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We appreciate everyone's very enthusiastic participation in the Space Community.

In order to keep this community focused on proper scientific facts, historical or contemporary space related stories, photos or videos and more broadly pertinent, general interest space posting, we encourage all of our members to keep in mind a few recommendations and community rules:

The Space Community is not intended for posts about non-scientific Ufology, Religion, Speculative Alienology and/or Conspiracy Theories.

Further, posting of fictional space art imagery or videos, especially without attribution, credits and/or explanation, (unless strongly contextualized and properly credited), and other forms of photo shopped "fake" space imagery (i.e. wallpapers) without any proper context, rhyme or reason as well as other forms of "space resembling" fictional art is strongly discouraged.

There are many other, more appropriate communities out there for those sort of posts.

For more information, please refer to the Community Policy section of this Community.


Also read this few, important words by our fellow moderator +Jason Major :

"Just a quick note (PLEASE READ) – if you post an article here that has already been shared recently, especially multiple times, OR if you post an image or video (even space-related) with no content, description, or attribution, it will be removed.

Thank You - Management"

Please refer to the Community Policy at left for more information. Thank you.
It's About Respect 
One of the things we do a lot as moderators of the Space community is remind posters to give proper attribution and link-backs to the authors and artists whose work they're sharing with everybody. Though the rules are pretty simple - put the name of the content creator in your post, if the work is copyrighted put the name of the organization that owns the copyright (if different from the author) in your post, and include a link back to the original source - they're often not heeded. The moderating team understands that even these simple rules are significantly stricter  than what people find in most of social media, and so we try to give people ample warning and reminders of the expectations here. 
If we know the rules surrounding sharing are stricter than in other communities, why do we have them?  If the copyright boogymen aren't coming for you on Facebook, Pinterest, Tumblr, or even elsewhere on Google+, isn't it safe to just share freely with the Space community? 
Well, simply put, yes. Unless you're posting something that's explicitly and blatantly illegal, the legal ramifications of your sharing a quote, or an image, or what have you are nil. Nobody's coming to get you. 
But that's not the point. It's not about the law. We're not trying to cover our behinds, and we're not reminding you to cover yours. In fact, many of the images we're all sharing are in the public domain, and are not protected by copyright laws. 
It's about respect. 
By naming the scientist, author, artist, photographer, videographer, director, producer, or whoever it is that has created this work that you feel is worth sharing in your post and including a link back to the original source, you are showing your respect. You are showing your respect to the creator of that work, and, perhaps more importantly, you are showing your respect to the other members of this community. 
As moderators, we want to build a community that is built on respect, and one of the most significant ways we can show respect is to give credit where credit is due. We want to foster an attitude around content sharing that is respectful, that is not exploitative of artists and authors, and that does not take the members of this community for granted. 
As a denizen and frequent user of social media, you may not care about giving credit, and as a content creator yourself, you may not care if you get credit. In the end, however, it isn't about you, nor is it about what you care about. It's about this community as a whole, and what kind of community we all want it to be. What we want is a community that does care. 
We want a community that cares about attribution because it's curious about where things come from, and because it's respectful toward others.

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Phobos Photobomb - When Hubble observed Mars in 2016 (shortly before the May opposition), there was a guest in about a dozen exposures. The tiny moon Phobos drifted through the frame, effectively a celestial photobombing.

Our team here assembled those observations, and matched orientation, scale, and colors. Then a smoothing program was used to create a movie of the sequence (in the old days this was called a morph). The result is a nice rendering of our neighbor and one of its two companions.

Just remember that the actual data is only 13 frames, which have been blended into the 300 frames of the movie. Hubble is NOT like your phone, and cannot be switched from image mode to video mode! Another video on our release page is an animated GIF of the staccato frames behind this smoothed version.

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Bezos seated in an outdoor chair on top of the factory, chilling in shades, holding a sign that says, "Rocket Factory Coming Soon."

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La vida extraterrestre se complica (mucho) en los siete planetas de Trappist-1

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Anyone good with origami?
Any origami experts want to help NASA?
We are launching a challenge to find unique folding concepts for a radiation shield.

Cc +Chris Davies+Bonnie Burton​

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Celestial Fireworks: Into Star Cluster Westerlund 2

On July 4, 2017, APoD shared a nice video (► Take a look at>>, from which I excerpted the clip below.
Some information about this video named "Celestial Fireworks: Into Star Cluster Westerlund 2".

The nebula Gum 29 (or RCW 49) is a star-forming region at least 13,700 light years away (or more, based on some estimates) in the constellation of Carina, in the southern Galactic plane of our Milky Way galaxy. One of the most prolific birthing grounds, RCW 49 is a dark and dusty stellar nursery that houses more than 2,200 stars. Because many of the stars in RCW 49 are deeply embedded in plumes of dust, they cannot be seen at visible wavelengths. When viewed with Spitzer's infrared eyes, however, RCW 49 becomes transparent.
At the core of this nebula is Westerlund 2, an obscured compact young star cluster (perhaps even a super star cluster) in the Milky Way, containing several thousand stars.
These newborn stars are approximately 2 million years old, and their light illuminates, heats, and erodes the surrounding gas.

