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Já que a Matemática é o centro de minha vida, melhor ter uma definição bastante clara e precisa do que vem a ser ela.

Apesar de sua história confundir-se com a história da própria humanidade, tendo início no Neolítico com o advento da escrita, ainda é um campo em desenvolvimento, e, em virtude disto, podem haver pensamentos ligeiramente diferentes quanto ao seu conceito. A mim, defino:

"Matemática é ciência, filosofia, arte, linguagem e conjunto de ferramentas lógicas que estuda, descreve e analisa padrões quantitativos de medida, contagem e codificação observados através dos sentidos."

O que vem a ser "padrão"? Diria que uma "forma" apreciável pelo pensamento, seja ela visual ou não, tateável ou não, audível ou não. Geralmente estas "formas" destacam-se por sua periodicidade e frequência, tornando-se um ente a ser observado com atenção.

Quando disse "(...) através dos sentidos.", fui genérico a não referir-me aos sentidos corporais humanos, pois qualquer ser dotado de vida possui órgãos sensoriais, que podem ser diferentes dos nossos, e, portanto, também pode apreciar a Matemática, um conhecimento universal.

Dada sua dependência original da percepção (digo "original" porque, através da observação do real, pode-se criar conceitos o quão abstratos se desejar), seus fundamentos possuem ligações e interfaces com outras ciências, como a Física, Estatística, Computação e outras.
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Pat Ballew
moderator

Today in History  - 
Statue of C. F. Gauss in Braunschweig *Wik I mean the word proof not in the sense of the lawyers, who set two half proofs equal to a whole one, but in the sense of a mathematician, where half a proof is zero, and it is dem...
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OM SATYA TRUTH

Mathematicians  - 
 
RAMANUJAN MATHEMATICS | STEPHEN WOLFRAM | 04.27.2016

|| TRUTH VERSUS NARRATIVE | EXCERPT ||

Ramanujan's way of working must have seemed quite alien . For Ramanujan was in some fundamental sense an Experimental Mathematician :

Going out into the Universe of Mathematical possibilities and doing calculations to find interesting and significant facts — and only then building theories based on them .

|| SEEING WHAT IS IMPORTANT | EXCERPT ||

Ramanujan was surely a great human calculator , and impressive at knowing whether a particular Mathematical fact or relation was actually true .

But Ramanujan's greatest skill was , I think , something in a sense more mysterious : an uncanny ability to tell what was significant , and what might be deduced from it .

CLICK PHOTO TO READ COMPREHENSIVE ARTICLE & ACCESS RESOURCES ➤➤

#mathematics #ramanujan #wolfram #srinivasaramanujan #stephenwolfram #mathematica #math #computation #computing #puremathematics #numbertheory #experimentation #discovery
Ramanujan's way of working must have seemed quite alien . For Ramanujan was in some fundamental sense an Experimental Mathematician : Going out into the Universe of Mathematical possibilities and doing calculations to find interesting and significant facts — and only then building theories based on them .
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milo gardner

Early History  - 
 
This post links a small number of ten year old papers to show that Egyptian scribes, after 1950 BCE, applied quotient and remainder arithmetic written in algebraic arithmetic per: https://www.academia.edu/24746984/ABSTRACT_SCRIBAL_MULTIPLICATION_AND_DIVISION_An_Update
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Hana Vymazalova's 2002 decoding of the AWT's hekat unity = (64/64) was the key to solving the remainder of the AWT, RMP 83, and RMP 47: https://www.academia.edu/24190930/Akhmim_Wooden_Tablet about 10 years ago.
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Pat Ballew
moderator

Today in History  - 
Simplicibus itaque verbis gaudet Mathematica Veritas, cum etiam per se simplex sit Veritatis oratio. (So Mathematical Truth prefers simple words since the language of Truth is itself simple.) ~ Tycho Brahe The 115th day of ...
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Kartik Harit

Mathematicians  - 
 
 
Must watch this movie which is a biopic of the man who made India again the 'Vishwa Guru'....
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Pat Ballew
moderator

Today in History  - 
The White Bridge, across from my home in Elk Rapids, Mi. People must understand that science is inherently neither a potential for good nor for evil. It is a potential to be harnessed by man to do his bidding. ~Glenn T. Seab...
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Origins of algebra (spanish).
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About this community

This community is for anyone interested in the history of mathematics from ancient to modern times. Anybody interested in math history at *any* level is welcome. NOTE: While there are a lot of interesting math memes, jokes, etc. floating around the Internet, we limit our discussion to topics of historical interest. Other posts will be removed.

Annie Oakley

Philosophy of Mathematics  - 
 
"E” is one of the most important mathematical constants along with Pi, 0, 1, and i. It is the basis of the natural logarithm, expressed as ln. As an irrational number, “e” does not specifically describe the relationship of any two integers. It is also a “transcendental” number, meaning it is not a root number of any non-zero, rational number. Although infinite, “e” is often approximated as 2.71828 for simple calculations."


