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Top 10 Facts about Praying mantis ( Stick insect ):-

1. Stick insects can shed and regenerate their limbs to escape attacks by predators.

Should a bird or other predator grab hold of a stick insect's leg, it can still make an easy escape. The stick insect simply gives up the leg, using a special muscle to break it off at a weak joint. Juvenile stick insects will regenerate the missing limb the next time they molt. In some cases, adult stick insects can even force themselves to molt again to regain a lost leg.

2. Stick insects can reproduce parthenogenetically, without the need for males.

Stick insects are a nation of Amazons, able to reproduce almost entirely without males. Unmated females produce eggs that become more females. When a male does manage to mate with a female, there's a 50/50 chance their offspring will be male.A captive female stick insect can produce hundreds of all-female offspring without ever mating. There are species of stick insects for which scientists have never found any males.

3. Stick insects not only look like sticks, they act like them, too.

Stick insects are so named for their effective camouflage among the woody plants where they feed. They're typically brown, black, or green, with stick-shaped bodies that help them blend in as they perch on twigs and branches. Some even wear lichen-like markings to make their disguise more authentic. Stick insects imitate twigs swaying in the wind by rocking back and forth as they move.

4. Stick insect eggs resemble seeds scattered about the forest floor.

Stick insect mothers aren't the most maternal of insects. They typically drop eggs randomly on the forest floor, leaving the youngsters to whatever fate befalls them. Don't be so quick to judge mama stick insect, though. By spreading her eggs out, she lessens the chance that a predator will find all her offspring and eat them. Her eggs resemble seeds, so carnivorous predators will be less likely to take a closer look. Some stick insects actually make an effort to hide their eggs, sticking them to leaves or bark, or placing them in the soil.

5. Nymphs usually eat their molted skin.

Once a nymph has molted, it's vulnerable to predators until its new cuticle darkens and hardens. The castoff skin nearby is a dead giveaway to enemies, so the nymph will quickly consume the shriveled exoskeleton to get rid of the evidence. The stick insect nymph also recycles the protein by eating its molted skin.

6. Stick insects don't bite, but they aren't defenseless.

If threatened, a stick insect will use whatever means necessary to thwart its attacker. Some will regurgitate a nasty substance that will put a bad taste in a hungry predator's mouth. Others reflex bleed, oozing a foul-smelling hemolymph from joints in their body. Some of the large, tropical stick insects may use their leg spines, which help them climb, to inflict some pain on an enemy. Stick insects may even direct a chemical spray, much like tear gas, at the offender.

7. Stick insect eggs may attract ants, which then collect and store the eggs in their nests.

Stick insect eggs that resemble hard seeds have a special, fatty capsule called a capitulum at one end. Ants enjoy the nutritional boost provided by the capitulum, and carry the stick insect eggs back to their nests for a meal. Once the ants feed on the fats and nutrients, they toss the eggs onto their garbage heap where they continue to incubate safe from predators. As the nymphs hatch, they make their way out of the ant nest.

8. Not all stick insects are boring brown.

Some stick insects can change color, like a chameleon, depending on the background where they're at rest. Stick insects may also wear bright colors on their wings, but keep these flamboyant features tucked away. When a bird or other predator approaches, the stick insect will flash the vibrant wings, then hide them again, leaving the predator confused and unable to relocate its target.

9. Stick insects can play dead.

When all else fails, play dead, right? A threatened stick insect will abruptly drop from wherever it's perched, fall to the ground, and stay very still. This behavior, called thanatosis, can successfully discourage predators. A bird or mouse may be unable to find the immobile insect on the ground, or prefer living prey and move on.

10. Stick insects hold the record for longest insects in the world.

In 2008, a newly discovered stick insect species from Borneo broke the record for longest insect (which had previously been held by another stick insect, Pharnacia serratipes). The Chan's megastick, Phobaeticus chain, measures an incredible 22 inches with legs extended, with a body length of 14 inches.
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Top 10 Facts about Parrot :-

1. Many parrots can imitate sounds.

African grey parrots, parakeets, Amazon parrots and macaws are the best at imitating sounds. One African grey parrot named Alex was able to speak more than a hundred words and what’s more impressive is that he was able to understand those words.

