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Today in History: Revolutionary Dental Drill Patented
On January 26, 1875, the first electric dental drill was patented — 142 years ago today — by George F. Green when he was 45 years old. This invention helped to revolutionize dentistry. When Green was 38, he developed this pneumatic drill that was powered by an electromagnetic motor and pedal-operated bellows. (George Green was an inventor who also submitted patents for electric trains and the first documented pneumatic camera shutter.)

Brief History of Dentistry
Evidence exists to show that drilling tooth enamel occurred over 5,000 years ago — as far back as 7000 BC. This initial drilling was accomplished using bow drills.

Throughout the late 1800s, dentists used foot pedals to drive their drills, which allowed dentists to save teeth rather than simply yanking them out. These early drills spun at a rate of about 15 revolutions per minute, compared to modern drills that can reach speeds of 800,000 revolutions per minute.

[More history coming very soon. Reading now.] Tease: “...treatment for dental problems has historically been more bloody and barbarous than beneficial.”*

SOURCES:
http://www.historiccamera.com/cgi-bin/librarium2/pm.cgi?action=app_display&app=datasheet&app_id=2296*
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v440/n7085/pdf/440755a.pdf
http://patentyogi.com/index.php/2016/01/28/this-day-in-patent-history-on-january-26-1875-the-first-electric-dental-drill-was-patented-george-green-a-development-that-revolutionized-dentistry/
http://www.todayifoundout.com/index.php/2012/12/the-history-of-dentistry/
https://www.healthcentral.com/article/first_electric_dental_drill_jan_26_1875
http://www.localhistories.org/dentistry.html

BOOKS:
•The Excruciating History of Dentistry: Toothsome Tales & Oral Oddities from Babylon to Braces by author James Wynbrandt. Amazon: http://amzn.to/2j8kXLA

VIDEOS
•History of Dentistry [Dr. Bruce Larrick]: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tlr2RoRwjjE
•2015 BBC Documentary: Drills, Dentures and Dentistry (An Oral History): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=86FA77QniqQ


#history #technology #history-tech #dentistry #dental #drill #invention #patent

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Floating weightless in Earth orbit outside the spacecraft. 50 years ago today #Gemini12 mission one of 3 EVA's.
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25 July is reserved to Rosalind Franklin
Today is the birthday of Rosalind Franklin, the pioneering x-ray crystallographer who made essential contributions toward determining the structure of DNA. She was born in London in 1920.

Franklin received a PhD in physical chemistry from Cambridge in 1945. Her work in the early 1950s exposed elusive structural details about the composition and structure of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), which encodes genetic information for all single-celled and multi-celled organisms on Earth.

Franklin determined the density of DNA and its helical shape, and her photographs proved crucial to James Watson and Francis Crick's double-helix model. In April 1953 a paper by Franklin appeared third in a series of studies in Nature describing DNA structure, with Watson and Crick's paper appearing first. That's just one of the reasons that Franklin's contributions have been overlooked over the years. Franklin died in 1958 from cancer at age 37.

Bio:
http://www.biography.com/people/rosalind-franklin-9301344

Article:
http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/magazine/physicstoday/article/56/3/10.1063/1.1570771

#history   #RoslaindFranklin   #DNA  
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14 June is reserved to Karl Landsteiner
The Austrian-American biologist, in 1901, discovered the four blood types — A, B, AB and O — leading to the first-ever blood transfusion six years later.
Landsteiner also collaborated with scientist Erwin Popper to lay the foundation that led to the discovery of the polio virus, thus enabling the treatment of a disease that afflicted millions of children.

Bio:
http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1930/landsteiner-bio.html

Infographic via Compound Interest
http://www.compoundchem.com/2015/10/29/blood/


#history   #KarlLandsteiner   #bloodtypes  
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15 May is reserved to Johannes Kepler
On this day 1618 Johannes Kepler rediscovered his 3rd Law of Planetary Motion.

After I had discovered true intervals of the orbits by ceaseless labor over a very long time and with the help of Brahe’s observations, finally the true proportion of the orbits showed itself to me. On the 8th of March of this year 1618, if exact information about the time is desired, it appeared in my head. But I was unlucky when I inserted it into the calculation, and rejected it as false. Finally, on May 15, it came again and with a new onset conquered the darkness of my mind, whereat there followed such an excellent agreement between my seventeen years of work at the Tychonic observations and my present deliberation that I at first believed that I had dreamed and assumed the sought for in the supporting proofs. But it is entirely certain and exact that the proportion between the periodic times of any two planets is precisely one and a half times the proportion of the mean distances.”
With these words Johannes Kepler announced, in his usual overblown flowery style, his third law of planetary motion in the fifth book of his Harmonices Mundi.

