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Circadian Rhythm fetches Nobel Prize in Medicine and Physiology
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Sexual dimorphism in Kidney function.
#GenderBias #SexualDimorphism
There are differences between the sexes when it comes to susceptibility to diseases and their outcomes and we are just beginning to scratch the surface of sexual dimorphism and gender bias in biology. While differences between males and females with respect to immune system is well know, a study has uncovered differences in the distribution of ion transporters in the kidney with implication for renal disease.
http://jasn.asnjournals.org/content/early/2017/08/09/ASN.2017030295
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Follicular regulatory T cells, a distinct lineage of cells originating in the germinal centres of lymph nodes while are paradoxically elevated in Sjogren syndrome and is a result of heightened humoral immune system activity http://immunology.sciencemag.org/content/2/14/eaan1487
Human blood Tfr cells are indicators of ongoing humoral activity not fully licensed with function
T follicular regulatory (Tfr) cells regulate antibody production in the germinal center, yet individuals with the autoimmune disease Sjögren syndrome have increased numbers of circulating Tfr cells compared with healthy individuals. Fonseca et al. compared blood Tfr cells with tissue Tfr cells and found that blood Tfr cells were phenotypically distinct from their tissue counterparts. Moreover, blood Tfr cells did not preferentially suppress humoral responses and had a naïve-like phenotype. These cells were not thymically derived but were generated during germinal center responses, exiting the tissue to enter the blood. These data explain why increased number of blood Tfr cells does not correlate with increased suppression potential and suggest that, instead, increased numbers of blood Tfr cells indicate ongoing humoral activity.
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Dawn of Bio-hacking
Research team manages to embed computer malware into DNA that can break free and infect the sequencing machine. #biohacking #dnahacking
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Omics: One cell at a time
Analysing the genome, transcriptome and proteome at the single cell level is driving new insights into functional complexity.
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*Functional Specialisation among Ribosomes. *
The Mammalian Ribo-interactome Reveals Ribosome Functional Diversity and Heterogeneity
During eukaryotic evolution, ribosomes have considerably increased in size, forming a surface-exposed ribosomal RNA (rRNA) shell of unknown function, which may create an interface for yet uncharacterized interacting proteins. To investigate such protein interactions, we establish a ribosome affinity purification method that unexpectedly identifies hundreds of ribosome-associated proteins (RAPs) from categories including metabolism and cell cycle, as well as RNA- and protein-modifying enzymes that functionally diversify mammalian ribosomes. By further characterizing RAPs, we discover the presence of ufmylation, a metazoan-specific post-translational modification (PTM), on ribosomes and define its direct substrates. Moreover, we show that the metabolic enzyme, pyruvate kinase muscle (PKM), interacts with sub-pools of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated ribosomes, exerting a non-canonical function as an RNA-binding protein in the translation of ER-destined mRNAs. Therefore, RAPs interconnect one of life’s most ancient molecular machines with diverse cellular processes, providing an additional layer of regulatory potential to protein expression.
http://www.cell.com/cell/abstract/S0092-8674(17)30582-2
http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2017/06/there-are-millions-protein-factories-every-cell-surprise-they-re-not-all-same
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6/21/17
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Sugar stops Urinary Tract Infections by blocking adhesion of bacterial pathogen to host surfaces
Bacteria that cause Urinary Tract Infections adhere to host mucosal surfaces using CUP pilus. Studies dissecting the mechanism of adhesion of these filamentous structures to hosts identified D-linked mannose and O-linked mannose as the key host sugar moieties as the receptors for two key protein components of these pilus. And a synthetic mannoside M4284 that binds to these with greater affinity than D-Mannose clears and prevents infection by helping flush the gut and urinary tract of these adhesive bacteria.
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature23084.html
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