2. Parrots are among the most intelligent birds.

Indeed, parrots learn well. They can not only speak words but associate them with objects or situations. They can use tools and solve problems. Some scientists even believe they have the logic of a four-year-old, proving this with different experiments. Parrots are also very playful birds. In case you didn’t know it yet, playing is a sign of intelligence.

3. Parrots are the only birds that can eat with their feet.

Rose-ringed Parakeet eating leaves. Image credit: JayDalal5 cc3.0
Parrots have zygodactyl feet. This means they have four toes on each foot, two facing forward and two facing backward.Parrot feet are like human hands. They don’t just walk or perch on them. They can pick up objects with them and even pick up food and bring it to their mouths. That’s right. They can eat using their feet.

4. Some parrots can live for over 80 years.

The lifespan of a parrot varies from one species to the next. Small parrots usually live 15-20 years, medium-sized parrots 25-30 years and large parrots 60-100 years. Macaws are especially long-lived and one blue-and-yellow macaw named Charlie is believed to be more than 100 years old. Another macaw named Poncho, who has starred in several Hollywood movies, is claimed to be 89 years old. The record for oldest living parrot, though, is held by Cookie, a Major Mitchell’s cockatoo who is 81 years old.

5. Parrots have strong beaks.

One of a parrot’s main features is its curved, broad beak, the top beak often larger than the lower one. Parrot beaks are not only large, they are also strong. In fact, the beak of the hyacinth macaw, the world’s largest flying parrot, is strong enough to crack macadamia nuts, considered the toughest nuts to crack, as well as Brazil nut pods. It can even crack a coconut open. For this reason, parrots should be handled with care at all times.

6. Many parrots mate for life.

During the breeding season, female parrots lay anywhere from 2-8 eggs, which are always white. Most parrots do not build nests, instead laying eggs in tree holes. After 17-35 days, the eggs hatch and the young are cared for by both parents until they are ready to leave the nest.Once the female chooses him, the two stay together for life, even outside the breeding season. They help each other find food, watch out for each other, sleep together and groom each other in order to strengthen their bond. Lovebirds are especially known for their tight bond since they spend long hours just sitting together on a perch.

7. Parrots have been kept as pets for 3,000 years.

Parrots were first kept as pets by ancient Egyptians and then by the Indians and Chinese. They were brought to Europe in 300 BC, often kept by the rich or the nobility. Famous people who have owned pet parrots include Aristotle, King Henry VIII, Marco Polo, Queen Isabella, Marie Antoinette, Queen Victoria, Martha Washington, Teddy Roosevelt and Steven Spielberg.Today, parrots remain the most popular pet birds in the world. Keep in mind, though, if you are planning to have a pet parrot of your own, that parrots need a lot of affection and stimulation. If not trained well, they can be noisy, chew excessively and bite.

8. Cockatoos can move the feathers on their heads.

Cockatoos are Old World parrots that are often not as brightly colored as other parrots. Their feathers lack the chemicals that are responsible for the blue and green colors found in other parrots, so they do not have these colors. Their most distinguishing feature is their headrest or the feathers on their head which, interestingly, they can move just as dogs can move their ears. When flying or landing, a cockatoo’s headrest is often raised, as well as when it is scared, angry or excited. At other times, it is flat against their heads, making it seem like it isn’t there at all.

9. The world’s largest parrot cannot fly.

Kakapo. Image credit: jidanchaomian cc2.0
The kakapo is the world’s largest parrot. It can weigh up to nine pounds and grow over two feet long. The kakapo, however, is a flightless bird. It cannot fly. In fact, it is the only flightless parrot in the world. It is also the only parrot that is active at night, an adaptation that helps it escape the notice of predators.Most parrots look the same whether they are male or female but the female kakapo is smaller than the male, with a longer tail and a longer beak.While a kakapo cannot fly, it can jump and is good at climbing trees to eat fruits.Sadly, the kakapo is now one of the rarest birds in the world.

