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Via +Jenny Winder
"Just-discovered" in 2013, by the way.
A Just-Discovered Papyrus Reveals How the Great Pyramid Was Built
"The tomb for Pharaoh Khufu — “Cheops” in Greek — sits on the Giza plateau about 3 kilometers southwest of Egypt’s capitol Cairo, and it’s huge: nearly 147 meters high and 230.4 meters on each side (it’s now slightly smaller due to erosion). Built of roughly 2.3 million limestone and rose granite stones from hundreds of kilometers away, it’s long posed a couple of vexing and fascinating mysteries: How did the ancient Egyptians manage to get all of these stones to Giza, and how did they build such a monumental object? All sorts of exotic ideas have been floated, including assistance from aliens visiting earth."

"Now, as the result of an amazing find in a cave 606 kilometers away, we have an answer in the form of 4,600-year-old, bound papyrus scrolls, the oldest papyri ever found. They’re the journal of one of the managers who helped build the great pyramid. It’s the only eye-witness account of building the Great Pyramid that’s ever been found."

"It was written by a man named Merer, who reported to “the noble Ankh-haf,” Khufu’s half-brother. It describes, among other things, a stop of his 200-man crew in the Tura, or Maaasara, limestone quarries on the eastern shore of the Gulf of Suez, and filling up their boat for the 13-17 km trip back up the river to Giza. Since this type of limestone was used for the pyramid’s outer casing, the journal is believed to document work on the tomb during the final year of Khufu’s life, around 2560 BCE."

"The second part of the Great Pyramid mystery — who built it? — may have been solved in the 1980s by Mark Lehner, who uncovered a residential area capable of housing some 20,000 people just meters from the pyramids. Prior to that find, there was scant evidence of the massive population of workers that would have been required for building the tomb."
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As always, +Matt Hall bringing to the table very interesting stuff.
Ancient human DNA in sub-Saharan Africa lifts veil on prehistory
"The first large-scale study of ancient human DNA from sub-Saharan Africa opens a long-awaited window into the identity of prehistoric populations in the region and how they moved around and replaced one another over the past 8,000 years.
The findings, published Sept. 21 in Cell by an international research team led by Harvard Medical School, answer several longstanding mysteries and uncover surprising details about sub-Saharan African ancestry—including genetic adaptations for a hunter-gatherer lifestyle and the first glimpses of population distribution before farmers and animal herders swept across the continent about 3,000 years ago."

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Volcae (Gauls)
"The Volcae were a tribal confederation constituted before the raid of combined Gauls that invaded Macedonia c. 270 BC and fought the assembled Greeks at the Battle of Thermopylae in 279 BC. Tribes known by the name Volcae were found simultaneously in southern Gaul, Moravia, the Ebro valley of the Iberian Peninsula, and Galatia in Anatolia. The Volcae appear to have been part of the late La Tène material culture, and a Celtic identity has been attributed to the Volcae, based on mentions in Greek and Latin sources as well as onomastic evidence."

"Driven by highly mobile groups operating outside the tribal system and comprising diverse elements, the Volcae were one of the new ethnic entities formed during the Celtic military expansion at the beginning of the 3rd century BC."

"Collecting in the famous excursion into the Balkans, ostensibly, from the Hellene point of view, to raid Delphi, a branch of the Volcae split from the main group on the way into the Balkans and joined two other tribes, the Tolistobogii and the Trocmi, to settle in central Anatolia and establish a new identity as the Galatians."
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Via +Kahil Nettleton

Underwater ruins of lost Roman city discovered in Tunisia
Streets and monuments of ancient Neapolis, destroyed by a tsunami, uncovered after years of searching

"A vast 1,700 year old Roman settlement has been discovered off the coast of Tunisia after several years of archaeological exploration in search of the ancient city of Neapolis."

"Neapolis is believed to have been submerged after a tsunami in the 4th century AD destroyed most of it, as recorded by Roman soldier and historian Ammien Marcellin. The natural disaster also badly damaged Alexandria in modern Egypt and the Greek island of Crete."

"The team not only found streets and monuments showing the city’s sophistication and wealth, but 100 tanks which were used to make garum, a fish-based fermented condiment which was a delicacy in the ancient Roman world."

"Founded by the Phoenicians in the 9th Century BC in what is now modern Tunisia, the ancient civilisation of Carthage developed into a great trading empire. Over the course of the three Punic Wars with Rome, its power was eventually weakened and ultimately submitted to Roman control in the 2nd Century AD."
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Mean, bald, callous, and crippled.
Galba (3 BC - AD 69). Seven months emperor (AD 68 to 69)
"Early on, he had earned a reputation for both cruelty and ruthlessness. Galba believed any sign of disobedience or disrespect to be completely unacceptable and, therefore, a challenge to his authority."
"Otho, governor of Lusitania, and Gaius Julius Vindex, one of the governors of Gaul, appealed to Galba to overthrow Nero."

