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Getting Yarn into Shape

Rib Knitting Machine

Finer yarn is required in rib knitting machine than plain yarn. Rib knitting machine can produce socks, cuffs, sleeves, rib border of garments and strolling and strapping. Latest automated knitting machines having higher productivity, simplicity and versatility

There are many models of knitting machines with interlock structures having altered needle, cylinder, dial settings for producing various types of products in different application area.

Application Area:
1. Outerwear
2. Underwear & Nightwear
3. Sport & Leisure
4. Swimwear

Photographer: Abdul Wahab
Machine Maker: Vanguard Supreme(US), Mayer & Cie(Ger), Tarret
3 Photos - View album
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Coded Yarns Poised to Weave Transparency, Traceability into Textile Supply Chain

Traceability is an ongoing concern for the textile industry. Technologies such as barcodes, QR codes and RFID tags have been put in place to enhance supply chain transparency, but they often fail to provide complete traceability. Researchers at the University of Borås in Sweden have developed a novel coded yarn-based tracking system that promises to overcome existing limitations and deliver improved traceability.

In the new system, intelligent yarns are fully integrated into textiles during the manufacturing stage to produce traceability tags. The coded yarns contain special optical features and, as a result, create an ‘optical stamp’ or pattern for traceability on the surface of woven or knitted fabrics. The tags are created by using a combination of coded yarns having different and distinguishable optical features, or yarn classes.

According to researchers, the coded yarns work much in the same vein as barcodes, where lines of varying widths and spacing represent digits, and a set of lines represents the full code. Similarly, a coded yarn's unique optical features represent a digit, with a sequence of coded yarns representing a complete code. The full code can be altered or controlled by changing the coded yarns’ sequence in the textile.

“Barcodes and RFIDs possess low security against copying and reproduction, which means an identical tag can easily be reproduced and placed with a counterfeit product,” the researchers explain in a technical paper published in the Journal of Manufacturing Systems. “The tracking tags are removed at the point of sale (POS). Therefore, it becomes difficult to trace back the history of a textile product after POS.”

As an integral part of the textile, coded yarns tags cannot be removed. This means that not only is traceability extended beyond POS, but it can also help in ensuring proper product care, recycling and return. Unlike RFIDs, coded yarns do not alter the feel of textiles and can be processed in textile recycling without issue.

“Since the reproduction of these tags is not easy like other tags, including barcodes and RFIDs, they can provide enhanced security to textile products from counterfeits. Further, from the economic aspect, yarn-based tags are normal textile, therefore, there is no need of special material components and in-house production in a textile industry can be done,” the researchers added.

The new technology is a step in the right direction, but more fine-tuning of the technology is needed before coded yarns are ready for market. According to researchers, further improvements are needed on tag readability such as fixed identification marks to direct reading and decoding.

Image Credit: Pixabay

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Here it is, who won't want it.

Thanks for the post +Peggy K :)
Would you buy a $350 tech-enabled jean jacket you can only wash 10 times?

This week Levi's started selling a jacket using Google's "Jacquard" fabric technology:

The first thing to know about the Levi's® Commuter™ Trucker Jacket with Jacquard is just that: it's a jacket. Like any regular denim jacket, you can wash it (just remove the snap tag), it's durable, designed to be comfortable for cycling and it’ll keep you warm on and off the bike. With Jacquard technology, you can perform common digital tasks—like starting or stopping music, getting directions or reading incoming text messages—by simply swiping or tapping the jacket sleeve.

I know I'm not the target consumer - I still wear my favorite well-worn jean jacket purchased many years ago. This is for hip folks who want the latest tech gadget. So definitely not me :)

Explore the features:

Check your device compatibility:

Supported music services:

Order a jacket:

Read the announcement on the Google Blog:

Taking care of your Levi's Commuter Trucker Jacket with Jacquard by Google

You can get the original Levi's Trucker jacket, no fancy tech, for $50 :)
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If you are into knitting and fashion, this profile of +Susanne Visch is highly recommended. Do follow her for more
The Linea Shawl looks complicated, but is really a very good first lace project. And it can be made with only 100g of sock weight yarn!

#knitting #breien #lavischdesigns #knittedshawl
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Hello fellas, I thought you would love to follow +Beate Mieslinger's good work on Knitting and Spinning.

Enjoy what she knits & and what she dyed
Solar Dyed Fiber

I've started spinning the fiber, that I dyed with the power of the sun (and acid dyes).

It was really easy to spin, I think easier than most of the fiber I've dyed myself so far. Using only the heat of the sun, which was essentially a lower temperature, but over a longer time, seems to be gentler on the fiber. There was nearly no felting at all, even hardly any compacting down.

Might be a good method to use on very sensitive fiber.