10. The kea is the only alpine parrot in the world.

The kea, the kakapo’s cousin, is also a unique parrot. While most parrots live in warm places, the kea lives in a cold environment high in the mountains. It has thick feathers that keep it warm and a rounded body that allows it to conserve and preserve body heat. Keas are known to be very smart and curious birds. Sometimes, they can be too curious, however, and are known to peck at cars, backpacks and human clothing. They have also been known to steal wallets, passports, sticks of gum and pieces of jewelry. Quite the mischief maker, don’t you think?













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Top 10 Facts about Rhinobatos_Rhinobatos( Guitar Fish ):-

1.Distinctive Features

Guitarfish have the appearance of both a shark and a skate -- their bodies are dorso-ventrally flattened like a skate or ray and the tail has two dorsal fins similar to most sharks. The pectoral fins are fused to the head, creating a heart- or triangle-shaped head and body. A few tubercles are typically found on the tip of the snout. The origin of the first dorsal fin of the Atlantic guitarfish is behind the pelvic fins. The Atlantic guitarfish has no spine on its tail.

2.Guitarfish swim somewhat as sharks do

by moving their thick tail and caudal fin in side-to-side motions. The Atlantic guitarfish also uses its pectoral fins for acceleration and maneuvering. Instead of swimming perfectly horizontal, the Atlantic guitarfish typically maintains a positive swimming angle with its head just slightly higher than its tail.

3.Coloration

The dorsal side of the Atlantic guitarfish is gray, olive brown, or chocolate brown and typically with white freckles covering the surface. The coloration of the area on either side of the rostral cartilage is pale to translucent. The fins are usually slightly darker than the trunk of the fish and its ventral side is white to pale yellow in color.

4.Dentition

Both sexes of the Atlantic guitarfish have 56-80 blunt teeth in the upper jaw and 51-82 teeth in the lower. In the upper jaw eight to ten rows of teeth are functional and seven to nine rows of teeth are functional in the lower jaw of large guitarfish. The teeth are rectangular at the base with rounded corners and fit closely together.

5.Dermal Denticles

The dorsal denticles are very small and set closely together with skin visible between them. They are arranged in a row along the dorsal midline and vary greatly in shape depending upon their location on the guitarfish's body. The denticles along the midzone of the back are egg-shaped at the rear of the denticle and irregularly pointed at the front end. Denticles on either side of the rostral ridge are spear-shaped with concave margins. Those along the sides of the tail are more egg-shaped than pointed. The denticles on the guitarfish's ventral side are slightly rounded, irregularly hexagonal or tetragonal, and completely cover the skin.

6.Size, Age & Growth

One of the smaller species of guitarfish, the Atlantic guitarfish only reaches a total length of approximately 30 inches (75.0 cm) (Lieske and Myers, 1994). Males have been recorded at 29.5 inches total length (75.0 cm) and females at 29.9 inches total length (76.0 cm).

7.Food Habits

Atlantic guitarfish feed on bottom-dwelling creatures, including molluscs such as scallops and crustaceans such as shrimp. The Atlantic guitarfish also eat a variety of small fishes. While catching prey, the guitarfish uses its rostrum to hold the prey against the sea floor and also to block the prey's escape route.

8.Reproduction

These fish reproduce via internal fertilization and give birth to live young. The young are born fully developed and measure approximately 8 inches (20 cm) total length (TL). There can be as many as 6 pups in each litter. Males are believed to be mature at 19-20 inches (48-51 cm) total length as indicated by well developed claspers at these sizes.

9.Predators

It is likely that larger predatory fish sharing the same geographical location and habitat consume the Atlantic guitarfish.

10.Taxonomy

Atlantic guitarfish belong to the subclass Elasmobranchii, which includes stingrays, skates, and sharks. The Atlantic guitarfish was originally named Rhinobatos lentiginosus by Garman in 1880 and this name is still valid today. The genus name comes from the Greek words "rhinos" meaning nose and "batis, -idos" meaning a ray. Rhinobatus lentiginosusGarman, 1880 is the only name applied to this species in previous scientific literature.