"With the assistance of Otho (who had been exiled to Lusitania by Nero), Galba raised additional legions and marched into Rome, and with the news of Nero’s death verified, assumed the throne."

"Because he was in his early seventies and with his hold on the throne tenuous, Galba adopted Lucius Calpurnius Piso Licinianus as his son and heir, an act that angered his long-time supporter Otho, who had considered himself the rightful successor. With no alternative and the support of the military, Otho bribed the Praetorian Guards (they felt little loyalty of Galba) who murdered both Galba and Piso in the Roman Forum, bringing their severed heads to him. Otho was hailed as the new emperor in January 69 D. Galba had served less than seven months, becoming the first in a line of what would later become known as “the year of the four emperors.”
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A two-year old interesting review on the fate of Teotihuacan.
Anthropologist offers possible explanation for collapse of ancient city of Teotihuacan
"The ruins of Teotihuacan can be seen today at a location approximately 30 miles northeast of modern Mexico City, and offer testament to the flourishing metropolis that once was home to approximately 125,000 people, making it the most populous city in the pre-Columbia Americas. The city got its start around 100 BCE, but was completely decimated by the eighth century. Why it collapsed has been a subject of debate among historians and anthropologists for several years. In this new effort, Manzanilla suggests it was not drought or invaders that brought down the great city, but internal strife among its inhabitants."

"Activity markers, nutritional patterns, isotopes and ancient DNA analysis showed that the immigrants (some of whom brought specialized skills along with them) tended to live on the outskirts of the city in different neighborhoods and were given specific jobs by businessmen that helped to bolster the economy. But it also led to rivalries between the neighborhoods. As time passed, she believes that tensions arose between wealthy businessmen, neighborhood leaders and those that were part of the government. The tension was increased, she claims, by the government insisting on retaining control of all natural resources. Eventually, that tension boiled over and the result was an angry mob of people burning down major parts (administration and ritual buildings) of the city and trashing sculptures and other iconic structures, and eventually to total collapse of the city."
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The Battle of Isandlwana: Zulu Wars with the British (1879)

Battle of Isandlwana

Anglo-Zulu War: Battle of Isandlwana

3 Popular Myths of Isandlwana – 1879 Zulu War
The Battle of Isandlwana on the 22nd of January 1879 was one of the most devastating defeats suffered by Britain at the hands of local inhabitants.
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Via +Terrence Lee Reed
DNA clue to origins of early Greek civilization
"These ancient Aegean people were mostly descended from farmers who had settled the region thousands of years earlier."

"Dr Lazaridis explained that most of the people who created these civilizations appear to be local - deriving between 62% and 86% of their ancestry from people who introduced agriculture to Europe from Anatolia (modern Turkey) in Neolithic times, starting from about 7,000 years ago."

"But the Bronze Age Mycenaean and Minoan skeletons revealed ancestry from populations originating in either the Caucasus mountains or Iran. Between 9% and 17% of their genetic make-up came from this source."

"In addition, the team's paper in Nature journal reports, the Mycenaeans - but not the Minoans - show evidence of genetic input from people who lived further north, on the flat grasslands that stretch from eastern Europe to Central Asia. Between 4% and 16% of their ancestry came from this northern source."
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The Suppression of the Bacchanalia (186 BC)
"The Bacchic rites were initiatory mysteries of Dionysus, probably of south-Italian Greek origin, which were widespread in central and south Italy and which, by 186 BCE, had begun to trouble the Roman authorities."

"Livy tells us that the Bacchanalia was successfully repressed by a combination of extremely negative propaganda, arrests and executions of participants, and the outlawing of the cult in its original form. The negative propaganda involved painting the Bacchanalia as a hotbed of debauchery and crime which turned people against participants; it was also forbidden for anyone to harbor cult members, and informants against them were paid a reward. Over six thousand people were executed and all Bacchic shrines were destroyed except those containing an ancient altar or statue that had been consecrated."

"Despite Livy’s assertion that the Senate’s objection to the cult was a moral one, it is more likely that the reason was because the Bacchanalia had a large, unsanctioned and potentially unruly membership with inconvenient social, cultural and political allegiances that threatened to disrupt Roman order."
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Mark Anthony and Cleopatra thirst for power.
Donations of Alexandria (34 BC)
"The Donations of Alexandria (Autumn 34 BC) were a political act by Cleopatra VII and Mark Antony in which they distributed lands held by Rome and Parthia amongst Cleopatra's children, and granted them many titles, especially for Caesarion, son of Julius Caesar. These were the second of two such donations; a similar donations ceremony was held 2 years earlier in Antioch in 36 BC, at which time the donations enjoyed Octavian's full approval of the Antonian strategy to rule the East making use of Cleopatra's unique royal Seleucid lineage in the regions donated. Ultimately, the Donations (of 34 BC) caused a fatal breach in Antony's relations with Rome and were amongst the causes of the Final War of the Roman Republic."

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