While Kepler published his first two laws in 1609, the third law was published ten years later in 1619. Now it was known that the orbital period, the time taken by the planet to make one complete orbit around the sun, was lower for the planets closer to the sun than those farther away from the sun. Planet mercury, for example, is named after the Roman God Mercury who was the messenger of the Gods. Mercury circles around the sun in a mere 88 (Earth) days. Pluto, on the other hand, revolves around the sun in 246 years!

Kepler's third law finds the underlying pattern in these orbital periods and states:

The square of the orbital period of a planet is proportional to the cube of the semi-major axis of its orbit.

In other words, if T is the orbital period of the planet and D be its distance, T2 ∝ D3.

To explain simply, consider Earth. Earth is at a distance of 1 a.u. (1 a.u. = roughly 150 million km) from the sun and revolves in 1 year around the sun. Jupiter is about 5.2 a.u. from the sun.
If T is the orbital period of Jupiter, then...
T2 should be close to the 5.23 ≈ 140.
And what number squared is roughly 140? 11.8. And sure enough, Jupiter's orbital time is 11.8 years.

References:
http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/circles/Lesson-4/Kepler-s-Three-Laws
http://www.mayankacademy.com/sci101/keplers_laws_of_planetary_motion/
http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/history/kepler.html

#history   #physics   #astronomy   #kepler   #lawsofplanetarymotion  
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Today in History: U.S.S.R. Explodes its First Atomic Bomb, 1949
On August 29, 1949 — 66 years ago today — the U.S.S.R. successfully detonated its first atomic bomb (code named: “First Lightning”; also known as “RDS-1” or “Device 501”; and as “Joe-1” by the West). The bomb had a yield of 22 kilotons and bore a close resemblance to the plutonium-based “Fat Man” bomb that the U.S. had dropped on Japan in 1945 to effectuate a rapid end to World War II. The resemblance between the U.S. and U.S.S.R. atomic bombs was close, because it was later determined that Soviet espionage had secured details for its bomb from the U.S. atomic bomb development “Manhattan Project” and the “Trinity” test on July 16, 1945 (for more on the “Trinity” test, please see https://plus.google.com/+BradAcker/posts/NhUGZtRVD7C).

Klaus Fuchs, a brilliant German scientist who fled to Britain as the Nazis rose to power in the early 1930s, was sent by the British government to the U.S. to collaborate on the the U.S. Manhattan Project to develop an atomic bomb. On March 1, 1950, Fuchs was convicted of passing atomic bomb secrets from the U.S. Manhattan Project to Soviet intelligence. As Fuchs matured, he had embraced the communist ideology as defined by Karl Marx, and thus was motivated to assist the Soviet Union, which he began to regard as his “true fatherland,” especially after Hitler’s Germany had attacked the Soviet Union. Fuchs received a 14-year prison sentence for treason. On June 13,1959 (after serving 9 years of his sentence), Fuchs was released and allowed to emigrate to Dresdon, East Germany, where he resumed his scientific career. Fuchs died in East Berlin on January 28, 1988 — before the Berlin Wall came down (in late 1989). [The KGB also stated in 1991 that it received additional intelligence from a scientist inside the Los Alamos, New Mexico, atomic research facility.]

On this day in 1949, with the detailed information that Fuchs had provided, the U.S.S.R. tested its copy of the U.S. “Trinity” plutonium-based atomic bomb in a remote site at Semipalatinsk in Kazakhstan. To measure the effects of the blast, Soviet scientists constructed buildings, bridges, and other civilian structures around where the blast was to occur. Hundreds of animals were also placed in cages in the vicinity, in order to test the effects of nuclear radiation on human-like animals. Needless to say now, the atomic explosion on this day destroyed the structures and incinerated the animals.

One direct observer from a northern perspective about 9 miles from the blast site recorded his observations:
On top of the tower an unbearably bright light blazed up. For a moment or so it dimmed and then with new force began to grow quickly. The white fireball engulfed the tower and the workshop and expanding rapidly, changing color it rushed upwards. The blast wave at the base, sweeping in its path structures, stone houses, machines, rolled like a billow from the center, mixing up stones, logs of wood, pieces of metal and dust into one chaotic mass. The fireball, rising and revolving, turned orange, red. Then dark streaks appeared. Streams of dust, fragments of brick and board were drawn in after it, as into a funnel.