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Top 10 Facts about Bleeding Heart Flower :-

Bleeding heart has pinkish green, erect stem that can reach 47 inches in height and 18 inches in width.

Bleeding heart develops from the underground rhizome where it stores nutrients and energy required for development of leaves and flowers at the beginning of the spring.

Bleeding heart has bluish green compound leaves that consist of three leaflets. Bleeding heart is deciduous plant. It discards leaves at the end of the summer.

Bleeding heart develops pink, heart-shaped flowers (petals are white from the inside) with small, white, drop-like hanging part on the bottom side (hence the name "bleeding heart"). Flowers are arranged in horizontal clusters (raceme). Each cluster consists of around 20 flowers. Flowers contain both types of reproductive organs (perfect flowers).

Bleeding heart blooms during the spring and summer. Flowers are rich source of nectar which attracts hummingbirds, main pollinators of this plant.

Fruit of bleeding heart is green seed pod filled with black seed.

Ants play important role in dispersal of seed of bleeding heart.
Each seed is equipped with elaiosome, white fleshy part that is rich source of lipids. Elaiosome is one of the favorite type of food for the ants. Ants collect seed, transport them to the anthills and consume elaiosome. They do not produce damage on the seed, which retains ability to germinate under the optimal environmental conditions.

Bleeding heart propagates via seed and root cuttings.

All parts of the plant are poisonous. Bleeding heart can easily induce skin irritation in humans and poisoning of cattle.

Bleeding hearts are food source for larvae of certain butterfly species, snails and aphids.
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Top10 Facts About The Milky Way Galaxy:-


1: The Milky Way Is Vast

The Milky Way is an estimated 100,000 light-years in diameter and contains up to 400 billion stars, including our own sun. In spite of such a huge number of stars, the distance between Earth and even our nearest star system Alpha Centauri is vast, and as Douglas Adams pointed out in The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy, “Space is Big—Really Big. You don’t know how mind-bogglingly huge space is..” And, of course, he was absolutely correct.
Needless to say, comprehending such astronomically large numbers and sizes isn’t easy. Can you imagine 186,282 miles, for instance? Of course you can’t, and yet light travels that far in a single second. Alpha Centauri is 25.6 trillion miles (4.3 light-years) away – good luck imagining that – and to put things into some kind of perspective, if you were to count at a rate of one per second, it would take about 11 and a half days to reach just one million.

2: Just One Of Many Galaxies

The point being that we’re really not good at large sizes! It isn’t that long ago that we used to think of the stars as light leaks in a black curtain, just a little further than we could reach, and heaven was on the other side.
Size is so elusive that it wasn’t until 1923 that Edwin Hubble was finally able to prove that our galaxy was not the whole universe, and that in fact there were hundreds of billions of galaxies beyond our own. Nevertheless, even with the best technology we can currently muster it would take centuries to reach our nearest star. The Space Shuttle, for instance, would take around 165,000 years to reach Alpha Centauri, while the Voyager-1 spacecraft which has now left our solar system will not pass other stars for 40,000 years.

3: Classified As A Barred Spiral Galaxy

Our galaxy is a spiral armed galaxy, and as is typical for about sixty-seven percent of those, ours is barred. It is suspected that such bars are the consequence of a galaxy drawing gas from the spirals into the heart of the galaxy, but as the density of the bars increase over the millennia their own gravity destroys them resulting in spirals without bars. It seems to be part of a middle-aged spiral galaxy’s normal life cycle to have bars for a while.

4: Black Hole Located At Its Centre

Of course all this matter heading for the heart of the galaxy has to go somewhere. The oldest star in our galaxy is about 13.82 billion years years old, forming just shortly after the Big Bang, which means a lot of time has passed, and a lot of matter has gone tumbling into the centre of the galaxy. There awaits a supermassive black hole called Sagittarius A, 26,000 light years away from Earth and the source of intense radio waves.

