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Steve Denning

​​​​​​​​​Earth  - 
 
I know this has happened hundreds, if not thousands, of times before in the history of the Earth and may even be part of a bigger cycle we do not understand; but all the other times we did not have a civilisation dependent on the Oceans. Do you think we should be looking for solutions rather than passing the buck on this one?

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-33369024
A major report warns that life in the seas will be irreversibly changed unless CO2 emissions are drastically cut.
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Cody Seth Crawford

Science News (Pop Sci)  - 
 
Happy 4th of July!   This year we celebrate our countries independence and all of our achievements too.    On July 14th NASA's NEW HORIZONS  space exploration mission will zoom by PLUTO at 38,000 miles per hour.   Launched on January 19, 2006 atop a Lockheed Martin Atlas V rocket.    Pluto is almost 3 billion miles away and it takes 4 1/2 hours for our radio signals traveling from earth that is 93 million miles away from the sun to reach the NASA probe which is 9 million miles from it's target at the moment I write this.   
 Radio signals travel at the speed of light/ 186,000 miles per second.  
 
Happy 4th of July!   This year we celebrate our countries independence and all of our achievements too.    On July 14th NASA's NEW HORIZONS  space exploration mission will zoom by PLUTO at 38,000 miles per hour.   Launched on January 19, 2006 atop a Lockheed Martin Atlas V rocket.    Pluto is almost 3 billion miles away and it takes 4 1/2 hours for our radio signals traveling from earth that is 93 million miles away from the sun to reach the NASA probe which is 9 million miles from it's target at the moment I write this.   
 Radio signals travel at the speed of light/ 186,000 miles per second.  
2 comments on original post
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Cody Seth Crawford's profile photoKaren Watzlawick's profile photo
2 comments
 
I agree with you Cody. I say " Thanks " too.
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Gracjan Rotke

Science News (Pop Sci)  - 
 
Why Fireworks Can't Show Perfect Red, White & Blue
“Mother Nature can be a handful when she wants to be,” says John Conkling, the former technical director of the American Pyrotechnics…
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Karen Watzlawick's profile photo
 
So beautiful, I watched fireworks on television tonight & was in awe.
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Amelia Haque

Science Bytes (Memes, Cartoons, Images)  - 
 
funny science memes, yes, i do understand them. 
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Daniel Montesinos

Science News (Pop Sci)  - 
 
So who's up for some GOOD old STD?

We know that a huge amount of our body mass is made off (mostly beneficial) bacteria, and of course, there are no exceptions to the bodyparts that can benefit from them. Not really a surprise but... who knew! :)

"Beneficial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are an understudied phenomenon with important implications for the evolution of cooperation and host reproductive behavior. Challenging the prevailing expectation that sexual transmission leads to pathogenesis, these symbionts provide new opportunities to examine how STIs might influence sexual selection and the evolution of promiscuity."

http://www.cell.com/trends/ecology-evolution/abstract/S0169-5347(15)00135-4?rss=yes
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Otto Hunt's profile photoCourageisfireand Bullyingissmoke's profile photoBruce Demaree's profile photo
2 comments
 
I'll have to wait to read this via public access or with education access. (Or find a friend to send it to me!)
This is a fascinating topic! Who doesn't love their flora! 
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Science on Google+
owner

Science Bytes (Memes, Cartoons, Images)  - 
 
Happy July 4th

As our American friends celebrate their independence, let's remember that the same elements that give glorious color to fireworks also play essential roles in our bodies. 
More: http://www.livescience.com/51417-how-elements-in-fireworks-make-the-human-body-work-infographic.html
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Denisse Ubaldo Suarez's profile photoVikas gautam's profile photoDaniel Whitehouse's profile photoPhillip Wilson's profile photo
4 comments
 
Happy 4th of July back at you, thanks. Great Day...
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Charlie “L O” L

Science Outreach  - 
 
Why do we have 5 fingers instead of 6 or 4?
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gene lowinger's profile photoTanmay Chhatbar's profile photoMichelle Hend's profile photo
16 comments
 
Because it is easier to count in multiples of ten now.

