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"The medical consensus in the late 20th century was that transgender and gender incongruent individuals suffered a mental health disorder termed 'gender identity disorder.' Gender identity was considered malleable and subject to external influences. Today, however, this attitude is no longer considered valid. Considerable scientific evidence has emerged demonstrating a durable biological element underlying gender identity. Individuals may make choices due to other factors in their lives, but there do not seem to be external forces that genuinely cause individuals to change gender identity."

H/T +Kee Hinckley
From the Statement:

The medical consensus in the late 20th century was that transgender and gender incongruent individuals suffered a mental health disorder termed “gender identity disorder.” Gender identity was considered malleable and subject to external influences. Today, however, this attitude is no longer considered valid. Considerable scientific evidence has emerged demonstrating a durable biological element underlying gender identity.1,2 Individuals may make choices due to other factors in their lives, but there do not seem to be external forces that genuinely cause individuals to change gender identity.

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This is a pretty easy to understand description of how neural networks work. It's a subject that is kind of like the game Go--a combination of some pretty simple ideas that very quickly becomes weirdly hard to explain well.
How Deep Neural Networks Work

A gentle introduction to the principles behind neural networks, including backpropagation

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Happy Nobel Prize in Physiology to the Fruit Flies (and three humans)
Also, a video of the first batch of adults from my own Drosophila culturing efforts. They do seem more energetic in the sun. I guess they are ectothermic after all.

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Cool...news from the neurochemistry of remembering things.
Researchers discover the key to long-term memory

After a 30-year quest, a Brandeis professor has discovered the molecule that stores long-term memories—it's called calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase, or CaMKII for short. The results were published on September 27 in the online edition of Neuron. The breakthrough was achieved by the lab of John Lisman '66, the Zalman Abraham Kekst Chair in Neuroscience. The paper's first author is Tom Rossetti, a former undergraduate student of Lisman's now at the Weill Cornell Medicine Graduate School of Medical Sciences. The discovery of the memory molecule resolves one of the oldest mysteries in neuroscience — how do our brains create and retain long-term memories? The finding also opens up radically new avenues of brain research. One day, by targeting CaMKII, we may be able to erase the memories that underlie trauma or drug addiction. Though it would raise serious ethical issues, it might also allow us to change our pasts by wiping out recollections of unhappy experiences. CaMKII has also been found to play a role in Alzheimer's disease. It's never been clear if the illness deletes long-term memories or if they remain present, yet inaccessible to recall. A better understanding of CaMKII might resolve this.

"But Americans should be more clear, he says, about why they are investing in school improvement. His research suggests that doing so in order to boost a child’s chances to outearn their parents is unlikely to be successful. According to Rothstein, education systems just don’t go very far in explaining the differences between high- and low-opportunity areas."

I'd also add that Americans should be more clear about what school improvement means. "Success" in this context may not be best evaluated by standardized tests. Similar to how IQ measures something but doesn't capture qualities like curiosity or sensitivity to nuance, standardized tests measure some real things but leave other things out.

Overall, though, this is a really interesting puzzle, especially considering the various caveats mentioned in the last couple of paragraphs. Good education is still important, but in terms of raising people out of poverty, it seems that membership in unions, geography, and a high minimum wage have a larger impact.

https://www.theatlantic.com/education/archive/2017/09/education-and-economic-mobility/541041/

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They're Pupafying!
Now that I've got larvae (the white ones) transforming into pupae (the amber ones) I should have my first batch of adults by the weekend. Unless it gets cold, which could delay their development.
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