It were about 2 bobbins full of singles, I opted for chain-plying to keep the color sequences. The rather visible white parts mostly vanished in the finished yarn (which is a bit cranky-curly, because it's not washed yet and I immediately unwound it from the bobbin.
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Embroidery Stitch close-up

Embroidered fabric surface texture photography

Pattern sequence and blend of colors

Photographer: Abdul Wahab
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Global cotton mill use from 1990 to 2017 (in 1,000 bales)

This statistic shows the world's total cotton mill use from 1990 to 2017. In 1990, cotton mill use worldwide amounted to some 85.5 million 480-pound bales. In 2017, however, the cotton mill use worldwide rises above 115 million 480-pound bales. Although, the use hits peak in 2006, 2007 (boom period).

Credit: Statista
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Printing Process & Printing Methods

Applying coloured patterns and designs to decorate a finished fabric is called 'Printing'. In a proper printed fabric, the colour is affixed to the fiber, so that it may not be affected by washing and friction. Whether a fabric is dyed or printed can be known by examining the outline of the design. On a printed fabric, the outline of a design is sharply defined on the outer side. The design generally do not penetrate to the back of the cloth. However, the design may show up on the reverse side of transparently thin fabrics. These fabrics may be confused with the woven designs where yarn dyed warp and filling are used. If the design is printed on such a fabric, the yarns will show some areas on which colour is not equally distributed.

The Dyes used for printing mostly include vat, reactive, naphthol and disperse colours which have good fastness properties. The pigments, which are not truly dyes, are also used extensively for printing. These colours are fixed to the fiber through resins that are very resistant to laundering or drycleaning. Pigments are among the fastest known colours and are effective for light to medium shades. If used for applying dark colours, they may crock or rub off. Improved resins, better pigments or more effective anticrock agents must be used to solve this problem. Cheap prints are made from basic colours mixed with tartar emetic and tannic acid but they are not acceptable in todays market.

For cotton printing vat and reactive dyes are generally used. Silk is usually printed with acid colours. Wool is printed with acid or chrome dyes but before printing it is treated with chlorine to make it more receptive to colours. Manmade fibers are generally printed with disperse and cationic dyes.

Methods of Printing

Three different approaches or techniques are prevalent for printing colour on a fabric: Direct, Discharge and Resist

Direct Printing
It is the most common approach to apply a colour pattern on fabric. It can be done on white or a coloured fabric. If done on coloured fabric, it is known as overprinting. The desired pattern is produced by imprinting dye on the fabric in a paste form. To prepare the print paste, a thickening agent is added to a limited amount of water and dye is dissolved in it. Earlier corn starch was preferred as a thickening agent for cotton printing. Nowadays gums or alginates derived from seaweed are preferred because they are easier to wash out, do not themselves absorb any colour and allow better penetration of colour. Most pigment printing is done without thickeners as the mixing up of resins, solvents and water itself produces thickening.

Discharge Printing
In this approach, the fabric is dyed in piece and then it is printed with a chemical that destroys the colour in the designed areas. Sometimes, the base colour is removed and another colour is printed in its place. The printed fabric is steamed and then thoroughly washed. This approach is on decline these days.

Resist Printing
In this technique, a resist paste is imprinted on the fabric and then it is dyed. The dye affects only those parts that are not covered by the resist paste. After dyeing, the resist paste is removed leaving a pattern on a dark background.

There are various methods of printing in which one of the above three techniques is used - Block Printing, Roller Printing, Duplex Printing, Stencil Printing, Screen Printing, Transfer Printing, Blotch Printing, Jet Spray Printing, Electrostatic Printing, Photo Printing, Differential Printing, Warp Printing, Batik Dyeing, Tie Dyeing, Airbrush (Spray) Painting and Digital printing

Block Printing
The designs are carved on a wooden or metal block and the paste dyestuff is applied to the design on the face of the block. The block is pressed down firmly by hand on the surface of the fabric.

Roller Printing
In this machine counterpart of block printing, engraved copper cylinders or rollers are used in place of handcarved blocks. With each revolution of the roller, a repeat of the design is printed. The printed cloth is passed into a drying and then a steam chamber where the moisture and heat sets the dye.

Duplex Printing
Printing is done on both sides of the fabric either through roller printing machine in two operations or a duplex printing machine in a single operation.

Screen Printing
It is done either with flat or cylindrical screens made of silk threads, nylon, polyester, vinyon or metal. The printing paste or dye is poured on the screen and forced through its unblocked areas onto the fabric. Based on the type of the screen used, it is known as 'Flat Screen Printing' or 'Rotary Screen Printing'.

Stencil Printing
The design is first cut in cardboard, wood or metal. The stencils may have fine delicate designs or large spaces through which colour is applied on the fabric. Its use is limited due to high costs involved.

Transfer Printing
The design on a paper is transferred to a fabric by vaporization. There are two main processes for this- Dry Heat Transfer Printing and Wet Heat Transfer Printing. In Conventional Heat Transfer Printing, an electrically heated cylinder is used that presses a fabric against a printed paper placed on a heat resistant blanket. In Infrared Heat Vacuum Transfer Printing, the transfer paper and fabric are passed between infrared heaters and a perforated cylinder which are protected from excessive heat by a shield. The Wet Heat Transfer Printing uses heat in a wet atmosphere for vaporizing the dye pattern from paper to fabric.

