass how to move. General relativity isn’t just a mathematical trick to calculate the correct forces between objects, it makes unique predictions about the behavior of light and matter, which are different from the predictions of gravity as a force. Space really is curved, and as a result objects are deflected from a straight path in a way that looks like a force.

But despite its simple approximation as a force, and its beautifully subtle description as a property of spacetime, we’ve come to realize over the past century that we still don’t know what gravity actually is. That’s because both Newton’s and Einstein’s models of gravity are classical in nature. We now know that objects have quantum properties, with particle-like and wave-like behaviors.  When we try to apply quantum theory to gravity, things become complicated and confusing. In most quantum theory, quantum objects exist within a background framework of space and time. Since gravity is a property of spacetime itself, fully quantizing gravity would require a quantization of space and time. There are several models that attempt this, but none of them have yet achieved a fully quantum model.

Usually our current understanding of gravity is just fine. We can accurately describe the motions of stars and planets. Seemingly odd predictions such as black holes and the big bang have been confirmed by observation. Every experimental and observational test of general relativity has validated its accuracy. Large objects with strong gravity can be described just fine by classical gravity. For small objects with weak gravity we our approximate quantum gravity is good enough. The problem comes when we want to describe small objects with strong gravity, such as the earliest moments of the big bang.

Without a complete theory of quantum gravity, we won’t fully understand the earliest moment of the universe. We know from observation that the early observable universe was both very small and very dense. From general relativity this would imply that the universe began as a singularity. Most cosmologists don’t think the universe actually began as a singularity, but without quantum gravity we aren’t exactly sure. Even if we put the quantum aspects of gravity aside, there is still a part of gravity we don’t understand. Within general relativity it is possible to have a cosmological constant. Adding this constant to Einstein’s equations causes the universe to expand through dark energy, just as we observe. While general relativity allows for a cosmological constant, it doesn’t require one. The cosmological constant agrees with what we observe, but there are other proposed models for dark energy that agree as well (at least for now). If dark energy is really due to the cosmological constant, then the constant must be very close to zero, at about 10-122. Why would a constant be so incredibly close to zero? Why does it even exist when general relativity doesn’t require it?

We don’t know, and without that understanding, both the origin and fate of the universe remain mysteries.

Tomorrow: Electromagnetism was the first unified theory, combining the forces of magnets and charges. The result gave us a new understanding of light, and led us down a path toward a theory of everything.
We often speak of gravity as a force. More accurately it is a feature of spacetime. Even more accurately, we don't know what it is.
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Adrian Parsons's profile photoHannetjie Marais's profile photoMehmet Emirhan's profile photoColin Mackay's profile photo
 
That goes for a great deal of accepted "science." That is the last sentence.
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rare avis

Science News (Pop Sci)  - 
 

The analysis showed that use of animals in laboratory research at these facilities rose by just under 73 per cent between 1997 and 2012.

This was largely driven by increases in the use of mice while the use of other species remained mostly unchanged. Unregulated species made up almost all (98.8 %) of the animals used at these labs.

This is the first time data on the prevalence and trends in use of these species in the US has been published, and the pattern mirrors international reports of increases in the use of mice for genetic modification.

Possible explanations for these trends include personal and legal biases towards certain animal species, say the researchers. But the figures highlight a need for greater efforts to curb the use of animals in scientific research and more transparency in reporting on whether these are succeeding, they add.

CONT
The use of animals in experimental research has soared at leading US laboratories in recent years, finds new research. This is despite growing public opposition to animal experimentation, mounting evidence that animal studies often do not faithfully translate to people, and the development of new research technologies that supplant animal use.
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Michael Verona's profile photoFlavia Rio's profile photo
 
This article cites the number of animals used in research. Does the increase in number of animals used correlate with a similar increase in the number of research projects that require animal testing?