As its name indicates, the Westerlund 2 cluster was discovered by Bengt Westerlund in the 1960s but its stellar content was assessed only in later years.
On 23 April 2015 an image of the Westerlund 2 cluster was chosen to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the Hubble Space Telescope.

The visualization, previously mentioned, provides a three-dimensional perspective on the nebula and star cluster. The flight traverses the foreground stars and approaches the lower left rim of the nebula. Passing through the wispy darker clouds on the near side, the journey reveals bright gas illuminated by the intense radiation of the newly formed star cluster.

Within the nebula, several pillars of dark, dense gas are being shaped by the energetic light and strong stellar winds from the brilliant cluster of thousands of stars.
Note that the visualization is intended only as a scientifically reasonable interpretation and that distances within the model are significantly compressed.

Visualization Credit: NASA, ESA, Hubble, J. Anderson, G. Bacon, L. Frattare, Z. Levay, and F. Summers (STScI)
Acknowledgment: The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA), A. Nota (ESA/STScI), the Westerlund 2 Science Team, and ESO

Further reading and references

► Celestial Fireworks: Into Star Cluster Westerlund 2 >>

► Westerlund 2>>

► Early-type stars in the core of the young open cluster Westerlund2>>

►Hubble Space Telescope Celebrates 25 Years of Unveiling the Universe>>

► RCW 49 picture and information>>

#DarkNebulae, #EmissionNebulae, #Nebulae, #StarClusters, #StarFormingRegions, #Stars,#Universe, #Space, #Westerlund2
Animated Photo

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Our sun is dynamic and ever-changing. On Friday, a solar flare and a coronal mass ejection erupted from the same, large active region. The coils arcing over this active region are particles spiraling along magnetic field lines. Solar flares are explosions on the sun that send energy, light and high speed particles into space. Such flares are often associated with solar magnetic storms known as coronal mass ejections. Learn more:

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Spiral arms allow school children to weigh black holes

Astronomers from Swinburne University of Technology, Australia, and the University of Minnesota Duluth, USA, have provided a way for armchair astronomers, and even primary school children, to merely look at a spiral galaxy and estimate the mass of its hidden, central black hole.

Given that black holes emit no discernible light, they have traditionally been studied via highly technical observations of the stars and gas orbiting around them, which in turn provide a measurement of how massive they must be.

Now, new research based on these pre-existing measurements has shown that a black hole’s mass can be accurately estimated by simply looking at the spiral arms of its host galaxy.

Nearly a century ago, Sir James Jeans and Edwin Hubble noted how spiral galaxies with large central bulges possess tightly wound spiral arms, while spiral galaxies with small bulges display wide open spiral arms. Since then, hundreds of thousands, if not millions, of spiral galaxies have been classified as type Sa, Sb, Sc, Sd, depending on their spiral arms.

Professsor Marc Seigar, Associate Dean of the Swenson College of Science and Engineering at the University of Minnesota Duluth, and co-author of the study, discovered a relationship between central black hole mass and the tightness of a galaxy’s spiral arms nearly a decade ago.

Dr Benjamin Davis and Professor Alister Graham, from Swinburne’s Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, led the new research revising this connection between black hole mass and spiral arm geometry.

After carefully analysing a larger sample of galaxies, imaged by an array of space telescopes, the researchers observed an unexpectedly strong relationship, and one which predicts lower mass black holes in galaxies with open spiral arms (types Sc and Sd).

“The strength of the correlation is competitive with, if not better than, all our other methods used to predict black hole masses,” says Dr Davis. “Anyone can now look at an image of a spiral galaxy and immediately gauge how massive its black hole should be.”

Given that it is the discs of galaxies that host the spiral pattern, the study highlights the poorly-known connection between galaxy discs and black holes. Moreover, the procedure allows for the prediction of black hole masses in pure disc galaxies with no stellar bulge. “This implies that black holes and the discs of their host galaxies must co-evolve,” says Dr Davis.

"It's now as easy as 'a,b,c' to unlock this mystery of our Universe and reveal the black hole masses in spiral galaxies,” says Professor Graham.

“Importantly, the relation will also help searches for the suspected, but currently missing, population of intermediate-mass black holes with masses between 100 and 100,000 times the mass of our Sun. Difficult to pin down, they have masses greater than that of any single star, but are smaller than the supermassive black holes which grow to billions of times the mass of our Sun in giant galaxies,” Professor Graham says.

Working within the Australian Research Council’s OzGrav Centre for Excellence, the astronomers intend to hunt down these elusive black holes, and investigate implications for the production of gravitational waves: those ripples in the fabric of Einstein’s space-time that were first announced by the LIGO and Virgo collaborations in 2016.
2 Photos - View album

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Venus, Moon, Hyades and Pleiades in the Morning
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