Blotch Printing
It is a direct printing technique where the background colour and the design are both printed onto a white fabric usually in a one operation. Any of the methods like block, roller or screen may be used.

Airbrush (Spray) Painting
Designs may be hand painted on fabric or the dye may be applied with a mechanized airbrush which blows or sprays colour on the fabric

Electrostatic Printing
A dye- resin mixture is spread on a screen bearing the design and the fabric is passed into an electrostatic field under the screen. The dye- resin mixture is pulled by the electrostatic field through the pattern area onto the fabric.

Photo Printing
The fabric is coated with a chemical that is sensitive to light and then any photograph may be printed on it.

Differential Printing
It is a technique of printing tufted material made of yarns having different dyeing properties such as carpets. Upto a ten colour effect is possible by careful selection of yarns, dyestuffs and pattern.

Warp Printing
It is roller printing applied to warp yarns before they are woven into fabric.

Tie Dyeing
Firm knots are tied in the cloth before it is immersed in a dye. The outside of the immersed portion is dyed but the inside is not penetrated. There are various forms of Tie dyeing like Ikat Dyeing where bundles of warp and/ or weft yarns are tie dyed prior to their weaving. In Plangi Dyeing the gathered, folded or rolled fabric is usually held with stitching to form specific patterns.

Batik Dyeing
It is a resist dyeing process. Designs are made with wax on a fabric which is then immersed in a dye. The unwaxed portion absorbs the colour.

Jet Spray Printing
Designs are imparted to fabrics by spraying colours in a controlled manner through nozzles.

Digital printing
In this form of printing micro-sized droplets of dye are placed onto the fabric through an inkjet printhead. The print system software interprets the data supplied by a cademic. The digital image file has the data to control the droplet output so that the image quality and color control may be achieved. This is the latest development in textile printing and is expanding very fast.

Image Credit: IM Dye Chem
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General Revision about Spinning / Yarn Const.

Spinning is the most important and the initial step in fabric manufacturing. The major task of spinning is to produce a variety yarn from raw material, then remove the process faults followed by winding the short length bobbins on cones. There are different types of spinning; the most common forms are: ring, rotor, air jet, friction, etc.

Construction of textile yarns

Yarn count, yarn ply and yarn construction interrelate to form the characteristics of yarn.

Yarn construction is classified as:

Conventional yarn: These are two or more simple single yarns plied or twisted together. They are referred to as two, three, four, five or six ply yarn. Size and number of plies may be changed for different weaves or fabric structures.

Complex/novelty yarns: These are single or plied yarn structures characterised by internationally introduced irregularities in size and twist effects. The irregularities of novelty yarns may be uniform or random.

Metallic yarns: A monofilament flat yarn produced by lacquering aluminium pigment or by laminating aluminium foil between layers of plastic. After this webs are cut into wide coils and the rolls are slit into fine ribbon-like yarn. After slitting, the yarn is wound onto spools or coils depending on type of ribbon. Since metallic yarns are flat rather than round most as most of other man-made fibre yarns, the size of the yarn is specified in inches.

Textured yarns: Textured yarns are the end result of physical, chemical or thermal manipulation of fibres and yarns so that they are no longer straight or uniform. The manipulation process of textured yarn results in the modification and altering of the arrangement of the fibres and yarn. Texturising produces a permanent change in the physical structure of the yarn. The fibres no longer lie parallel to the other.

Bulked/high bulked/lofted yarns: High bulk yarns are created and processed by nonlinearity or loop formation in individual filaments. The process introduces crimps, loops, curls and crinkles into the yarn. Bulk yarn may also be shrunk and stretched introducing shrink differentials. The resulting yarns of these processes are bulked, fluffed, puffed and twisted yarns.

Stretch yarns: Almost all man-made and natural fibres can be treated to produce yarns with some degree of stretch and recovery. Stretch properties may be applied to yarns by chemical or mechanical methods. Not all methods or fibres will achieve equally effective stretch properties.
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Spinning Carding Machines - responsible for yarn quality

In Carding process, the fibers are separated and then assembled into a loose strand (sliver). Carding is the most important process in spinning often called heart of spinning. It contributes a lot to the yarn quality.

The top two carding machines used in Spinning units are
1. Trutzschler (German)
2. Rieter (Swiz)

Rieter (C 70) delivers high production performance thanks to the maximal active carding area while overall performance of Trutzschler is unbeatable.

Objectives and Functions of Carding

1. Opening of tufts into individual fibers.
2. Parallelization of fibers.
3. Elimination of Neps and all the impurities
4. Fiber blending and orientation
5. Sliver formation to feed to Drawing Frame - the process we will discuss next in Yarn Manufacturing (Spinning process)

Photographer: Abdul Wahab
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