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New golden destination of the NCR Greater Faridabad 

Faridabad is the largest city in the north Indian state of Haryana, in Faridabad district. It is a leading industrial center and situated in the National Capital Region bordering the Indian capital New Delhi. It is located between Delhi, Noida, Greater Noida and Gurgaon. It is surrounded by Delhi to its North, Noida to its North East, Greater Noida to its East and Gurgaon to its West. Thus it is easily accessible from all locations in National Capital Region. Down the way in South alongside National Highway 2 it has Palwal, Mathura (along Vrindavan) and then Agra. Faridabad enjoys a prime location both geographically and politically. The river Yamuna forms the eastern district boundary with Uttar Pradesh.

The newly developed residential and industrial part of Faridabad (Sec. 66 to 89) between Agra Canal and Yamuna River is commonly referred as Neharpar or Greater Faridabad. The area is being developed as a self-sustained sub-city with wide roads, tall buildings, malls, educational institutions, and health and commercial centers. Sector 66 to 74 are Industrial Sectors whereas Sector 75 to 89 are Residential Sectors.

The Delhi-Agra National Highway No.2 (Sher Shah Suri Marg) passes through the centre of the Faridabad district. The city has many railway stations on the Delhi-Mathura double track broad-gauge line of the North Central Railway. The railway stations of Old Faridabad and New Industrial Township are the major ones.

Faridabad is also a major industrial hub of Haryana 50% of the income tax collected in Haryana is from Faridabad and Gurgaon. Faridabad is famous for henna production from the agricultural sector, while tractors, motorcycles, switch gears, refrigerators, shoes and tyres constitute its primary industrial products.

For ease of Civil Administration, Faridabad district is divided into two sub divisions viz. Faridabad and Ballabgarh, each headed by a Sub Divisional Magistrate. The Municipal Corporation of Faridabad (MCF) provides the urban civic amenities to the citizens of Faridabad City. Palwal, Hodal and Hathin Sub Divisions are now part of the newly created Palwal District.

Country India India State Haryana District Faridabad 
Area  • Total 742.9 km2 (286.8 sq mi) Elevation 198 m (650 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 1,404,653
 • Density 2,421/km2 (6,270/sq mi)
Demonym Faridabadi
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30) PIN 12100X
Telephone code 0129 Vehicle registration HR-51, HR-29, HR-38(commercial), DL-16(Delhi NCR)
Website faridabad.nic.in

History
Faridabad, the south-eastern district in the state of Haryana, was founded in 1607 AD by Farid, the treasurer of Jahangir, with the object of protecting the Grand Trunk Road (now National Highway 2) which passed through the town. Sheikh Farid built a fort, a tank and a mosque which are now in ruins. Later on, it became the headquarters of a Pargana which was held in jagir by Ballabgarh ruler. Faridabad District came into existence on 15 August 1979 as the 12th district of the state. Faridabad District was carved out from erstwhile Gurgaon District.

As a part of Pakistani Refugee Resettlement Project after the Partition of India, light industrial development was initiated in the town in 1950. At that time Delhi was completely filled and then prime minister Jawahar Lal Nehru had the responsibility of economic development and transferred the industries to this city and the refugees worked in these industries. Thus, refugees laid down the initial infrastructure of the present Faridabad.

Geography
Faridabad is at 28.43°N 77.32°E.[5] It has an average elevation of 198 metres (649 ft).

City is located on the plains of the Yamuna river. It is bordered by the Yamuna to the east and Aravali hills towards the west and southwest. Today, virtually all of the land has been developing with residential housing as the population of the city swelled during the mid-1990s.

Much like the rest of India, the people of Faridabad rely on the ground water for their basic needs which is the gift of good monsoon season.

Faridabad close proximity to River Yamuna makes its land very appropriate for long term sustainability and for making sufficient natural resources like water available to its residents. Further unlike Gurgaon which is prone to direct hot summer winds coming from Jaipur (in Rajasthan), Faridabad is blessed because of Aravali Range Mountains between Gurgaon and Faridabad blocking hot summer winds to enter its geographical space.

