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Two invasive acacia species secure generalist pollinators in invaded communities

Exotic entomophilous plants need to establish effective pollinator interactions in order to succeed after being introduced into a new community, particularly if they are obligatory outbreeders. By establishing these novel interactions in the new non-native range, invasive plants are hypothesized to drive changes in the composition and functioning of the native pollinator community, with potential impacts on the pollination biology of native co-flowering plants.

In this study, we used two different sites in Portugal, each invaded by a different acacia species, to assess whether two native Australian trees, Acacia dealbata and Acacia longifolia, were able to recruit pollinators in Portugal, and whether the pollinator community visiting acacia trees differed from the pollinator communities interacting with native co-flowering plants.

Our results indicate that in the invaded range of Portugal both acacia species were able to establish novel mutualistic interactions, predominantly with generalist pollinators. For each of the two studied sites, only two other co-occurring native plant species presented partially overlapping phenologies. We observed significant differences in pollinator richness and visitation rates among native and non-native plant species, although the study of b diversity indicated that only the native plant Lithodora fruticosa presented a differentiated set of pollinator species. Acacias experienced a large number of visits by numerous pollinator species, but massive acacia flowering resulted in flower visitation rates frequently lower than those of the native co-flowering species.

The establishment of mutualisms in Portugal likely contributes to the effective and profuse production of acacia seeds in Portugal. Despite the massive flowering of A. dealbata and A. longifolia, native plant species attained similar or higher visitation rates than acacias.


Link to free pdf: http://authors.elsevier.com/a/1TE0O,Q4YJBumi

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​Juno is about to finish its five-year journey and enter the hostile environment of the Jovian system.
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Over the course of a 10-hour flight, a passenger airliner burns roughly 36,000 gallons of fuel – about one gallon every second. That’s why cleaner alternative sources of jet fuel are a priority for the airline industry and the U.S. Department of Energy. Now, PNNL researchers and industry partners have reached a milestone. They converted alcohols derived from captured carbon monoxide, a byproduct in the production of steel, into synthetic paraffinic kerosene, a non-fossil-based jet fuel. Read more about this achievement at http://goo.gl/pLh6hE.
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Well, let's let it be known..."
Turns out, life looks a lot different when sunlight and oxygen are taken out of the equation. - More Mysteries Await #biology, #science, #insects, #weird
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Is this true?
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A new 3D printing technique has allowed scientists from Pennsylvania State University to print cow cartilage so that it can be used to fix worn joints. Cartilage cannot self-repair but is a good tissue for bio-printing because it consists of only one cell type and contains no blood vessels. Researchers grew cells in thin tubes that were just three hundredths of an inch wide, made from algae, in order to produce an organic ink. A special nozzle then allowed the cartilage-ink to be pushed through to allow it to be printed in any pattern needed.

Lead scientist Dr Ibrahim Ozbolat said:
"Our goal is to create tissue that can be used to replace large amounts of worn out tissue or design patches. Those who have osteoarthritis in their joints suffer a lot. We need a new alternative treatment for this."

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/cow-cartilage-used-for-3d-printing-in-step-forward-that-could-make-patches-for-worn-joints-a7105406.html

Cow cartilage has been printed out by scientists in a move that could fix worn joints. The special 3D printing technique could one day be used to print out special patches that will help people with worn joints. To create the organic ink, researchers grew cells in thin tubes that were just three hundredths of an inch wide, made from algae.
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Andrew Revkin

Science Policy & Practice  - 
 
A segment from my interview with Josh Fox on how he came to the unusual focus of his new climate film: Josh Fox: "The climate movement and the fracking movement were onstage going, ‘Rah, rah, rah, we’re going to win, this is what we have to do.’ But in private moments were saying things like, ‘Oh my God, we’re totally screwed.’ There were a series of those conversations…which made me feel that there was a real problem here -- that going out and campaigning and saying we just need to develop renewable energy was rather simplistic.
"And I’d seen a lot of climate films which were so depressing that you just wanted to kill yourself and didn’t want to do anything. And then I’d seen a few which were so overly simplistic – all we have to do is chase renewable energy -- and I felt like this was not doing justice to the topic because it wasn’t the emotional weight of the catharsis. I remember having a conversation with Tim DeChristopher, where I said, “Are we lying to ourselves? And he said, Yeah, we are. We’re going to have massive upheaval from climate change….” https://youtu.be/zWXELfdPq1s?t=5m
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Jason Davison
moderator

​​​​​​​​​Earth  - 
 
 
Bias EPA?

The EPA funds scientists to do research. Then the EPA uses those same scientists to write new regulations to restrict air pollution. This is a controversy?

Almost every environmental scientist has received some form of funding from the EPA. The only people that would be completely outside of the EPA funding would either be not from the US or not an environmental scientist/engineer.