Unfortunately, the original studies are paywalled.
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Take a look at this future vision from Microsoft
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kuku mensah's profile photoBill Eldridge's profile photoRichard Terrell's profile photoLorisa Ford's profile photo
 
Looks good,there is no doubt about that but as these impressive electronic devices which are so much more efficient than our brains become ubiquitous there is a real danger that a significant part of our own brain will atrophy through having had its functional abilities superceded by the new technologies.
There is a price to pay for everything we gain.
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Tony Ess

Science News (Pop Sci)  - 
 
Infinite Universe? Study Suggest this may be so.
A new way to reconcile quantum mechanics and general relativity could imply that the age of the universe is infinite, and that there was no true Big Bang that started it all.
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JobisJob

Conferences/Job Ads/Communities  - 
 
For everyone who loved the science classroom, these are the jobs for you. 
Did you love science class as a kid? Now that you’re all grown up, it doesn’t mean you can’t still do what you love!
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Michael Pfaffl

Conferences/Job Ads/Communities  - 
 
REGISTER now for the qPCR & NGS 2015 Event - "Advanced Molecular Diagnostics for Biomarker Discovery"


qPCR & NGS 2015 Symposium
main topic "Advanced Molecular Diagnostics for Biomarker Discovery"
7th international qPCR & NGS Event -- Symposium & Industrial Exhibition & Application Workshops 
23-27 March 2015
TUM School of Life Sciences, Technical University of Munich, Germany

Browse the Conference Agenda -- http://AgendaHTML.qPCR-NGS-2015.net
Print agenda PDF version  http://AgendaPDF.qPCR-NGS-2015.net

Register for Symposium & Workshops  http://registration.qPCR-NGS-2015.net
Event Promotion Trailer  http://youtu.be/44nJ43gzXJQ
Download the event flyer  http://event-announcement.qPCR-NGS-2015.net
Event location on Google maps  http://goo.gl/maps/3p3gx
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About this community

Science on Google+ is a community moderated by scientists, for all people interested in science, both professionals and the general public. The primary goal of this community is to bring real scientists to the public, for science outreach. A secondary and long-term goal is to create an environment that fosters interdisciplinary collaborations; thus, enabling and promoting cloud collaboration between scientists. See Guidelines and Rules section for additional details.
 
A follow-up on the previous video, here's Joachim de Posada discussing the marshmallow experiment and how our ability to delay gratification, or control our impulses, may be one of the most important skills to learn.
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The famous marshmallow experiment conducted by Walter Mischel at Stanford University never ceases to amuse me. What happens is, a group of four-year olds are given a marshmallow and promised another, only if they could wait 20 minutes before eating the first one. Watch and see what happens...
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Johnathan Gross's profile photoDaniel Bentley's profile photoHedvig Käst's profile photoFred Campaigne's profile photo
6 comments
 
Sorry, but this video by itself demonstrates none of that. It's lacking any context. 
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New discoveries for Ebola treatment
A compound in traditional Chinese medicine for lowering blood pressure has been found to be effective in blocking the Ebola virus, according to new research. ...
1 comment on original post
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blind lemon's profile photo
 
But radical islamists are immune to Ebola? Let's find out.
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Its Blue and Black 
It’s been driving people crazy. What colors are the dress? Is it blue with black lace? Or white with gold lace? You see one or the other, and you probably can’t believe anyone else would see anything different. Each person is certain that his or her perception is correct. So what’s going on?
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Ole Martin Håland's profile photoCy Borg's profile photoXiao-Pei Guan's profile photoNate Marshall's profile photo
22 comments
 
+Steven Fitzgerald
I agree... I've seen multiple pictures as well.  The one posted here is the midway point between the other two.
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Understanding Animal Research

Science News (Pop Sci)  - 
 
Tiny beach mollusc could hold the key to augmented reality. The natural optical structures found in the mollusc could be used as a basis for developing colour-selective, controllable, transparent displays that could be incorporated into glass and windows. MIT and Harvard scientists have identified two optical structures within the blue-rayed limpet’s shell that give it its blue-stripped appearance that can be quite brilliant when light hits at the right angle. This is the first evidence of an organism using 2mineral structures to produce optical displays.