Climate
The climate of Faridabad district can be classified as tropical steppe, hot semi-arid (Köppen BSh) which is mainly characterized by the extreme dryness of the air except during monsoon months. During three months of south west monsoon from last week of June to September, the moist air of oceanic penetrate into the district and causes high humidity, cloudiness and monsoon rainfall. The period from October to December constitutes post monsoon season. The cold weather season prevails from January to the beginning of March and followed by the hot weather or summer season which prevails up to the last week of June.

The normal annual rainfall in Faridabad district is about 542 mm (21.3 in) spread over 27 days. The south west monsoon sets in the last week of June and withdraws towards the end of September and contributes about 85% of the annual rainfall. July and August are the wettest months 15% of the annual rainfall occurs during the non-monsoon months in the wake of thunder storms and western disturbances.

Demographics
As per provisional data of 2011 census Faridabad had a population of 1,404,653, out of which males were 750,446 and females were 654,207. The literacy rate was 84.88 per cent.

Sports
Facilities for cricket are available in Nahar Singh Stadium which was built in 1981, the ground has a capacity to hold around 25,000 people. The last ODI played here was between India and England on 31 March 2006. There is a golf-course here named Aravali Golf Club with 18 holes play plan. It is one of the oldest golf-course of India.

There is also a Khel Parisar sport complex in sector 12, facilitating Swimming, Horse Riding, Tennis, Football,Roller Skating etc.

District administration
District collector (Dr. Amit Kumar Agarwal)
Police Commissioner (Sh.A.S Chawla)
District & Sessions Judge (Sh.Satish Kumar

Economy
Various big companies have established their headquarters here. Few of them are NHPC, JCB, ACE, ABB, Escorts, Yamaha, Goodyear, Bata, Lakhani etc. There are some IT Companies also like Damco Solutions, Abacus Softech, etc. who established their database centres here. Faridabad is a massive economic engine of Haryana. Faridabad generates over 50% of the income tax for the Haryana government.

Agriculture
Faridabad was earlier famous for Mehandi production. Today also Faridabad's Mehndi is renowned all over the world. Its annual turnover is more than 500 crores. Wheat was grown in Faridabad before but the agriculture has moved towards the villages of Haryana as Faridabad saw a boom in the population in the early 90s. Almost all of the agricultural land has been taken over by residential housing and by property dealers.

Central government offices
Faridabad has benefited from plans of Union Government to decongest Delhi by shifting a number of Central Government Offices to Faridabad. Many directorates of different union government ministries are headquartered in Faridabad. The prominent among them are Central Ground Water Board, Department of Plant Quarantine and Central Insecticide Lab. A number of Union Government Offices from Haryana are based here such as Commissioner of Central Excise within Department of Revenue, Government of India, Department of Explosives, Department of Labour, etc. The Apex Central Training Institute of the Department of Revenue, Government of India, National Academy of Customs Excise & Narcotics is located at Sector 29. This has started functioning from this campus in 1996.

Manufacturing
Faridabad is the industrial capital of India. It is home to hundreds of large-scale companies like Lafarge, Shova, Imperial Auto Ltd., Birla VXL, elofic filters, Star Wire India Limited, JCB, Escorts group, Yamaha, Knorr Bremse, ACE-cranes, ABB, Goodyear, ACC, NHPC Ltd, IndianOil (R&D), Whirlpool, Havell's, L&T, Bhartia cutler hammer / BCH Electric Ltd , Mahindra Defence, Swaraj Mazda, Frick India Ltd., Orient Fans, Talbros, Bharat Gears, Clutch Auto, Hyderabad Industries, Lakhani shoes, Khaitan, Marathon Electric India Private Limited, JBM Group, Tecumseh, SPL,Norisys,Sunflame,Hemla,Pooja forge,glen appliances,Wings automotives,Richa knit,Bony Rubber,Hitkari Udyog,Hindustan vacuum glass,Thomson press,Shahi exports, Sanrok Enterprises, Beebay and many more.

It is also a hub of 50,000 small-scale industries, mostly mechanical and light engineering goods industries.

Military
The Indian Air Force (IAF) operates Raja Nahar Singh Base as a logistics base in Faridabad. The resident unit is No.56 Air Storage Park as well as the Air Force Guard Dog Training Unit. The IAF Base is commanded by a Group Captain of the Logistics Branch. Formerly, a SA-2 SAM Squadron was also based in Faridabad. Although there is no army organisation in the city, there are many retired army officers settled here.