Episode #2 of the course “Most important numbers in the world” 2.71828182846… While computing questions...
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Thanks for sharing....
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Pat Ballew
moderator

Today in History  - 
Science is built up of facts, as a house is with stones. But a collection of facts is no more a science than a heap of stones is a house. ~Henri Poincare The 120th day of the year; All primes (except 2 and 3) are of form 6*...
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Pat Ballew
moderator

Today in History  - 
 
27 April http://pballew.blogspot.com/2016/04/on-this-day-in-math-april-27.html I believe that we do not know anything for certain, but everything probably.
~ Christiaan Huygens
I believe that we do not know anything for certain, but everything probably. ~ Christiaan Huygens The 118th day of the year; 118 can be partitioned into three parts that have the same product in 4 different ways: 14 + 50 + ...
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FTFY

I believe that we do not know anything for certain, but everything probably.
~ Christiaan Huygens (probably)
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David Kotschessa
owner

Modern History  - 
 
Edit: I indeed smelled something fishy when the speaker referred to Arabic as an "extremely logical language." Arabic is beautiful, no doubt, but this is a bit of romanticism. Anyway, see +Pat Ballew​ and +Carlos Castillo-Garsow​'s comments below.
 
The Definitive Answer to Why "x" is the Unknown

Did you ever wonder why "x" is used as the unknown in algebra? Of course you did! We all did! Well, Terry Moore has the answer here in a delightful Ted Talk. The answer is only four minutes away if you watch the video. I won't give any spoilers, but it has something to do with languages and a journey from Arabic through Spanish and Latin to the languages we speak today.

As a bonus, let me toss in one of my favorite math-geek jokes.

A father asked his son how his Math class was going. The son responded, "The class is stupid. My teacher really doesn't know what he's talking about. He spends the whole class every day trying to figure out what 'x' is -- and he comes up with a different answer each time!"
Why is 'x' the symbol for an unknown? In this short and funny talk, Terry Moore gives the surprising answer.
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Ah, TED. Ideas worth misconstruing. 
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The idea of a Living Force was the theory of Gottfried Leibniz that there is a creative force. The theory was eventually absorbed into the modern theory of energy. But it is interesting to think that if the idea had be maintained instead of having E=MC² energy equals mass times the speed of light squared we would have had the Living Force equals mass times the speed of light squared. This would have changed our outlook of the Universe and our place within it totally. For with the belief in a creative force or Vis Viva comes the questions what can be achieved what are the possibilities and opportunities within creation!
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David Kotschessa
owner

Modern History  - 
 
 
The Great Trigonometrical Survey 

"The Great Trigonometrical Survey was a project which aimed to measure the entire Indian subcontinent with scientific precision. It was begun in 1802 by the infantry officer William Lambton, under auspices of the East India Company.Under the leadership of his successor, George Everest, the project was made a responsibility of the Survey of India. Everest was succeeded by Andrew Scott Waugh and after 1861 the project was led by James Walker, who saw the first completion of it in 1871.
Among the many accomplishments of the Survey were the demarcation of the British territories in India and the measurement of the height of the Himalayan giants: Everest, K2, and Kanchenjunga. The Survey had an enormous scientific impact as well, being responsible for one of the first accurate measurements of a section of an arc of longitude, and for measurements of the geodesic anomalywhich led to the development of the theories of isostasy."
Quoted/more at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Trigonometrical_Survey

"It’s surprising but true that cartography in the 19th century in India was actually the most advanced in the world. Other nations, such as Britain, were not mapped to the extent that India was.
Aside from the precisionist aspect of the Great Trigonometrical Survey it should be noted that there was always a strong element of control in the mapping of South Asia. As Ian Barrow states: “there was a sense among surveyors and the [East India Company]'s high bureaucracy that trigonometrical mapping would enhance the reputation of the Company as an enlightened patron because of its rigorous and scientific nature…. This rhetoric of scientific progress and improvement was a significant factor contributing to the character of colonial rule in India during the nineteenth century. The Survey not only helped the state gather information and knowledge, it also (and this was its greatest advantage over route surveys) added legitimacy to colonial rule by making it seem that this form of science in India would not only result in India’s progress but would also improve geodesy.” (Ian J. Barrow, Making History, Drawing Territory, p. 83-84)"
Excerpted from Online Exhibit by the The University of Michigan Library
More at : 
http://www.lib.umich.edu/online-exhibits/exhibits/show/india-maps

If of interest:
A Memoir On The Indian Surveys. 2nd Ed.
by Clements R Markham, Published 1878
https://archive.org/details/memoirontheindia025502mbp

Image:
A map showing the triangles and transects used in the survey, produced in 1870
Wikipedia: https://goo.gl/fAcC7J
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Merci beaucoup
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Pat Ballew
moderator

Today in History  - 
Origami Soma Cubes (see Piet Hein, Deaths, 1996)*The New Origami by Steve and Megumi Biddle A Man of Knowledge like a rich Soil, feeds If not a world of Corn, a world of Weeds. ~Benjamin Franklin The 108th day of the year; ...
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