5: Cannibalizes Other Galaxies

Some spiral galaxies form by brushing past other galaxies. Their gravities shred their globular shapes and leave long trails of stars that wrap around the remaining large bodies of stars. Often that is the end of it, with their relative speeds so high that they will never interact again. Sometimes there is enough attraction between them that they condense to form a single galaxy. While the above instance is not rare, most spirals are explained by one or both of these theories. You can look at them at your own convenience. The Density Wave Theory which explains Saturn’s rings explains some spirals, while the SSPSF model explains many others, but the language and mathematics in the latter may be difficult to digest.

6: On A Collision Course With Andromeda

Interestingly, two galaxies could pass right through each other and have no collisions despite their billions of stars. In actual fact, that scenario is rather more likely than an actual collision because of the vast distances between objects, which is a bit of a relief since we and the Andromeda Galaxy are headed for a meeting in the far future.

7: Galactic Year Last 250 Million Years

A galactic year lasts between 225 and 250 million years in our part of the galaxy, since rotation speeds alter depending on location. The best estimate for ourselves appears to be in the 240 million year range, since we’re about two-thirds of the way out on the Orion Arm of our galaxy.

8: A Star Maker

With between 100 and 400 billion stars in the Milky Way Galaxy, and enough interstellar dust to make 100 billion more, we’re not likely to run out of stars any time soon. There is a distinct advantage to having so many stars. Current theories of stellar formation seem to indicate that most stars will have planets.

9: Milky Way Could Contains Millions Of Planets

Planets and each sun will have a “Goldilocks” zone. In other words, it’s possible that most stars will have a planet (or two) that will fall in the habitable zone for life where it’s not too cold and not too hot — it’s just right. It could have liquid water, if it’s solid; even if it’s a gas giant it could have water in the atmosphere, so that something organic could float and live, despite the lack of “surface”.

10: Frank Drake And Alien Civilizations

Drake was a radio astronomer who was intrigued by the notion of extraterrestrial life communicating deliberately (or accidentally) by radio. He set up a conference and created an equation to stimulate discussion among the attendees. It was never intended to represent reality, but to help people consider just what we need to know in order to seek other life in the galaxy. Some elements we know and can compute; others are “best guesses”.
Either way, all the equation shows is that there might be hundreds or even thousands of civilizations in our galaxy. But because civilizations rise and fall over time, they don’t all exist at one time. And most will be nomadic or agrarian but not technologically capable. If there are technological civilizations, they should number about 43 (arguable, but as good a guess as any) at this point in galactic evolution. With fairly even but random distribution they are probably about 40+ light years apart. Unless we’re particularly lucky, we probably don’t have a nearby neighbor.


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TOP 10 FACTS ABOUT STARS:-

1. The Sun is the closest star

Okay, this one you should know, but it’s pretty amazing to think that our own Sun, located a mere 150 million km away is average example of all the stars in the Universe. Our own Sun is classified as a G2 yellow dwarf star in the main sequence phase of its life. The Sun has been happily converting hydrogen into helium at its core for 4.5 billion years, and will likely continue doing so for another 7+ billion years. When the Sun runs out of fuel, it will become a red giant, bloating up many times its current size. As it expands, the Sun will consume Mercury, Venus and probably even Earth. Here are 10 facts about the Sun.

2. Stars are made of the same stuff

All stars begin from clouds of cold molecular hydrogen that gravitationally collapse. As they cloud collapses, it fragments into many pieces that will go on to form individual stars. The material collects into a ball that continues to collapse under its own gravity until it can ignite nuclear fusion at its core. This initial gas was formed during the Big Bang, and is always about 74% hydrogen and 25% helium. Over time, stars convert some of their hydrogen into helium. That’s why our Sun’s ratio is more like 70% hydrogen and 29% helium. But all stars start out with 3/4 hydrogen and 1/4 helium, with other trace elements.

3. Stars are in perfect balance

You might not realize but stars are in constant conflict with themselves. The collective gravity of all the mass of a star is pulling it inward. If there was nothing to stop it, the star would just continue collapsing for millions of years until it became its smallest possible size; maybe as a neutron star. But there is a pressure pushing back against the gravitational collapse of the star: light. The nuclear fusion at the core of a star generates a tremendous amount of energy. The photons push outward as they make their journey from inside the star to reach the surface; a journey that can take 100,000 years. When stars become more luminous, they expand outward becoming red giants. And when they run out of light pressure, they collapse down into white dwarfs.