Just kidding. Even i'd like to know the answer. Maybe it's just a fluke in evolution. 
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Jeffrey Duddles

Science News (Pop Sci)  - 
 
The ship is the second to be located off southern Japan from two massive armadas – each reputedly made up of more than 4,000 ships and with an invasion force of 140,000 men – 
 
In Japan another 13th century Mongolian ship that Kublai Khan sent to invade Japan is found
This Mongolian ship is smaller than the one that was found in 2011
Two armadas sent by the emperor of the Yuan Dynasty to invade Japan decimated by legendary 'kamikaze'
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Richard Eric Thompson's profile photoMichelle Hatzel's profile photo
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Cody Seth Crawford

Science News (Pop Sci)  - 
 
The New Horizon mission to Pluto is about to get real, as in real close to Pluto!    On July 14th the space probe will fly within 7,500 miles of the Planet/ not a planet and snap the best photos to date.    Scientist are puzzled already as the pictures returning are showing a strange pattern of dark spots that are evenly spaced across Pluto's surface.    The contrast between Pluto and Charon, which is a moon that orbits it is strange.    Pluto appears to be like a reddish cream color and Charon is drab and grey.    I am excited about the discovery of CH4 (Methane) by the detectors on New Horizon's instrument panels.     Pluto is so cold, but the surface seems to already show an active world.   I think we will find some frozen water ice and possible areas of geothermal and tidal heating where liquid water or ammonia/methane hydrocarbon lakes are sloshing around with possible life swimming in them! 
Though the New Horizons spacecraft's Pluto flyby doesn't occur until July 14, great images from the probe are already rolling in. Here, Space.com highlights some of New Horizons' best Pluto pics from the close encounter's home stretch.
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Saibal Roy

Science Bytes (Memes, Cartoons, Images)  - 
 
This is a simple 120 volt mains operated LED driver circuit. This article is nearly same as previous published article just values are different. This circuit is suitable for 120volt user's countries. This circuit is capable to run 10 high bright LED. R1 is used to remove stored power of C1.
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Otto Hunt's profile photoSaibal Roy's profile photofrank childs's profile photo
2 comments
 
Thanks for your valuable comment we are try to write on this tropic. Again thanks for giving valuable suggestion +Otto Hunt 
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NeuroScientistNews

Science News (Pop Sci)  - 
 
The brain is an intricate, plastic organ and scientists are only beginning to understand that differences between male and female brains are extremely complex and influenced by genetics, physiology, experience, and learning. Continue reading: bit.ly/1BEbcZa
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Functional Family Medicine's profile photoDenisse Ubaldo Suarez's profile photo
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About this community

Science on Google+ is a community moderated by scientists, for all people interested in science, both professionals and the general public. The primary goal of this community is to bring real scientists to the public, for science outreach. A secondary and long-term goal is to create an environment that fosters interdisciplinary collaborations; thus, enabling and promoting cloud collaboration between scientists. See Guidelines and Rules section for additional details.

Amelia Haque

Science Bytes (Memes, Cartoons, Images)  - 
 
This is below an ice sheet, scientists made a little cave underground so they can see this. On the other side is pure ice, so the light that shines trough it makes it SHINY! And so they can see the climate changes thanks to the little lines revealed on the ice. It's two years worth of climate change and pattern. This is Antartica's ice, to let you know.
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Amelia Haque's profile photoChi Tranhuu's profile photoRama Sundar's profile photoDEPLACE Francois's profile photo
2 comments
 
it's a documentary, NOVA secrets beneath the ice.

Sent from my iPad
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Dean C. Moore

Science News (Pop Sci)  - 
 
In line with Michio Kaku's thinking on the subject about when we can expect this to become a reality.  
A compact fusion reactor presented by Skunk Works, the stealth experimental technology section of Lockheed Martin. It's about the size of a jet engine and it can fuel airplanes, most likely spaceships, and cities. Skunk Works...
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Brent Moore's profile photoBruno B's profile photonergui nayantai's profile photoLuka Puntar's profile photo
22 comments
 
A quick glance at the text associated with the picture shows that it is in perfect conformance with the "Moore's Law of Fusion Devices".  As we all know this "Law" has been perfectly followed for the entire history of mechanical fusion power, at least 40 years by my reckoning.

I think it is 'good-form' that they put their conformance statement early on in the text:

"... operational in 10 years ..."
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Cynthia Sue Larson

Science News (Pop Sci)  - 
 
Here's a helpful tip based on the quantum zeno effect that helps people minimize how often they check their cell phones, including an excerpt from a talk given by Dr. Henry Stapp at UC Berkeley at the Foundations of Mind conference
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Luke Thompson

Science Bytes (Memes, Cartoons, Images)  - 
 
This is spectacular. Seeing the Earth from space must really change your perspective. Just seeing this beautiful video changes mine.
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abhisek halder's profile photoMing-Feng Chiang's profile photo
 
Nice
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Alexander Biebricher

Science News (Pop Sci)  - 
 
 
These #Pluto -pictures you may have seen. Click on the link and find an explanation, too.

The pictures are actually mergers of high-resolution BW and low-resolution coloured images. They are a precursor of what is to come. Amongst other things, New Horizons will look for clouds on Pluto, hoping for them to be there to be able to track movements in Pluto's extensive atmosphere.