Shortly after the Soviet test, U.S. scientists recorded seismic activity from inside the Soviet Union that could have only come from a nuclear test. Further scientific checking indicated that this conclusion was correct. Armed with conclusive data, U.S. president Harry S. Truman informed the American people on 

YouTube videos:
•PBS Documentary: “Race for the Superbomb” (length 01:56:36). 
•History File: “The Soviets — Stalin and the Bomb” (length 23:46). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=leVzgLd7wKo
•August 29, 1949: Soviet Union’s first nuclear bomb test (length 01:35). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tu36SD7CBz0

Web sources:
http://www.coldwar.org/articles/40s/soviet_atomic_bomb_test.asp
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/soviets-explode-atomic-bomb
https://www.ctbto.org/specials/testing-times/29-august-1949-first-soviet-nuclear-test/
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/bomb/peopleevents/pandeAMEX53.html
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet_atomic_bomb_project
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/bomb/peopleevents/pandeAMEX53.html
http://www.nytimes.com/1993/01/14/world/soviet-a-bomb-built-from-us-data-russian-says.html
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/truman-announces-soviets-have-exploded-a-nuclear-device
http://nsarchive.gwu.edu/nukevault/ebb286/

Book sources:
The Cold War: A New History by John Lewis Gaddis. http://amzn.to/1N1dhmb

Image credits:
•Photo of first atomic blast by the U.S.S.R.
•New York World-Telegram front page reporting on Truman’s announcement that the U.S.S.R. exploded an atomic bomb. Getty Images.
•Google Map/Earth View showing the site of the first U.S.S.R. atomic bomb test explosion.

#history #history -tech #a -bomb #Joe -1
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Today in History: Android Market (later Google Play) announced, 2008
On August 28, 2008 — 7 years ago today — Google announced Android Market, an online center where people would be able to find, buy, download, and rate apps and other content for mobile phones based on the Android open-source operating system. Google described this new digital distribution platform — a clear competitor to the Apple Store (and AmazonApps store) — as “similar to YouTube” as “content can debut in the marketplace after only 3 simple steps: [1] register as a merchant, [2] upload and describe...content and [3] publish it.” Google said that it chose the term “market,” rather than “store,” because Google felt that “developers should have an open and unobstructed environment to make their content available.” 

Android Market was initially released to the public on October 22, 2008 (about 2 months after the announcement this day 7 years ago); it was merged into Google Play on March 6, 2012 along with Google Music and Google eBookstore. Statista.com reported in 2015 that the apps on Google Play had grown to a larger number than the apps available on iTunes.

YouTube videos:
•iPhone App Store vs. Android Market by Austin Evans (length 05:57). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3jJcBrJ4970

Web sources:
http://www.cnet.com/news/google-announces-android-market-for-phone-apps/
http://www.dayoftheweek.org/#axzz3k3IKWosd
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Google_Play

Image credits:
•Android Market ad from Google.
•Google Play announcing in image that Android App has moved to Google Play.
•Competitive comparison of online app stores. http://www.statista.com/statistics/276623/number-of-apps-available-in-leading-app-stores/

#Android #AdroidMarket #GooglePlay #iTunes
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Today in History: First U.S. Oil Well Drilled, 1859
On August 27, 1859 — 156 years ago today — an epic event in the history of the oil industry occurred in Titusville, Pennsylvania: After a year and a half of effort, innovator Edwin L. Drake and his business partner, George Bissell, struck a pool of oil and the oil industry was born [in the U.S., at least; 11 years earlier, a Russian engineer, F.N. Semyenov, is credited with drilling the world’s first oil well in 1848 in the Aspheron Peninsula in what is now Azerbaijan]. Drake harnessed the power of a 6 HP Long John engine and a stationary boiler to activate the drill’s boring capability.

Before Semyenov and Drake had implemented mechanisms for boring into the ground to extract oil, oil was collected by gathering it from “oil seeps” or shallow holes dug where it was collecting in pools. Most practical oil up to Drake’s first successful well was obtained from the blubber of whales, and one reason Drake was drilling for oil in the ground was that whale oil had become expensive and its supply was dwindling, as aggressive whaling had pushed many whale species to the brink of extinction.

Unfortunately for Drake who is known as the “father of the petroleum industry,” Drake did not patent his innovative conductor mechanism, a “drive pipe,” that helped to prevent a well’s walls from collapsing, and so he never became wealthy. Oil wells copying Drake's method proliferated, and the proliferation of successful oil wells led to the decline of oil prices. Drake subsequently lost all of his savings on speculative oil drilling. Moreover, in the years after his initial success, Drake may have developed ALS before it had been known as a disease [my speculation], because he lost much of his motor ability in later life. Because Drake could not work, friends collected money for his family, and the Pennsylvania legislature voted to pay him and his family a stipend of $1,500 per month until he died.  