4. Most stars are red dwarfs

If you could collect all the stars together and put them in piles, the biggest pile, by far, would be the red dwarfs. These are stars with less than 50% the mass of the Sun. Red dwarfs can even be as small as 7.5% the mass of the Sun. Below that point, the star doesn’t have the gravitational pressure to raise the temperature inside its core to begin nuclear fusion. Those are called brown dwarfs, or failed stars. Red dwarfs burn with less than 1/10,000th the energy of the Sun, and can sip away at their fuel for 10 trillion years before running out of hydrogen.

5. Mass = temperature = color

The color of stars can range from red to white to blue. Red is the coolest color; that’s a star with less than 3,500 Kelvin. Stars like our Sun are yellowish white and average around 6,000 Kelvin. The hottest stars are blue, which corresponds to surface temperatures above 12,000 Kelvin. So the temperature and color of a star are connected. Mass defines the temperature of a star. The more mass you have, the larger the star’s core is going to be, and the more nuclear fusion can be done at its core. This means that more energy reaches the surface of the star and increases its temperature. There’s a tricky exception to this: red giants. A typical red giant star can have the mass of our Sun, and would have been a white star all of its life. But as it nears the end of its life it increases in luminosity by a factor of 1000, and so it seems abnormally bright. But a blue giant star is just big, massive and hot.

6. Most stars come in multiples

It might look like all the stars are out there, all by themselves, but many come in pairs. These are binary stars, where two stars orbit a common center of gravity. And there are other systems out there with 3, 4 and even more stars. Just think of the beautiful sunrises you’d experience waking up on a world with 4 stars around it.

7. The biggest stars would engulf Saturn

Speaking of red giants, or in this case, red supergiants, there are some monster stars out there that really make our Sun look small. A familiar red supergiant is the star Betelgeuse in the constellation Orion. It has about 20 times the mass of the Sun, but it’s 1,000 times larger. But that’s nothing. The largest known star is the monster VY Canis Majoris. This star is thought to be 1,800 times the size of the Sun; it would engulf the orbit of Saturn!

8. The most massive stars are the shortest lived

I mentioned above that the low mass red dwarf stars can sip away at their fuel for 10 trillion years before finally running out. Well, the opposite is true for the most massive stars that we know about. These giants can have as much as 150 times the mass of the Sun, and put out a ferocious amount of energy. For example, one of the most massive stars we know of is Eta Carinae, located about 8,000 light-years away. This star is thought to have 150 solar masses, and puts out 4 million times as much energy. While our own Sun has been quietly burning away for billions of years, and will keep going for billions more, Eta Carinae has probably only been around for a few million years. And astronomers are expecting Eta Carinae to detonate as a supernovae any time now. When it does go off, it would become the brightest object in the sky after the Sun the Moon. It would be so bright you could see it during the day, and read from it at night.

9. There are many, many stars

Quick, how many stars are there in the Milky Way. You might be surprised to know that there are 200-400 billion stars in our galaxy. Each one is a separate island in space, perhaps with planets, and some may even have life. But then, there could be as many as 500 billion galaxies in the Universe, and each of which could have as many or more stars as the Milky Way. Multiply those two numbers together and you’ll see that there could be as many as 2 x 1023 stars in the Universe. That’s 200,000,000,000,000,000,000,000.

10. And they’re very far

With so many stars out there, it’s amazing to consider the vast distances involved. The closest star to Earth is Proxima Centauri, located 4.2 light-years away. In other words, it takes light itself more than 4 years to complete the journey from Earth. If you tried to hitch a ride on the fastest spacecraft ever launched from Earth, it would still take you more than 70,000 years to get there from here. Traveling between the stars just isn’t feasible right now.
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TOP 7 fACTS ABOUT Hercules Baboon Spider:-

One very large and rare spider!

