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Heliocentrism vs Geocentrism

The geocentric model is an outdated description of the solar system where the Earth is at the center of all the celestial bodies. The stars were thought to be fixed points on a celestial sphere that rotated around the Earth once a day while the planets followed complex orbits. This concept served as the predominant cosmological system in many civilizations for centuries until being replaced by the heliocentric model in the late 16th century. In contrast to geocentrism, heliocentrism claimed the Earth and other planets rotated around the Sun.

While the heliocentric model was proposed as early as 300 BC, it was not until the 16th century when a geometric mathematical model presented by Nicolaus Copernicus ushered in the Copernican Revolution. Over the course of the next century, observations by Johannes Kepler and Galileo Galilei helped solidify the heliocentric model as scientific fact. Further observations revealed that the Sun, although the center of the Solar System, was not the center of the galaxy or the Universe.

Source: http://goo.gl/6yw5jO

#ScienceGIF #Science #GIF #Heliocentric #Geocentric #Solar #SolarSystem #Orbit #Earth #Planets #Centric #Galileo #Copernicus
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Pyrex Shattering at 343,000fps

Pyrex is a popular household glassware company that is famous for making sturdy measuring cups and containers out of borosilicate glass. However, after Corning sold the Pyrex brand in 1998, the borosilicate glass was substituted for weaker tempered soda-lime glass in the United States. While it is arguably more resilient to drops, the soda-lime glass does not handle temperature shock as well as borosilicate glass. Exposing a hot glass to a cold surface, such as a wet granite countertop, can often result in the glass violently shattering.

The Slow Mo Guys demonstrate this problem using their ultra high-speed cameras and a blowtorch. After heating the handle of a Pyrex measuring cup with the flame it shatters into pieces after being sprayed with water. In order to capture the fracturing of the glass, they had to record the footage at over 343,000 frames-per-second (13,000x faster than the human eye can see) at a resolution of 256x144. Out of the 5.1 seconds of recorded footage, the handle shattering only occupied 0.000104 seconds.

Source: https://youtu.be/xbuvcQrAOSk (The Slow Mo Guys)

#ScienceGIF #Science #GIF #SlowMoGuys #Pyrex #Borosilicate #Glass #Shatter #HighSpeed #FrameRate #Temperature #FPS #Quality

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Wingtip Vortices

Wingtip vortices are circular patterns of rotating air that occur when a wing is generating lift. High pressure air from below the wing is drawn around the wingtip into the region above the wing by the pressure differential. This rotation of air around the end of the wing causes a vortex to trail from each wingtip that forms the primary component of wake turbulence, which can be extremely dangerous to other planes. The strength of wingtip vortices is determined by the weight and airspeed of the aircraft. Most modern aircraft use winglets to minimize the size of the vortices and increase efficiency by reducing induced drag.

Source: https://youtu.be/QZkggFzAtEc

#ScienceGIF #Science #GIF #Airplane #Wake #Vortex #Fluid #Dynamics #Airbus #A340 #Turbulence #Air #Wingtip #Vortices #Jetwash #Aviation
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Burning Iron in Liquid Oxygen

Dropping a piece of burning iron wool into liquid oxygen produces a violent chemical reaction. Almost all of the iron is consumed in the exothermic reaction with oxygen to produce a mixture of iron oxides. The small pieces of iron particulates glow brightly as the reaction proceeds.

The reaction is a little contradictory since liquid oxygen is extremely cold (-186°C) and the burning metal is extremely hot. One would expect the metal to cool upon coming into contact with the liquid yet in reality it actually heats up as the reaction begins.

Source: https://youtu.be/6NNt0Pup6jU

#ScienceGIF #Science #GIF #Iron #Oxygen #LiquidOxygen #Liquid #Burning #Chemistry #Physics #Periodic
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Homopolar Motor

The homopolar motor is the simplest electric motor that uses direct current to power rotational movement. It was first built and demonstrated by Michael Faraday in 1821 at the Royal Institute in London. The name "homopolar" is used because the polarity of the magnetic field emitted by the conductor and the permanent magnets does not change (unlike conventional DC motors).

The resulting rotational movement of the copper conducting wire is caused by the Lorentz force. A conductor (the wire) with a current flowing through it (from the battery) that is placed in a magnetic field (from the magnet) perpendicular to the current experiences a force in the direction perpendicular to both the magnetic field and current. This force provides torque around the axis of rotation and causes the conducting wire to spin.

Put more technically, the Lorentz force is the combination of electric and magnetic force on a point charge. If a particle with charge q moves with velocity v in the presence of electric field E and a magnetic field B, then it will experience the force F = qE + qv x B.