Communications
Faridabad is well connected by the latest means of communications that includes GSM, WLL, Dialup internet connection, DSL internet connection, Leased line internet connection.

Govt operated fixed line/land line telephone connections privately operated, world class network of fixed line phones.

Apart from electronics means of communication, the city is well connected through the postal services as well. Government owned Indian Postal Service and privately owned postal services like First Flight, DHL, FedEx, DTDC, Blue Dart etc. can be easily accessed.

Transportation and Connectivity
Faridabad is located between Delhi, Noida, Greater Noida and Gurgaon. It is surrounded by Delhi to its North, Noida to its North East, Greater Noida to its East and Gurgaon to its West. Thus it is easily accessible from all locations in NCR. Faridabad is well-connected to the state capital Chandigarh by NH 1 and NH 22 and other cities of Haryana like Rohtak, Panipat and Ambala.

Rail
Faridabad is on the broad gauge of New Delhi- Mumbai Line. New Delhi and Hazrat Nizammudin Railway Station is about 25 km away from Faridabad Station. The trains for big cities like Mumbai, Chennai, Hyderabad are easily accessible from here. Local Trains runs between New Delhi to Faridabad.

There are three railway stations in the city viz. Faridabad (FDB), New Town Faridabad (FDN) and Ballabgarh (BVH). Earlier it was the last station of central railway, but now it has been included in Northern railway. It is a very high revenue generating source for railways as thousands of people move daily in local trains to and from Delhi for education/professions. The metro will start running from August'15.

Metro
The Delhi Metro Rail Corporation is now extending the metro rail service to the city as well. The Violet Line (Delhi Metro) which is presently up to Badarpur, Delhi Border is being extended up to YMCA Chowk in Faridabad providing access to entire Faridabad area across National Highway 2. The Delhi-Faridabad Metro work is in its final stage and the services are going to be commenced soon within few months[7] Further as per recent Govt. plans the Delhi-Faridabad Metro facility will be later extended even up to Ballabhgarh making it the widest Metro connected region in NCR. [8]

Haryana Govt. is also planning starting work towards Metro connectivity between Gurgaon, Faridabad and Greater Noida once Metro services between Delhi and Faridabad commence

Road
The National Highway-2 (Delhi-Mathura Road) passes through the city, and thus it is well connected to nearby states. Roadways services of Haryana (Haryana Roadways) and neighbouring states like Delhi Transport Corporation, Uttar Pardesh Transport Department, and Madhya Pradesh Transport Department are easily accessible. Faridabad is also connected to Gurgaon through Gurgaon-Faridabad Road which starts from Sec 26 in Gurgaon and end near Badhkal Lake in Faridabad. Faridabad is going to become the best connected locations in NCR in the coming years because of multiple factors including (1) Two bridges connecting Greater Faridabad to Noida and Greater Noida and (2) Kalindi Kunj Bypass Road Project.

Two upcoming bridges over Yamuna will connect Greater Faridabad to Noida and Greater Noida. One of the bridges is proposed to link Noida's Sector 168 with Faridabad's Badoli village (Near Bypass Road)[10] The other bridge would connect Faridabad-Noida-Ghaziabad (FNG) expressway from Noida's Sector 150 to National Highway 2 in Faridabad which is a part of the planned Eastern Peripheral Expressway also termed as National Expressway 2 (India) or KGP (Kundli-Ghaziabad-Palwal) Expressway. Government has already approved construction of the road connecting Faridabad and Greater Noida that will improve the connectivity with clearances received from both Haryana and Uttar Pradesh Governments[11] The much-awaited FNG (Faridabad-Noida-Ghaziabad Expressway) is finally coming on track and will provide fast connectivity to daily commuters of the area once complete; apart from this, it is also emerging as an excellent stretch for real estate development. FNG Expressway is around 56 km long with 19.9 km in Noida-Greater Noida region, 8 km in Ghaziabad, while the rest 28.1 km is in the Faridabad region, especially the developing sectors of Neharpar. According to the plan, FNG from Noida side will become operational in the next 14 months while it would take three years for the whole stretch to become fully operational[12] The completed expressway designed by IIT-Roorkee will offer commuters direct connectivity between Noida and Greater Faridabad and put an end to massive traffic jams[13]
Kalindi Kunj Bypass Project has been approved which will connect DND Flyway at Maharani Bagh, Delhi to Faridabad Bypass Road near Badarpur Border. According to PWD officials, the bypass will connect the DND Flyway, cutting across the Agra Canal along the Yamuna, which runs perpendicular to Sarita Vihar and ends near Badarpur border, which further connects to Faridabad. "Commuters heading from east Delhi, South Delhi and Noida to Faridabad will be able to avoid the road to Ashram Chowk completely and that will help decongest the area for local users. The estimated cost of the project is Rupees 200 Crores and will be competed in two phases. In the first phase the stretch from Maharani Bagh (at DND Flyway) to Kalindi Kunj will be completed. In the second phase the stretch from Kalindi Kunj to Faridabad will see completion[14] The bypass will dramatically reduce travel time between Delhi and Faridabad as it will serve as an alternative to Mathura Road. Unified Traffic and Transportation Infrastructure (Planning and Engineering) Centre (UTTIPEC) gave the Public Works Department (PWD) its consent to move ahead after Lieutenant-Governor Najeeb Jung gave the approval to the project.
Additional Connectivity between Faridabad and Greater Faridabad/ Neharpar Faridabad