As well as being one of the largest and heaviest spiders in the world, the Hercules baboon spider is also the rarest, with only one specimen having ever been discovered – and that was way back in 1900.

How big can it get?

Its actual size is all but impossible to determine due to its scarcity. Rumours that it can reach sizes bigger than even the Goliath bird eating tarantula though have been debunked following a study carried out by the Natural History Museum in London. Still, the Hercules baboon spider is more than an imposing sight.

What does it eat?

Like other baboon spiders, this Nigerian native most likely dines on bugs, insects and other smaller spiders.


How does it hunt?

It is likely that Hercules leaves its deep and dark silk-lined burrow after nightfall and forages on forest floors in search of its dinner. It uses strong jaws and venom to halt its prey, much like most spiders in the tarantula family.

How dangerous is it?

Its venom is not nearly strong enough to hurt a human, unless infection is allowed to spread. Instead, its bite is more likely to lead to a little discomfort.

How many are left?

Nobody has seen this old world spider since 1900 so it may already be extinct. Alternatively, it may be living the life of Riley underground, far away from human interaction.

Anything else?

Due to its rarity, it is one of the most highly sought out arachnids, especially in the pet trade. It is widely regarded that most of the specimens sold as Hercules baboon spiders are actually the smaller king baboon spider
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TOP 10 fACTS ABOUT WARRIOR BETTA FISH:-

1. Betta Refers to 70 Fish Species

When most people think of bettas, they're thinking of betta splendens, or Siamese fighting fish. However, the term betta actually refers to dozens of different fish species.

2. Bettas are Territorial and Aggressive

They're called Siamese fighting fish for a reason… bettas, especially the males, are territorial and will attack other male bettas (this isn't always "to the death," as commonly believed, although it can cause serious injuries). However, female betta fish can live together and male betta fish may be able to live with other species of fish.4

3. Bettas are Omnivores

In the wild, bettas eat insects (crickets, flies, grasshoppers, etc.) and insect larvae, typically collected from the surface of the water, along with algae. They may also eat bloodworms, shrimp, or freeze-dried bloodworms.

4. Bettas Have Different Tail Shapes

Part of what makes bettas so fascinating are their wide variety of shapes and colors. The tale shapes alone include comb, crown, delta, double feather, halfmoon, halfsun, plakat, rose, round, spade, veil, and more.

5. Wild Bettas are a Dull Brown and Green Color

As mentioned, the vibrantly colored bettas you see in stores got that way through selective breeding. In the wild, bettas are a dull brown or green color and their fins are smaller and much more understated.

6. Males and Females are Easy to Tell Apart

Male bettas are not only larger than females but they also tend to have brighter colors and more ornate fins. Most pet bettas are therefore male.

7. Bettas Breathe Air and Can Survive Out of Water for Short Periods

Bettas have a special organ called the labyrinth organ, which allows them to breathe air from the surface. This is what allows them to survive in waters with low-oxygen content, such as shallow rice paddies, stagnant ponds, or even polluted waters.5 They can even survive outside of water for short periods, provided they're kept moist.

Because betta fish sometimes live in water with low oxygen, this doesn't mean they prefer it… and it also doesn't mean bettas should be kept in vases with flowers. Unfortunately, the idea that you can keep a betta in a flower vase is widely circulated, but this is not a healthy or humane way to house these fish.

8. Bettas Build Bubbles Nests

Male bettas build bubble nests, and once the female releases the eggs (during an elaborate courtship ritual) the male gathers them in his mouth and "spits" them into the nest. Because creating bubble nests is an instinctive behavior, your betta will likely build a bubble nest even in captivity without a mate present.

9. Male Bettas Guard Their Offspring

The male betta not only builds the nest, he also watches over the eggs until they hatch. The female doesn't participate and is, in fact, typically chased away by the male.

10. Bettas are Intelligent

Betta fish can learn to recognize their owners and perform tricks, such as following your finger around the bowl, swimming through hoops, or pushing a ball into a goal.
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TOP 10 FACTS ABOUT ORCHID:-

• Each orchid flower is bilateral symmetric, which means that it can be divided in two equal parts.