“Let’s imagine a window surface in a car where you obviously want to see the outside world as you’re driving, but where you also can overlay the real world with an augmented reality that could involve projecting a map and other useful information on the world that exists on the other side of the windshield,” said Mathias Kolle, assistant professor of mechanical engineering at MIT. “We believe that the limpet’s approach to displaying colour patterns in a translucent shell could serve as a starting point for developing such displays,”

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/tiny-molusc-on-beach-could-hold-key-to-augmented-reality-10073641.html
Photo: https://www.flickr.com/photos/zpyder/
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THOR Agtarap

Science Bytes (Memes, Cartoons, Images)  - 
 
ESOcast 72 – Looking Deeply into the Universe in 3D: http://youtu.be/GsEQ7bcU0n4
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Mauro Marazzi's profile photoümit Yavuz's profile photodaxesh rathwa's profile photoSkylar Laham's profile photo
 
Nice one too understand the universe...
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Diego Fernando Sánchez Martínez's profile photoRay Nassar's profile photoPrince Drareal's profile photoJose Feneque's profile photo
 
I want the gene which will make my brain bigger thanks !!!!!!!
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Understanding Animal Research

Science News (Pop Sci)  - 
 
Llamas might be the new hope for a new AIDS vaccine or treatment – llamas appear to be immune to HIV. Llama antibodies, which develop in response to the virus potently neutralizes more than 95% of HIV strains. In humans, the antibodies are completely ineffective at halting the virus they have evolved to target. Unlike human antibodies, llama antibodies have a single chain of proteins, which allows them to accurately aim at specific viruses compared to a more scatter-gun approach to the human immune system, attacking all foreign viruses.

http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/world/2015/02/23/lima-peru-llama-aids-hiv/23884381/
For more information on AIDS and HIV: http://www.animalresearch.info/en/medical-advances/research-the-news/aids-hiv/ 
Photo: https://www.flickr.com/photos/tcmorgan/
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.... "Our compound is the broadest and most potent entry inhibitor described so far," said Michael Farzan, a TSRI professor who led the effort. "Unlike antibodies, which fail to neutralize a large fraction of HIV-1 strains, our protein has been effective against all strains tested, raising the possibility it could offer an effective HIV vaccine alternative."
Blocking a Second Site
When HIV infects a cell, it targets the CD4 lymphocyte, an integral part of the body's immune system. HIV fuses with the cell and inserts its own genetic material -- in this case, single-stranded RNA -- and transforms the host cell into a HIV manufacturing site.
The new study builds on previous discoveries by the Farzan laboratory, which show that a co-receptor called CCR5 contains unusual modifications in its critical HIV-binding region, and that proteins based on this region can be used to prevent infection.
With this knowledge, Farzan and his team developed the new drug candidate so that it binds to two sites on the surface of the virus simultaneously, preventing entry of HIV into the host cell.
"When antibodies try to mimic the receptor, they touch a lot of other parts of the viral envelope that HIV can change with ease," said TSRI Research Associate Matthew Gardner, the first author of the study with Lisa M. Kattenhorn of Harvard Medical School. "We've developed a direct mimic of the receptors without providing many avenues that the virus can use to escape, so we catch every virus thus far."
The team also leveraged preexisting technology in designing a delivery vehicle -- an engineered adeno-associated virus, a small, relatively innocuous virus that causes no disease. Once injected into muscle tissue, like HIV itself, the vehicle turns those cells into "factories" that could produce enough of the new protective protein to last for years, perhaps decades, Farzan said.
Data from the new study showed the drug candidate binds to the envelope of HIV-1 more potently than the best broadly neutralizing antibodies against the virus. Also, when macaque models were inoculated with the drug candidate, they were protected from multiple challenges by SIV.
"This is the culmination of more than a decade's worth of work on the biochemistry of how HIV enters cells," Farzan said. "When we did our original work on CCR5, people thought it was interesting, but no one saw the therapeutic potential. That potential is starting to be realized."
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What colour dress do you see? White and gold? WRONG (apparently!) The science of why no one agrees on the colour of this dress

#science #colours #dressgate #dressgate2015 #neuralnetworks #brainteaser #eyes #seeingisbelieving #opticalillusion #thedress  
Not since Monica Lewinsky was a White House intern has one blue dress been the source of so much consternation. (And yes, it’s blue.) The fact that a single image could polarize the entire Internet into two aggressive camps is, let’s face it, just another Thursday. But for the past half-day, people across social media…
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Michelle Hend's profile photoBusari Abdulhafeez's profile photoJames Sommerville's profile photoRobocop Arvind's profile photo
5 comments
 
This is the first time I've seen or heard of this dress... I'm just going to call it what it is: ugly.
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