Haryana Govt. has planned construction of four bridges over Agra Canal to connect Faridabad with Greater Faridabad (or Neharpar) in addition to three already functional bridges. At present three bridges i.e., Kheri, BPTP and Palla connects Faridbad with Greater Faridabad (or Neharpar). HUDA is soon going to start construction work of four additional bridges connecting Faridabad with Greater Faridabad. The first bridge will connect Sec. 74 and 75 in Greater Faridabad with Sec. 3 & 8 in Faridabad. The second bridge will connect Sec. 81 and 86 in Greater Faridabad with Sec. 14 and 17 in Faridabad. The third bridge will connect Sec. 86 and 87 in Greater Faridabad with Sec. 17 and 18 in Faridabad. The fourth bridge will connect Sec. 89 in Greater Faridabad with Sec. 19 and 29 in Faridabad. All bridges will be of six lanes

Air
Faridabad is served by Indira Gandhi International Airport, New Delhi which is around 35 km from Faridabad.

Tourism
The city has a big name in hotel industry. There are number of 5 star hotels in the city like Hotel Claridges, Taj hotel, Hotel Rajhans, Taj Gateway Hotel, etc. and many more 4 star categorised also like Park Plaza, Hotel Atrium, Sarovar Portico, etc. There are several shopping malls occupied with renowned brands in the city like Crown Interiorz, Crown Plaza, City Mall, SRS Mall, Eldeco Station1, EF3 mall, Mall Manhuttan and many more

Badkhal Lake
Badkhal Lake was located in Badkhal village, 8 km from Delhi Border. The lake fringed by Aravalli hills was a man-made embankment. Owing to unchecked mining in the neighbouring Aravallis, the lake has totally dried up. There are functional Haryana Tourism restaurants in the vicinity. A flower show is held every spring here. Its name is most probably derived from the Persian word bedakhal, which means free from interference. Close to Badhkal Lake, is the Peacock Lake, which is another picturesque spot.

The lake is dried up and no lake exists apart from a dry ground.

Suraj Kund Tourist Complex and the crafts fair
Situated at a distance of around 8 km from South Delhi, it is an ideal picnic spot. The Suraj Kund Lake[16] here is surrounded by rock cut steps. Built by Surajpal Tomar, Suraj Kund represents the rising sun. Ruins of a Sun temple lie around the lake. The complex includes a beautifully done-up Rajhans, a pool of fresh water – Siddha Kund; its waters said to have healing properties and a garden. A delightful handloom and handicrafts fair is held here annually in February. Skilled artisans from all over the country display the rich crafts tradition of India in the typical setting of a rural Indian marketplace. Cultural programmes like folk dances, magic, acrobats and rural cuisines are also a part of this colourful fair. One can also see traditional crafts being made and buy them direct from the craftsmen. Food is served in Banana leaves and claypots.