• Size, shape and texture of leaves depend on the habitat. Orchids that live in dry climate have thick leaves covered with wax, while species that live in warm and humid areas have thin, elongated leaves. Certain species of orchids do not have leaves at all.

• Orchids do not have usual roots. They have rhizome, tuber or aerial roots
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• Orchids can live on the ground (terrestrial forms), attached to woody plants (epiphytic types) or under the ground.

• Certain species of orchids are parasitic. They are not able to produce food (sugar) using the sunlight and carbon dioxide (like other plants). Instead, they obtain food from fungi that live inside their roots.

• Bond between orchids and certain species of insects is tight and highly specialized. Petals have similar shape and color like female insects to attract males and ensure pollination. Ophrys apifera, better known as the Bee Orchid, lures male bees with its enticing smell and bee like appearance. When a male bee approaches the flower to mate, it becomes covered in pollen and is sent off to pollinate the next orchid it visits.

• Due to high specialization of pollination, extinction of insect means extinction of orchid (there is no one else who can pollinate it in the wild).

• Flower of orchid can survive from few hours to 6 months, depending on the species.

• Orchids produce several millions of miniature seeds. Only few seeds will develop into mature plant.

• The genus Orchis comes from an Ancient Greek word meaning “testicle”; because of the shape of the bulbous roots. The term “orchid”, which is just a shortened form of the family Orchidaceae, was not introduced until 1845.

• Orchid seeds do not have an endosperm which provides nutrients required for the germination. Due to this fact all orchids (including non-parasitic forms) live in symbiosis with fungi during germination. Germination can last from couple of weeks to 15 years.


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Top10 Facts about Passiflora..

Kingdom: Plantae
Division Magnoliophyta
Class Magnoliopsida
Order Malpighiales
Family Passifloraceae
Genus Passiflora


1) The Passion Flower (Passiflora), a fast-growing perennial vine, with showy white and purple-blue scented flowers. Passion flower is tropical flower, native to southern Brazil and Argentina. It is also widely found from Virginia to southern Illinois and southeast Kansas, south to Florida and Texas in USA.

2) Passion flower is also known by other common names viz., Passion Vine, Maracuja, Apricot Vine, Maypop, etc. Passion Flower is 10 cm wide, with the five sepals and petals. The corona in the flower is blue or with violet filaments. Passion flowers have five greenish-yellow stamens and three purple stigmas.

3) Passion flowers are known to have a high medicinal value. Passion flower has a tranquilizing effect, including mild sedative and anti-anxiety effects. The sedative effect of Passion flower has made it popular for treating a variety of ailments, including nervousness and insomnia.

4) Passiflora develops evergreen, glossy, 3, 5 or 7-lobed leaves. Curled tendrils can be seen at the base of each leaf.

5) The most famous fruit comes from the passion fruit plant (Passiflora edulis) which is widely cultivated for the flesh and juice.

6) That long list of health benefits commonly attributed to passion fruit is due to the nutrient, mineral, and vitamin content of the fruit, which includes antioxidants, flavonoids, vitamin A, vitamin C, riboflavin, niacin, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, copper, fiber, and protein.

7) The “Passion” in “passion flower” refers to the passion of Jesus in Christian theology. In the 15th and 16th centuries, Spanish Christian missionaries adopted the unique physical structures of this plant, particularly the numbers of its various flower parts, as symbols of the last days of Jesus and especially his crucifixion:

8) The pointed tips of the leaves were taken to represent the Holy Lance also known as the Holy Spear. The tendrils represent the whips used in the flagellation of Christ. The flower’s radial filaments, which can number more than a hundred and vary from flower to flower, represent the crown of thorns.

9) The chalice-shaped ovary with its receptacle represents a hammer or the Holy Grail. The 3 stigmas represent the 3 nails and the 5 anthers below them the 5 wounds. The blue and white colours of many species’ flowers represent Heaven and Purity.

10) Dried leaves of Passiflora can be smoked in the form of cigarettes



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