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January 15 is reserved to Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr. was a social activist and Baptist minister who played a key role in the American civil rights movement from the mid-1950s until his assassination in 1968. King sought equality and human rights for African Americans, the economically disadvantaged and all victims of injustice through peaceful protest.

I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: "We hold these truths to be self-evident; that all men are created equal."
At the age of thirty-five, Martin Luther King, Jr., was the youngest man to have received the Nobel Peace Prize.

I have a dream speech:
https://www.archives.gov/files/press/exhibits/dream-speech.pdf

Bio:
https://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1964/king-bio.html

#history #MartinLutherKingJr #civilrights
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January 7 is reserved to the discovery of the Galilean Moons
Galileo first observed the moons of Jupiter on January 7, 1610 through a homemade telescope. He originally thought he saw three stars near Jupiter, strung out in a line through the planet. The next evening, these stars seemed to have moved the wrong way, which caught his attention. Galileo continued to observe the stars and Jupiter for the next week.

On January 11, a fourth star (which would later turn out to be Ganymede) appeared. After a week, Galileo had observed that the four stars never left the vicinity of Jupiter and appeared to be carried along with the planet, and that they changed their position with respect to each other and Jupiter.

Finally, Galileo determined that what he was observing were not stars, but planetary bodies that were in orbit around Jupiter. This discovery provided evidence in support of the Copernican system and showed that everything did not revolve around the Earth.
Galileo published his observations in Sidereus Nuncius in March 1610.

Jupiter, the largest planet in the solar system, has 67 moons and counting.
https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/jupiter/moons

Read & learn:
http://solarviews.com/eng/galdisc.htm

#history #GalileanMoons #Jupiter #science #GalileoGalilei
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December 27 is reserved to Johannes Kepler
Born Dec 27, 1571, the German mathematician & astronomer is best known for his three laws describing the motion of the planets. NASA's Kepler mission is named in his honor, tasked with searching for exoplanets in the Milky Way.

A List of Kepler's Firsts
=> First to correctly explain planetary motion, thereby, becoming founder of celestial mechanics and the first "natural laws" in the modern sense; being universal, verifiable, precise.

In his book Astronomia Pars Optica, for which he earned the title of founder of modern optics he was the:
=> First to investigate the formation of pictures with a pin hole camera;
=> First to explain the process of vision by refraction within the eye;
=> First to formulate eyeglass designing for nearsightedness and farsightedness;
=> First to explain the use of both eyes for depth perception.

In his book Dioptrice (a term coined by Kepler and still used today) he was the:
=> First to describe: real, virtual, upright and inverted images and magnification;
=> First to explain the principles of how a telescope works;
=> First to discover and describe the properties of total internal reflection.

In addition:
=> His book Stereometrica Doliorum formed the basis of integral calculus.
=> First to explain that the tides are caused by the Moon (Galileo reproved him for this).
=> Tried to use stellar parallax caused by the Earth's orbit to measure the distance to the stars; the same principle as depth perception. Today this branch of research is called astrometry.
=> First to suggest that the Sun rotates about its axis in Astronomia Nova
=> First to derive the birth year of Christ, that is now universally accepted.
=> First to derive logarithms purely based on mathematics, independent of Napier's tables published in 1614.
=> He coined the word "satellite" in his pamphlet Narratio de Observatis a se quatuor Iovis sattelitibus erronibus.

Bio:
https://www.nasa.gov/kepler/education/johannes

#history #science #KeplersLaws
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December 7 is reserved to The Blue Marble
This classic "Blue Marble" photograph of the Earth was taken 45 years ago today, on December 7, 1972, by the crew of Apollo 17.

Source:
https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=1133

#history #NASA #BlueMarble #Earth #space
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What is secularism?
Secularism is an increasingly hot topic in public, political, and religious debate across the globe. With discussions on secular schools, secular hospitals, and the move away from religion in modern society in the news, it’s important to know about secularism’s history and how it affects our lives.

Here are five facts about secularism:
1) The term was coined by George Holyoake in 1851. It originally denoted a system which sought to order and interpret life on principles taken solely from this world.