YouTube videos:
•Oil: “Evolution of the Oil Industry” — Petroleum History by the Department of the Interior-Bureau of Mines (length 29:30). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S1rpSCueTbI
•A Visit to Drake’s Oil Well, Titusville, PA (length 5:05). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hJzjoNkMSVY
•Drake’s Well (length 04:18). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rfxsjwaM5_c

Web Sources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edwin_Drake
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pennsylvania_oil_rush
http://www.priweb.org/ed/pgws/history/pennsylvania/pennsylvania.html
http://history1800s.about.com/od/oil/a/first-oil-well.htm
http://www.britannica.com/blogs/2009/08/the-first-oil-well/
http://www.w3gk.com/2014/06/where-were-first-oil-well-located.html
http://www.whodiscoveredit.com/who-discovered-oil.html
http://www.ehow.com/about_5047572_history-oil-exploration.html
http://www.life123.com/career-money/commodities-2/crude-oil/who-discovered-oil.shtml
http://pabook.libraries.psu.edu/palitmap/DrakeOilWell.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drake_Well_Museum
http://www.scientificamerican.com/blog/post/whither-the-oil-age-150-years-of-bl-2009-08-27/?id=whither-the-oil-age-150-years-of-bl-2009-08-27
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Whale_oil
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/theymadeamerica/whomade/drake_hi.html
http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Edwin_Laurentine_Drake.aspx

Book sources:
•Drake Well Museum and Park: Pennsylvania Trail of History Guide by Jon Sherman. http://amzn.to/1EmmXVO

Image credits:
•Location of Titusville, PA by Google Maps-Earth View.
•Photo of Edwin L. Drake, who lives between the years 1819 and 1880. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AEdwindrake.jpg
•The first Drake Oil Well in Titusville, PA. http://kids.britannica.com/comptons/art-164602/The-first-commercial-oil-well-in-the-United-States-was

Left: Replica of first oil well
Right: Edwin L. Drake

PLEASE NOTE: I am not omniscient (albeit i pretend to be thanks to my Lord Google). I use as many sources as my time permits for all the statements i make. Sometimes, i find that valid sources seem to contradict each other or do not confirm each other’s statements. If you know from your reading or experience that there are errors in this post, please let me know in comments below and please try to provide links to substantiate your points of concern. Thanks for your help.

#history #techhistory #oil #Drake
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Today in History: Cooking Pioneer Fannie Farmer Opened Her School
first school to focus on healthy eating and serious measurements of ingredients
On August 23, 1902 — 113 years ago today — pioneering cookbook author Fannie Farmer opened the “Miss Farmer’s School of Cookery” in Boston, MA (in Huntington Chambers, 30 Huntington Avenue, Boston, adjacent to the Boston Public Library — now the site of Westin Copley Hotel). Fannie was a graduate of Boston’s first cooking school, “The Boston Cooking School,” which was founded in 1879 by the “Woman’s Educational Association of Boston” in order “to offer instruction in cooking to those who wished to earn their livelihoods as cooks, or who would make practical use of such information in their families.” At the Boston Cooking School, Fannie studied under Mary J. Lincoln, who researched and wrote Mrs. Lincoln’s Boston Cook Book: What to Do and What Not to Do in Cooking, a textbook used primarily for her students (so they would not have to copy recipes). 

Fannie graduated in 1889 from The Boston Cooking School. Because Fannie was one of the school’s top students, Fannie became assistant director of the school, and then director of the school in 1894. Fannie revised and expanded Mrs. Lincoln’s cookbook, and Fannie built on Mrs. Lincoln’s detailed and methodical approach to recipe writing, including careful measurements for each ingredient. During her time at The Boston Cooking School, Fannie began to understand the association between eating certain foods and good health. Fannie took a nutrition course at Harvard Medical School to learn as much as she could about healthy eating. Fannie’s version of the Boston Cooking-School Cook Book in 1896 became the best-selling cookbook of the era. After 8 years as director, Fannie resigned from the school in 1902 to open her own cooking school on this day in 1902. Fannie’s School lasted until 1944.