Fox news is stirring up, just to stir it up:
"This clearly violates the law and makes a mockery of the notion of ‘independent’ scientific review,” Energy and Environment Legal Institute General Counsel Steve Milloy said.

The Energy and Environmental Legal Institute receives its funding from the Koch family and Exon. Truly unbiased....

http://www.foxnews.com/science/2016/06/27/epa-panel-backs-tough-new-ozone-regs-after-getting-200m-in-grants-lawsuit-charges.html?intcmp=hpbt2
Scientists on a key panel handpicked by the Environmental Protection Agency to greenlight new environmental emissions regulations have received nearly $200 million in grants from the agency, according to a federal lawsuit which charges the past funding calls into question the objectivity of the process.
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Fox news is biased. This is a science community. 
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Fatima Abdul razzak

​​​Physical  - 
 
The teams have independently created two new computer codes they say will lead to the most accurate possible models of the universe and provide new insights into gravity and its effects.

One hundred years since it was developed, Einstein's theory remains the best theory of gravity, consistently passing high-precision tests in the solar system and successfully predicting phenomena such as gravitational waves, discovered earlier this year.

But because the equations involved are so complex, physicists until now have been forced to simplify the theory when applying it to the universe.

The two new codes are the first to use Einstein's complete general theory of relativity to account for the effects of the clumping of matter in some regions and the lack of matter in others.

Dr Marco Bruni, of the Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Portsmouth, said: "This is a really exciting development that will help cosmologists create the most accurate possible model of the universe.
Read further at:<www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/06/160624105045.htm>.
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trickle... trickle... drip, drip... ripple.
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Nico M

Life  - 
 
UK study reveals that cardiac abnormalities are not based on deconditioning - but rather with plasma volume in ME/CFS patients.
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Vivax Solutions

Popular Science  - 
 
Drone's Eye View

Drones, controlled by remote devices, have been getting the attention for all the wrong reasons these days. The constructive aspect of them, however, cannot be eclipsed by irresponsible use of them by a minority.

Drones used in tracking the animal movement in hostile environment is a case in point.

The following footage, a fairly chaotic movement of a herd of elephant, shows one such example.

There is an explosive growth in drone industry and judging by the abuse of the technology by a few, there will be an equally painful legislation in proportion in the coming years, hindering the ambitions of even the good people who want to render a service to mankind.

Here are a few good things that drones can do:

http://gizmodo.com/some-good-things-drones-can-actually-do-1475717696
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Is not that great. NASA, ESA, JAXA, Russia, India, etc needs to send a Drone to Mars!!!
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Science on Google+ is a community moderated by scientists, for all people interested in science, both professionals and the general public. The primary goal of this community is to bring real scientists to the public, for science outreach. A secondary and long-term goal is to create an environment that fosters interdisciplinary collaborations; thus, enabling and promoting cloud collaboration between scientists. See Guidelines and Rules section for additional details.
 
At about 9 p.m. Eastern on the Fourth of July, the Juno spacecraft will conclude a five-year journey when it carries out a series of complex maneuvers to insert itself into orbit around Jupiter. "It's both an exciting and a tense moment," says Juno principal investigator Scott Bolton. "There are many potential risks—debris, the radiation environment, the magnetic environment. There are lots of complicated maneuvers that the spacecraft has to do." 
​Juno is about to finish its five-year journey and enter the hostile environment of the Jovian system.
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King Fryy Paccinni originally shared:
 
Welp & here's what scientist are saying-..

& do remember You Never need a scientist approval to know if the bible speaks truth or not because most of what "science" claimed to had discovered were test results from the earlier books(the bible). . . This is why its sad to see Anyone mention Science vs Creation.

Obviously you'd have to do the science in order to create. Let alone, No one would even know of the word 'science' had it not been for the pagan's teachings about the Tree of Science."
‘The final resolution could be that God is a mathematician.’
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+King Fryy Paccinni​ The Bible says the earth has 4 corners. Can you please explain to me how that shows that the "bible speaks truth"?

It also says homosexuality is an abomination and gays should be stoned to death. And of course it says women are supposed to cover their heads (sounds familiar? - Islam).

The most important question for us to ask here, though, is about the existence of your God. If your God exists, who/what created your God? Who/what created the creator of your God.

It's not too hard to understand that it is very possible that something could indeed come from nothing. If you need me to give you the verses of anything I mentioned about the Bible, I can do that for you.
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Gravitational waves captured by space-based detectors could help identify the origins of supermassive black holes, according to new computer simulations of the Universe.
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Dilara Ickecan

​​​​​​​​​Earth  - 
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BBSRC

Life  - 
 
Lost hormone found in starfish

The evolutionary history of a hormone responsible for sexual maturity in humans is written in the genes of the humble starfish.