2) Some religious practices have been secularized and made so popular that the associations with religion are not always discussed. Yoga, meditation, and mindfulness are all promoted as secular programs despite their religious roots.

3) Usually secularism focuses on religion however it also demarcates the secular from other phenomena including superstition, the sacred, and the metaphysical.

4) Some perceive the religious decline of our modern world as religion’s role in society changing shape. More individualistic capitalist societies could just be changing the way we engage with belief systems, making them less recognizably religious.

5) Secularism is very different to atheism. A secular society is not necessarily a society in which there is little or no public manifestation of religious belief, it could in fact be the opposite. A secular society is simply one in which the state itself takes a neutral view with respect to religion, and protects the freedom of individuals to believe, or not to believe, to worship, or not to worship.

More on this topic:
http://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780191816819.001.0001/acref-9780191816819-e-137

#secularism #history #thisthat
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November 30 is reserved to Jonathan Swift
It's Jonathan Swift's 350 B-day, how should we celebrate?
Eating babies, of course ;)

Jonathan Swift (30 November 1667 – 19 October 1745) was an Anglo-Irish satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer (first for the Whigs, then for the Tories), poet and cleric who became Dean of St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin.

Swift is remembered for works such as A Tale of a Tub (1704), An Argument Against Abolishing Christianity (1712), Gulliver's Travels (1726), and A Modest Proposal (1729). He is regarded by the Encyclopædia Britannica as the foremost prose satirist in the English language, and is less well known for his poetry. He originally published all of his works under pseudonyms – such as Lemuel Gulliver, Isaac Bickerstaff, the Drapier – or anonymously. He was a master of two styles of satire, the Horatian and Juvenalian styles.

His deadpan, ironic writing style, particularly in A Modest Proposal, has led to such satire being subsequently termed "Swiftian".

Bio: https://www.britannica.com/biography/Jonathan-Swift
https://www.biography.com/people/jonathan-swift-9500342

#history #JonathanSwift
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24 November is reserved to Charles Darwin
24 November 1859: Charles Darwin publishes ‘On the Origin of Species’
The publication of Darwin’s letters and reports from South America and the Galapagos islands established his reputation as a geologist of real standing. Among his most important findings was that the finches found on different islands were fundamentally similar in shape, but displayed variations in size and claws – the result, he theorized, of ‘natural selection’.

Read the book online:
http://darwin-online.org.uk/converted/pdf/1861_OriginNY_F382.pdf

Bio:
https://www.biography.com/people/charles-darwin-9266433

#history #evolution #CharlesDarwin
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Hussar's Armor
For better mobility, some light cavalrymen, such as the legendary Polish hussars, wore half armor. The hussars, an elite branch of the Polish army, went into battle in glittering armor on magnificent horses, seldom losing a battle though they were many times outnumbered by the enemy. Recruited from among the wealthiest of Poland’s nobility, the hussars were accomplished horsemen, famous for the huge "wings" worn on their backs or attached to their saddles.

These wings were made of wooden wing-shaped frames with eagle feathers inserted into the back rims. The thunderous noise made by the flapping of these extra appendages during a charge was meant to frighten the enemy horses. Known as "winged horsemen," the colorfully costumed hussars also wore leopard or similar animal skins in the style of cloaks over the pauldrons (shoulder pieces) of their armor.

Info and photo via The Art Institute of Chicago
http://www.artic.edu/exhibition/saints-and-heroes-art-medieval-and-renaissance-europe

#history #medievalart #armor #hussars
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Jaguarina
Ella Hattan, better known by her nom-de-guerre “Jaguarina,” was Colonel Thomas Monstery's most accomplished student. Born in 1859 in Ohio, she would go on to become widely regarded as one of the greatest swordswomen of the nineteenth century, and perhaps of all time. Hattan would defeat more than sixty men in high-profile combats on both horseback and on foot; according to one major newspaper, more than half of these men were fencing masters.

Source & further reading:
https://martialartsnewyork.org/2015/03/31/colonel-thomas-monstery-and-the-training-of-jaguarina-americas-champion-swordswoman/

#history #EllaHattan #Jaguarina #swordswoman
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