YouTube videos:
•Fannie’s Last Supper (length 04:16). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zz7Y1x5p8AE

Web sources:
http://www.britannica.com/biography/Fannie-Merritt-Farmer
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fannie_Farmer
http://digital.lib.msu.edu/projects/cookbooks/html/books/book_48.cfm
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boston_Cooking_School
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Cooking_schools_in_the_United_States
http://www.masshist.org/collection-guides/view/fa0393
http://historiccookingschool.com/category/cooking-class/
http://womenshistory.about.com/od/cookbooks/p/fannie_farmer.htm
http://www.notablebiographies.com/Du-Fi/Farmer-Fannie.html
http://www.gutenberg.org/files/41940/41940-h/41940-h.htm

Book sources:
The Original Fannie Farmer 1896 Cookbook: The Boston Cooking School by Fannie Farmer. http://amzn.to/1NDmQa3
Fannie in the Kitchen: The Whole Story from Soup to Nuts of How Fannie Farmer Invented Recipes with Precise Measurements (fiction based on certain facts) by Deborah Hopkinson. http://amzn.to/1h5TC6O

Image credits:
•Fanny Farmer and young student. http://www.britannica.com/biography/Fannie-Merritt-Farmer
•The Original Boston Cooking-School Cook Book, 1896, by Fannie Merritt Farmer. http://digital.lib.msu.edu/projects/cookbooks/images/books/400w/book48_title.jpg
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Today in History: Circumnavigations and Venus
On July 22, 1933 — 82 years ago today — U.S. aviator Wiley Post returned to Floyd Bennett Field in Brooklyn, New York to complete the first solo around the world flight in 7 days, 18 hours, and 49 minutes. Post completed his circumnavigation in a purple-and-white Lockheed 5C Vega, which he named the “Winnie Mae.” Two technological advances allowed Post to attempt the solo circumnavigation: (1) an autopilot and (2) an experimental radio compass. As Post prepared to land at the field from which he began his record-setting trip, 50,000 spectators crowded onto the landing field as 1,000s more lined the highway leading to the airfield. 

In 1931, Post and navigator Harold Gatty made a 14-stop around-the-world trip in a little over 8 days — a flight which cut 12 days off the previous circumnavigation record set by the “Graf Zeppelin” in 1929. One of the first people to congratulate Post for his solo flight was Harold Gatty! Post’s record stood until 1973 when William P. Odom circled the globe in 3 days,1 hour, 5 minutes.

On July 22, 1962 — 53 years ago today — NASA launched the first spacecraft ever directed to Venus, Mariner 1. The launch went perfectly, but just before the spacecraft was set to separate from its rocket, the rocket fishtailed and went off course from its necessary trajectory for getting into space. The safety officer had no choice but to issue a “destruct command.” Later, it was determined that a single misplaced symbol of code — a software error — caused the rocket’s malfunction.

On July 22, 1972 — 43 years ago today — Russia’s Venera 8 landed softly on the planet Venus.

On July 22, 1983 — 32 years ago today — Australian pilot Dick Smith completed the first solo helicopter flight around the world. 

YouTube videos: (coming soon)

Web sources:
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/wiley-post-flies-solo-around-the-world
http://www.airspacemag.com/history-of-flight/follow-path-wiley-posts-historic-around-world-flight-180947934/?no-ist
http://www.wired.com/2010/07/0722wiley-post-completes-circumnavigation/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bell_206
http://www.wtvy.com/news/headlines/This-Day-in-History-Mariner-1-Venus-Probe-Fails-216422971.html
http://www.edn.com/Home/PrintView?contentItemId=4418667
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Venera_8
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Observations_and_explorations_of_Venus
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dick_Smith_(entrepreneur)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bell_206

Book sources: (coming soon)

Image credits (not yet complete):
•1933, Wiley Post posing before his Lockheed 5C Vega, the plane in which he traveled around the world as the first solo pilot to accomplish the feat.
•1962, Mariner 1 launched July 22, 1962. 
•1962, Mariner 1 immediately after “destruct command” given, from frame of video by NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology.
•1972, Venera 8 landing capsule. NASA: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Venera_8_capsule.jpg#file.
•1983, Dick Smith, helicopter world circumnavigation record-setter (photo, May 2013). By Eva Rinaldi from Sydney Australia (Cropped from Dick Smith) [CC BY-SA 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
•1983, A Bell 206 Jetranger helicopter, similar to the one Dick Smith used to circumnavigate the world. By Mfield - Matthew Field, http://www.photography.mattfield.com (Own work) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html), CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) or CC BY 2.5 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5)], via Wikimedia Commons

#history #tech-history #solonavigators #Venus #circumnavigation #circumnavigators
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