Scientists at Queen Mary University of London (QMUL), working in collaboration with teams at The University of Warwick and KU Leuven in Belgium, have found that the history of this important sex hormone is a tale of loss.

Find out more in the press release: http://www.bbsrc.ac.uk/news/fundamental-bioscience/2016/160628-pr-lost-hormone-found-in-starfish/

And full paper: http://www.nature.com/articles/srep28788
Investing in world-class bioscience research and training on behalf of the UK public.
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Scientists at PNNL demonstrated how any research-grade optical microscope could be used to record spectrally resolved optical images. They replaced a standard 2D camera of an optical microscope with a 3D "hyperspectral" detector. The resulting instrument was then used to record spatially and spectrally resolved dark field optical images of hundreds of silver nanoparticles in a matter of about 30 seconds. The technique can be used to study live cells, biological specimens, engineered metallic substrates with unique optical properties and atmospheric nanoparticles. Learn more about the impact of this work at http://goo.gl/CYyGRO. 
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Focus
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Billy Titra

Popular Science  - 
 
It had been known that the expression of Pparγ and C/ebpα mRNAs was lower in absence of T3 than in the presence of it. However, in presence of TRE isoforms TRα1PV or TRβ1PV, both gene transcriptions were markedly decreased.
http://jme.endocrinology-journals.org/content/44/4/247.full.pdf

Nevertheless, some studies already stated that curcumin increased expression of PPARγ and C/EBPα at protein level.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18274631
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ijc.25220/pdf

Regardless different origins of translation/transcription in ribosome/nucleus, hopefully curcumin can abrogate the genetic effects of aformentioned isoforms.

Any thoughts ?
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Fabiana Bueno

Popular Science  - 
 
 In their effort to identify new drug targets, the research team explored how gene expression can be regulated by factors other than genetics.
 
 Researchers at Drexel University College of Medicine are aiming to identify new molecular mechanisms involved in pain. Their latest study, published this month in Epigenetics & Chromatin, shows how one protein — acting as a master controller — can regulate the expression of a large number of genes that modulate pain.
In their effort to identify new drug targets, the research team explored how gene expression can be regulated by factors other than genetics. The field of epigenetics is gaining more attention, as researchers realize that genetics alone cannot explain all disease mechanisms.
One protein with a critical role in mediating epigenetic changes is methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). MeCP2 can regulate the expression of a large number of genes by binding to DNA. Mutations in this DNA-binding protein cause Rett syndrome, an autism spectrum disorder that predominantly affects girls.
Rett patients have a number of severe impairments that can hinder a child’s ability to speak, walk, eat and breathe. However, a puzzling effect of this genetic mutation is the patient’s higher threshold for pain, suggesting that the functional MeCP2 protein has a role in controlling pain perception.
The researchers hypothesized that nerve injury can induce differences in the binding pattern of MeCP2, which, in turn, can lead to changes in the expression of a large number of downstream genes that could ultimately cause pain.

http://neurosciencenews.com/chronic-pain-epigenetics-4569/
Summary: According to new research, one protein can regulate the expression of a large number of genes that modulate pain.Source: Drexel University.Chronic pain is one of the most prevalent, d
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James Goode

Popular Science  - 
 
Hubble will soon start seeing double. NASA has announced plans to extend operations of the famous space telescope for another five years, through to June 2021. That means it will still be on the job when its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) launches in 2018, giving astronomers a dual view of the universe.

NASA launched Hubble in 1990 and it has been operating well ever since, barring a few difficult repairs by space shuttle crews. The last in-flight servicing took place in 2009, and the retirement of the shuttle in 2011 has left NASA with no way of fixing Hubble, but it says the telescope is still going strong.

“Hubble is expected to continue to provide valuable data into the 2020s, securing its place in history as an outstanding general-purpose observatory in areas ranging from our solar system to the distant universe,” said a NASA statement.
Extra funds for the world’s most famous observatory mean it will be able to work in tandem with its upcoming successor, the James Webb Space Telescope
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+Joseph Raglione Why? It costs about $10,000 per pound to orbit. What will they do there? Anything of value except look out of the window?
Maybe the best use would be to ship the flat earth brigade there. And then show them the exit. After all, they claim it is done by CGI, space is imaginary, rockets can't work in space, it is all filmed in a desert or an aircraft.
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Fabiana Bueno

Popular Science  - 
 
  scientists from the University of Bayreuth, Germany, have produced  an innovative product: the new bio-based plastic, without the harmful substance bisphenol A.
 
 Take orange peel, extract the natural substance limonene, oxidize it and connect it with carbon dioxide, and what is produced is a biobased plastic... read more:
http://www.materialsviews.com/plastic-made-orange-peel-co2/
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They should start selling it!!! Manufacture this all around the world!
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