Raja Nahar Singh Palace[edit]
Nahar Singh Mahal is also commonly known as Ballabgarh Fort-Palace was built by the predecessor of Jat Raja Nahar Singh. As a matter of respect and remembrance this palace was given the name of Raja Nahar Singh who died in a war of independence. This palace is known for its architecture. This is located at main road entering in Ballabgarh market which is at a distance of about 45 km from Delhi. The palace was recently worked with antiques and relics of a bygone past.

Other visitor attractions[edit]
Dhauj Lake
Aravali Golf Course
Nahar Singh Cricket Stadium
Jharna Mandir village Mohabbtabad
Shri Parshvanath Digambar Jain Mandir[17]
Education[edit]
See also: List of education facilities in Faridabad

Vidyantariksha
Faridabad has several regionally reputed institutes for primary and secondary education. Some of the top schools of the city are Delhi Public School, Sector 19 and Sec-81, St. Peter's School in Sector 16A, Modern D.P.S., Aravali International School Sec 43 and Sec 81, St Anthony's Convent School Sec-9, Modern Vidya Niketan Sec 17,MVN Aravali Hills, Ryan International School Sec- 21b, St. John`s school,Nav Jiwan Public School Sec-10, Apeejay School, Dynasty International School Sector-28, Eicher School, Modern School, St. Thomas School Sec -8, Carmel Convent, Saint Joseph's Convent School, Tagore Academy, Holy Child school sector-29,ST.ALBANS SCHOOL,SEC 15,Aggarwal Public School, Pal Vanshikam Educational Centre, DAV Public School, Gita Bal Niketan, Bhagwan Sri Ram's Academy, K.L. Mehta Dayanand, Gita Convent, Grand Columbus and Vidya Sanskar. Manav Rachna International School, Kendriya Vidyalaya's (total 3) are also located in Faridabad. D.A.V Centunary college, D.A.V.I.M, K L Mehta and Nehru college that offer graduate and undergraduate courses. Faridabad houses the reputed Lingaya's University ,MVN University and Manav Rachna International University that offer graduate and undergraduate courses, mainly in engineering and management.

Real Estate Sector[edit]
Faridabad has great potential for real estate development especially due its unique geographical location which provide easy access to all prominent places in NCR viz., South Delhi, Gurgaon, Noida and Greater Noida. Though real estate development is happening all over Faridabad but the area which has potential for development of world-class facilities is Greater Faridabad or Neharpar. The real estate sector in Greater Faridabad is booming and will be going to be very promising in future. Greater Faridabad is much more affordable and at the same time superior in several factors[18] The facilities being provided in the residential complexes are of international standards including lavish gardens, covered parking, podiums, sports and recreational facilities, health complexes, business centers, clubs, swimming pools to name a few. One of the main advantages of residential complexes in Greater Faridabad over Noida and Greater Noida is the nature of ownership. All residential complex in Greater Faridabad being in Haryana are Freehold, whereas those in Noida and Greater Noida being in UP are only leasehold which makes a big difference for the owners in the long run. Occupancy rate in residential complexes is constantly growing and in some such as Omaxe Heights in Sec. 86 it is more than 75 percent because of better facilities being offered by the builder.

Notable people[edit]
Sonu Nigam, prominent singer
Ajay Ratra, Former Indian cricketer
Himani Kapoor, singer (Sa Re Ga Ma Pa 2005 finalist)
Richa Sharma prominent singer
See also[edit]
Delhi
Palwal
Haryana
Gurgaon
Pinangwan
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Developed Smart Area At NCR - Gurgaon

Gurgaon (/ˈgʊrgaʊŋ/) is a financial and industrial city situated in the National Capital Region near the Indian capital New Delhi in the state of Haryana. Located 19.9 miles (32 km) south-west of New Delhi, Gurgaon has a population of 1,514,432. Witnessing rapid urbanization, Gurgaon has become the city with the third highest per capita income in India. Historically known as Guru Gram, the city's economic growth story started when the leading Indian automobile manufacturer Maruti Suzuki established a manufacturing plant in Gurgaon in the 1970s.Gurgaon has offices of more than 250 Fortune 500 companies.

Etymology
The origin of the city's name can be traced back to ancient Hindu scriptures. It is believed that this land was owned by the legendary rulers Pandavas and Kauravas, who presented it to Guru Dronacharaya, their royal guru as a token of gratitude. The land came to be known as Guru Gram, which literally translated means "Village of the Guru", which in due course of time got distorted to the name Gurgaon. The village still exists within the modern day city.