On a more personal level, do you know what I find awesome (in the more recent sense of the word)? New Horizons gives a nod to their fellow Pluto-lovers, i.e. other missions examining the dwarf planet. That is a great gesture!

http://ow.ly/P7HPp

+NASA
+NASA New Horizons
+NASA Goddard
+DLR, German Aerospace Center
+Johns Hopkins University

#space #planet #universe #science
New color images from NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft show two very different faces of the mysterious dwarf planet, one with a series of intriguing spots along the equator that are evenly spaced.
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farhad fall

Science Bytes (Memes, Cartoons, Images)  - 
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Kenneth Wright's profile photofarhad fall's profile photoCatey Grass's profile photoabhisek halder's profile photo
3 comments
 
+Kenneth Wright me , too .
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Richard Green sharing

​​​Physical  - 
 
It is a mathematically provable result that, on average, your friends will have more friends than you do. No, seriously it is: find out more below.
 
Why your friends, on average, have more friends than you do

The friendship paradox is the observation that your friends, on average, have more friends than you do. This phenomenon, which was first observed by the sociologist Scott L. Feld in 1991, is mathematically provable, even though it contradicts most people's intuition that they have more friends than their friends do.

Wikipedia gives a nice intuitive explanation for this phenomenon: People with more friends are more likely to be your friend in the first place; that is, they have a higher propensity to make friends in the first place. However, it is also possible to explain the phenomenon using graph theory and mathematical statistics. I give an outline of the mathematical proof at the end of this post for those who are interested, but the upshot is that if we look at everybody's numbers of friends, and these numbers have a mean of μ and a variance of σ^2, then the average number of friends that an average friend has is μ + (σ^2/μ), which will be greater than μ assuming that someone has at least one friend and that not everyone has the same number of friends.

The recent paper The Majority Illusion in Social Networks (http://arxiv.org/abs/1506.03022) by Kristina Lerman, Xiaoran Yan, and Xin-Zeng Wu explores some phenomena that are related to the friendship paradox. The authors explain how, under certain conditions, the structure of a social network can make it appear to an individual that certain types of behaviour are far more common than they actually are.

The diagram here, which comes from the paper, illustrates this point. It shows two social networks, (a) and (b), each containing 14 individuals. In each case, three vertices are marked in red; let's suppose that these correspond to the heavy drinkers in the group. In social network (a), the heavy drinkers are three of the most popular people, and the configuration of the network means that each of the other eleven individuals observes that at least half of their friends are heavy drinkers. This will lead these eleven people to think that heavy drinking is common in their society, when in fact it is not: only 3/14 of the group are heavy drinkers. In social network (b), there are the same number of heavy drinkers, but they are not particularly popular, and nobody in the group will have heavy drinkers as most of their friends. 

Network (a) is experiencing what the authors call the majority illusion, whereas network (b) is not. The illusion will tend to occur when the behaviour in question is correlated with having many friends. The paper shows that the illusion is likely to be more prevalent in disassortative networks, which means networks in which people have less tendency to be friends with people like themselves. Observe that in network (b), many of the non-heavy drinkers are friends with each other, whereas in network (a), they are not. This suggests that network (a) is more disassortative, and thus more susceptible to the majority illusion.

The authors also study the phenomenon using three real-world data sets: (a) the coauthorship network of high energy physicists (HepTh), (b) the social network Digg, studying only the mutual-following links, and (c) the network representing the links between political blogs. It turns out that networks (a) and (b) are assortative, and (c) is disassortative. They also look at the the case of Erdős–Rényi-type networks, which can be thought of as random. 

As the paper points out, the friendship paradox has real life applications. For example, if one is monitoring a contagious outbreak, it is more efficient to monitor random friends of random people than it is to monitor random people. This is because the friends are more likely to be better connected, are more likely to get sick earlier, and are more likely to infect more people once sick. The reason for this has to do with the fact that these attributes are positively correlated with having many friends. 

If you're wondering why your coauthors are on average cited more often than you are, or why your sexual partners on average have had more sexual partners than you have, now you know. I found out about this paper via my Facebook friend +Paul Mitchener, who has more Facebook friends than I do.