Source: https://youtu.be/wUqbvHOW6Us

#ScienceGIF #Science #GIF #Motor #Physics #Magnetism #Magnetic #Magnet #Battery #Electricity #Electromagnetism #EM #Cooper #Wire #Polar #Polarity
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Gyroscopic Stabilization in Space

A gyroscope is a spinning wheel or disc in which the axis of rotation is free to assume any orientation by itself. This means that when the disc is rotating, the axis is unaffected by tilting or rotation of the mounting because of the conservation of angular momentum.

A CD player contains a rapidly spinning compact disc (200-500rpm) that acts as a gyroscope in the microgravity of the International Space Station. The first CD player touched by the astronaut is off, so it readily tumbles in the direction of the applied force. However, the second CD player is on, so the spinning disc acts as a gyroscope that stabilizes the CD player and prevents it from tumbling. If you watch the full video, you'll see experiments conducted with two and three CD players taped together to achieve a higher dimension of stability.

Source: https://youtu.be/aXgGQuaOOt4

#ScienceGIF #Science #GIF #Physics #Gyroscope #Stabilization #Space #OuterSpace #Microgravity #ISS #NASA #CD #Astronaut #Rotation #Momentum 
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+NASA's Juno spacecraft has successfully entered orbit around Jupiter!
Success! Engine burn complete. After a five-year journey, our #Juno spacecraft is now orbiting #Jupiter, poised to unlock the planet's secrets.

More about our Juno mission: http://www.nasa.gov/juno

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Juno's Orbit around Jupiter

NASA's Juno spacecraft is hours away from beginning its orbital insertion around the planet Jupiter. After almost 5 years of travel the spacecraft will enter polar orbit around the largest planet in our Solar System where it will orbit 37 times over the course of its 20-month mission. Juno will study Jupiter's composition, gravity field, magnetic field, and polar magnetosphere at the highest resolution to date.

Source: https://youtu.be/dplSgv6qlMk (NASA)

#ScienceGIF #Science #GIF #NASA #Juno #Jupiter #Satellite #Orbit #Probe #Space #Exploration #Atmosphere #Orbital #Polar #Magnetosphere #Gravity #Jovian #Planet #SolarSystem
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Auroras on Jupiter

This imagery captured by the Hubble Space Telescope on May 19, 2016, depicts bright auroras on the planet Jupiter. Auroras are produced by the interaction of a planet's magnetic field with its atmosphere and the stream of charged particles emitted by the Sun (solar wind). These auroras are over a thousand times brighter than those seen on Earth and were captured using Hubble's far-ultraviolet-light detector. NASA was imaging Jupiter ahead of the July 2016 arrival of its Juno spacecraft that is scheduled to study the magnetic field of the largest planet in our Solar System.

The full-color footage of Jupiter was photographed at a different time as part of Hubble's Outer Planet Atmospheres Legacy (OPAL) program, that annually captures global maps of the outer planets.

Source: https://youtu.be/dplSgv6qlMk (NASA)

Learn More: http://goo.gl/e1SEiy

#ScienceGIF #Science #GIF #NASA #ESA #Hubble #Jupiter #Aurora #Particles #Charge #MagneticField #Sun #Solar #Telescope #Satellite #Space #OuterSpace #Planet #Physics #Astrophysics #Astronomy #SolarWind
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The Launch of Juno

NASA launched the Juno spacecraft from Cape Canaveral on August 5, 2011. This marked the beginning of its five year, 2.8 billion kilometer journey to the planet Jupiter. After release from the Atlas V rocket high above Earth's atmosphere, three large solar panel arrays were unfurled to power the spacecraft. These are the largest solar arrays ever used for a planetary probe, which typically are powered by radioactive thermoelectric generators.

Juno will begin orbital insertion around Jupiter on July 4, 2016, by firing its engines to slow the spacecraft. After two 53-day orbits, the engines will be fired again to move the spacecraft to 14-day polar orbits where its primary scientific mission will begin. Onboard equipment will study Jupiter's composition, gravity field, magnetic field, and polar magnetosphere with the goal of learning more about the formation of the largest planet in our Solar System. The mission is scheduled to end in February 2018 when Juno will be de-orbited to burn up in Jupiter's outer atmosphere.

The spacecraft is named after the Roman goddess Juno, the wife of the sky and thunder god Jupiter. When he used a veil of clouds to mask his mischief, Juno was still able to peer through and see Jupiter's true nature.

Source: https://youtu.be/NNHfoNIiZ8Y (NYTimes)

Learn More: https://goo.gl/93vXwM

#ScienceGIF #Science #GIF #NASA #JPL #Juno #Space #Spacecraft #Telescope #Jupiter #SolarSystem #Exploration #Discovery #Imaging #Mapping #Map #Rocket #NYT #NewYorkTimes
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