History
Gurgaon was historically inhabited by the Hindu people and in early times, it formed a part of an extensive kingdom ruled over by Rajputs of Yaduvansi or Jadaun tribe. The Rajputs were defeated by Muhammad of Ghor in 1196, but for two centuries they sturdily resisted the Muhammadian domination and they were subjected to punitive expedition. Under the rule of Feroz Shah Tughlaq, several were converted to Islam. This was followed by the invasion of Timur and the land was ruled by Khanzadas. It was then annexed by Babur.[6] During Akbar's reign, Gurgaon fell within the governing regions of Delhi and Agra. As the Mughal Empire started to decline, the place was torn between contending powers. By 1803 most of it came under the British rule through the treaty of Surji Arjungaon with Sindhia. The town was first occupied by the cavalry unit posted to watch the army of Begum Samru of Sirdhana. It became a part of the district, which was divided into units called parganas. These units were given to petty chiefs for the military service rendered by them. The units were governed by the rules that British kept on changing and eventually these units came under direct control of the British, with the last major change in 1836. Nothing much changed in Gurgaon until the Revolt of 1857. In 1858, it was transferred from the North-Western Provinces to Punjab Province. In 1861, the district, of which Gurgaon was a part of, was rearranged into five tehsils Gurgaon, Ferozepur Jhirka, Nuh, Palwal and Rewari[7] and the modern day city came under the control of Gurgaon teshil. In 1947, Gurgaon became a part of independent India and fell under the Indian state of Punjab. In 1966, the city came under the administration of Haryana with the creation of the new state.

Geography
Gurgaon is located in Gurgaon district in the Indian state of Haryana and is situated in the south eastern part of the state, and northern part of the country. The city is located on the border with Delhi with New Delhi to its north east. The city has a total area of 282.7 square miles (738.8 km²)

Topography
The average land elevation is 711.9 ft (217 m) above sea level

Climate
Under the Köppen climate classification, Gurgaon experiences a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Cwa).[10] The city experiences four distinct seasons - spring (February - March), summer (April - August), fall/autumn (September - October) and winter (November - January), along with the monsoon season setting in towards the later half of the summer. Summers, from early April to mid October, are typically very hot and humid, with an average daily June high temperature of 104 °F (40 °C). The season experiences heat indices easily breaking 110 °F (43 °C). Winters are very cold and foggy with few sunny days, and with a December daytime average of 37.4 °F (3 °C). The Western Disturbance brings some rain in winters that further adds to the chill. Spring and autumn are mild and pleasant seasons with low humidity. The monsoon season usually starts in the first week of July and continues till August. Thunderstorms are not uncommon during the Monsoon. The average annual rainfall is approximately 28.1 inches (714 mm).

Demographics
Gurgaon has an estimated population of 1,514,432[1] as per 2011 India census, of which 816,690 or 53.93% are males and 697,742 or 46.07% females. The population under the age of six is 202,602, with 110,705 males and 91,897 females. The number of literates are 1,111,116 with 638,666 males and 472,450 females. The effective literacy rate of population aged 7+ is 84.70% of which the male rate is 90.46% and the female rate 77.98%.

Architecture
Gurgaon has buildings in a wide range of styles and from distinct time period. Gurgaon's skyline is home to several tall buildings and has an estimated 1,100 residential skyscrapers.[11] The average cost of a 1,000 square feet two-bedroom apartment at a decent condominium in Gurgaon is at least $160,130 (₹10,000,000).[11] The poor urban planning and lack of urban infrastructure to cope with the rapid expansion of Gurgaon often results in traffic jams.

Neighborhoods
The initial settlements in Gurgaon started in the area east to National Highway 8, a part of which shows urban planning. Gurgaon is divided into 36 wards, with each ward further divided into blocks. The housing type in the city consists largely of attached housing, though a large number of attached multi-dwelling units, including apartments, condominiums and high rise residential towers are getting popular. The top five condominiums in the city, as rated by The Times of India, are: Aralias, Hamilton Court, The World Spa, Gurgaon One and Raheja Atlantis. Some inhabitants in the city live in slums in shanty houses lacking proper sanitation, safe water supply, electricity, hygienic streets, or other basic human necessities.