Relevant links

Wikipedia's page on the Friendship Paradox contains much of the information in this post, including a sketch of the proof given below: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Friendship_paradox

Wikipedia on assortativity: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assortativity

Here's another post by me about the mathematics of social networks, in which I explain why it is impossible for everyone on Google+ to have more than 5000 followers. It provoked a surprisingly hostile reaction:  https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/YV7j9LRqKsX

A post by me about Erdős and Rényi's construction of the random graph: https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/34guwy4ftWX


Appendix: Mathematical proof of the friendship paradox

Assume for simplicity that friendship is a symmetric relation: in other words, that whenever A is a friend of B, then B is also a friend of A. We can then model a friendship network with an undirected graph G, with a set of vertices V and a set of edges E. Each vertex v in V represents an individual, and each edge e in E connects a pair of individuals who are friends. For each vertex v in V, the number d(v) (the degree of v) is the number of edges connected to v; in other words, the number of friends v has. 

The average number of friends of everyone in the network is then given by summing d(v) over all vertices v of V, and then dividing by |V|, the total number of people. Using basic graph theory, this number, μ, can be shown to be equal to 2 times |E| divided by |V|, where |E| is the number of edges.

In order to find the number of friends that a typical friend has, one first chooses a random edge of E (which represents a pair of friends) and one of the two endpoints of E (representing one of the pair of friends); the degree of this latter vertex is the number of friends that a friend has.  Summing these degrees over all possible choices amounts to summing d(v)^2 over all possible vertices, and since the number of choices is 2 times |E|, it follows that the average number of friends a friend has is the sum of d(v)^2 divided by 2 times |E|. Using the formula for μ above, it follows that μ times the average number of friends that a friend has is equal to the average value of d(v)^2. However, the average value of d(v)^2 is also equal, by basic mathematical statistics, to the sum of the square of the mean of the d(v) plus the variance of the d(v). The result follows from this.

#mathematics #scienceeveryday #spnetwork arXiv:1506.03022
43 comments on original post
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Sridhar Hariharaputran's profile photoabak hoben's profile photoabhisek halder's profile photonergui nayantai's profile photo
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Absolutely right. I have also one friend. 
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Debaleena Ghosh

Science News (Pop Sci)  - 
 
One day, I believe we’ll be able to send full rich thoughts to each other directly using technology. You’ll just be able to think of something and your friends will immediately be able to experience it too if you’d like.
– Mark Zuckerberg, CEO, Facebook.
 
Telepathy along with AI & VR: Facebook future
It’s almost impossible to find a person who is not on Facebook today! You find your friends, family, enemies, ex-lovers, or even strangers connected to you which
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Amelia Haque's profile photoMehrnaz Najaf Tomaraei's profile photoNewly Outstorm's profile photoRama Sundar's profile photo
3 comments
 
that is soooo cool, i whish i could play with one of those. if you convert it into glasses, just like google glasses, it would be impossible to anyone else to see that you are telephaticly send messages to your friends.
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Kevin Clift

Science Bytes (Memes, Cartoons, Images)  - 
 
The discovery of synthetic dyes...
 
The Colour Mauve

In 1856 a precocious teenager on his Easter holidays from the Royal College of Chemistry, William Perkin was trying his hand at creating synthetic quinine, as a much-needed antimalarial, using coal tar distillates instead of expensive natural cinchona bark, when he accidentally discovered synthetic mauve dye and with it founded industrial chemistry and the pharmaceutical industry.  

In a makeshift home lab in his top-floor apartment he experimented with chemicals in the ratios suggested by his vacationing professor, August Wilhelm von Hofmann. When toluidine treated with bichromate of potash didn't work, he experimented with aniline to find out what went wrong. This time William only ended-up with a black mess in his flask which he proceeded to clean out using alcohol when he got a big surprise but one which he was smart enough to exploit.

William had an interest in painting and photography and was sensitive to colour, so when he saw an intense purple being extracted from the black mess by the alcohol he became excited. At that point purple clothes were a still sign of wealth, as they had been since antiquity, being found with other colourful clothes mostly in the expensive West End of London rather than the less salubrious East End where William lived.

Just like the story of high-tech entrepreneurs today, William started a skunkworks project with his brother Thomas and friend Arthur Church and eventually left the Royal College of Chemistry to raise capital, create demand, build a factory and get filthy rich!

Listen (stream and mp3 and more) here: http://goo.gl/qRZP0U

This is one episode from the new Science Stories series from BBC Radio 4.

Episode guide: http://goo.gl/44fjB7

Podcasts and mp3 files: http://goo.gl/u63RkA

Mauve Ngram: https://goo.gl/kjjOfA

Mauveine (Wikip): https://goo.gl/mkVgp0

 
William Perkin (Wikip): https://goo.gl/32gWBs

Image Henry Rzepa: https://goo.gl/KJuBc5
1 comment on original post
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Rajini Rao's profile photoRobert Woodman's profile photo
 
A fascinating history of blue-purple dyes! Aniline is used to make indigo, the famous "blue jean" dye, I believe. 
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