Parks
Gurgaon has a complex park system, with various lands operated by the Haryana Urban Development Authority. The key parks are the Leisure Valley Park in Sector 29, which is spread over 36 acres; Tau Devi Lal Biodiversity Botanical Garden in Sector 52; Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Park in Sector 14, popularly known as HUDA Garden; and Tau Devi Lal park in Sector 23. However, most of the parks in Gurgaon are small and ill-maintained.

Culture
Historically occupied by distinct ethnic groups and traditionally engaged in farming, Gurgaon has seen a change of culture over the years. The city now has significant migrant population from almost all parts of India, who come to work in the city and have enriched the local culture, adding a variety to arts, music, cuisine and festivals.

Entertainment and performing arts
Gurgaon is home to a few arts venues, both existing and proposed. Notable venues in the city include Epicentre in Sector 44, Nautanki Mehal at the Kingdom of Dreams near IFFCO Chowk and Shiamak Davar's Institute for the Performing Arts. Gurgaon has about 43 malls with multiplexes catering to cinema audience. Urusvati museum of Folklore in Shikhopur near Gurgaon and is also known for its Jain temples. Sultanpur Bird Sanctuary is a favorite spot of bird watchers during winter months.

Cuisine
The city's food culture includes a variety of cuisines with regional specialities. A large number of restaurants serve a range of items including traditional north Indian recipes, including dal makhani, shahi paneer and kebab. Samosa, golgappa, dahi bhalla, aloo tikki, bread pakora, pav bhaji and chaat are cheap fast-selling items here, that are sold by both unlicensed and licensed mobile food vendors, though the hygiene of the food is sometimes questionable. Burgers have managed to creep in as a cheap street fare. Popular food eaten for breakfast includes aloo paratha and chole bhature. Wheat, in the form of roti, and rice form an essential part of the food intake. Gurgaon also have eateries serving South Indian, Chinese and Nepalese momos. The city also houses global food chains like McDonald's, KFC, Pizza Hut, Domino's Pizza, Subway, Burger King, Starbucks and Costa Coffee frequented by people with significant disposable income. The city is also home to several fine dining restaurants and buffets.

Languages and dialect
The main language spoken in Gurgaon is Hindi, English and Haryanvi (with Rajasthani touch, the main language of native people). The dialect used in Hindi is similar to that of Delhi, and is considered neutral, though the regional influences from the states of Haryana, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Punjab adds an accent to the language. English is spoken with an Indian accent, with a primarily North Indian influence. Since Gurgaon has a large number of international call centres, the employees are usually given formal training in neutral pronunciation in order to be understandable to native English speakers. Haryanvi and Punjabi are another popular languages spoken in the city. The other regional languages include Mewati and Braj Bhasha.

Religion
Hinduism is a predominant religion among the city's population. Gurgaon also includes adherents of Sikhism, Islam, Buddhism, Jainism, Christianity and the Bahá'í, among others. There are several places of worship for major religions in Gurgaon, including Hindu temples, gurdwaras, Masjids and churches.

Sports
The city has two major sports stadiums: Tau Devi Lal Stadium in Sector 38, which has facilities for cricket, football, basketball and athletics as well as a sports hostel, and Nehru Stadium which is designed for football and athletics. Amity United FC is a tenant of Tau Devi Lal Stadium. Gurgaon district has a presence of nine golf courses, and is described as the "heart of India's golfing country"

Raahgiri
Gurgaon organizes a weekly event called Raahigiri day every Sunday morning. The event is an adaption of Ciclovia, an event originally developed in Bogotá, Colombia in 1976 where a segment of roads are closed for motor vehicles and are opened to people for walking, jogging, running, cycling, skating, and other leisure activities. This concept is adopted by several cities across the world. Launched in November 2013, Gurgaon became the first city in India to hold this event, followed by New Delhi.[18][19] The current police commissioner of Gurgaon, Navdeep Singh Virk has also shown his support for Raahgiri.

Economy
Gurgaon contributes to more than 50% service tax in the state of Haryana.Gurgaon has the third highest per capita income in India.Popularly known as Millennium City, Gurgaon has the presence of about 250 Fortune 500 companies due to its proximity to Delhi. Maruti Suzuki was the first company that set up a manufacturing unit in the city in 1970s making cars. Eventually, DLF Limited, a real estate company acquired vast stretches of land in the city. The first major American brand to set up a unit in Gurgaon was General Electric in 1997 and is regarded as the first foreign company in India that was established for outsourcing software work.[22] Gurgaon has emerged as one of the most important off shoring centers in the world,[22] providing outsourcing solutions in software, IT, service and sales through delivery facilities and call centers. Apart from Business process outsourcing and IT sectors, the city is home to several other companies that specialize in domain expertise. Various international companies including Coca-Cola, Pepsi, IBM, American Express, Agilent Technologies, Microsoft and Bank of America have chosen Gurgaon to be their Indian corporate headquarters. Retail is an important industry in Gurgaon, with the presence of 43 shopping malls. The major malls include Ambience Mall and Sahara Mall.

Administration
Gurgaon is administered by a Municipal corporation, where Mayor acts as the head of the city. In June 2011, Vimal Yadav became the first Mayor of Gurgaon Municipal Corporation. The police department in Gurgaon is headed by the Commissioner of Police - Gurgaon Police, which forms a part of the Haryana Police.and reports to the Hayrana state government. Navdeep Singh Virk, IPS is the Commissioner of Police in Gurgaon. Gurgaon Police has a separate traffic police department headquartered in sector 51.[26] Fire protection within the city limits is provided by Municipal Corporation of Gurgaon through four fire stations, located in sector 29, sector 37, Udyog Vihar and Bhim Nagar.

The city reported 89 homicides in 2012. The total vehicle thefts registered by the police in Gurgaon in 2014 was 3,638.[28] Gurgaon is experiencing high rates of robbery, drug abuse, violence against women and prostitution with several organized cartels and street gangs operating in the city.

Education
The city's public school system, managed by the Government of Haryana, is administered by Haryana Board of School Education. The city also has a large number of private schools, where education is often expensive. Schools like The Shri Ram School - Aravali, The Heritage School and DAV Public School are among the top 10 schools in the city, according to the 2013 Hindustan Times - C fore Top Schools Survey,

There are several universities and institutes located in Gurgaon and its nearby areas, that form a part of Gurgaon district including Ansal Institute of Technology, ITM University, GD Goenka University, KR Mangalam University, Amity University, Apeejay Stya University, BML Munjal University, Shree Guru Gobind Singh Tricentenary University and National Brain Research Centre. Gurgaon is also home to the premium b-school Management Development Institute. Naveen Rathee and Deepak Madan have set up NGO LIONS CLUB[32] for poor children.

Transportation
Highways
The major highway that links Gurgaon is National Highway 8 connecting Mumbai with New Delhi. The 27.7 km Delhi Gurgaon Expressway is six to eight lane expressway that connects Gurgaon to New Delhi.

Transit systems
Public transit
Public transit in Gurgaon is provided by Delhi Metro, government buses and Rapid Metro. Private buses, vans and auto rickshaws also ply in the city. There are ten metro stations in Gurgaon of which five - HUDA City Center, IFFCO Chowk, MG Road, Sikanderpur and Guru Droncharya are managed by Delhi Metro and six stations are operated by Rapid Metro: Sikanderpur, DLF Phase II, Belvedere Towers, Cyber City, Moulsari Avenue and DLF Phase III. On 21 June 2010, Yellow Line of Delhi Metro opened connecting HUDA City Center to Qutub Minar which was later connected to Central Secretariat on 3 September 2010. The first phase of Rapid Metro became operational in November 2013 and covers a distance of 3.3 mi.[34] Two more phases of the project are in the pipeline and would take the total number of stations in Gurgaon to 16. An estimated 33,000 people ride Rapid Metro everyday. Gurgaon lacks in public road transport with a limited number of public buses operated by Haryana Roadways and DTC.

Intercity rail
Operated by Indian Railways, the city has a rail station that forms a part of the larger Indian railways network, where trains connect Gurgaon to Delhi and other cities including Mumbai, Kolkata, Ahmedabad and Jaipur.

Intercity buses
Gurgaon bus terminal, managed by Haryana Roadways, is the primary bus station in the city that provides inter city bus connectivity, both private and government, to other cities in Haryana and neighboring states like Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Punjab and Chandigarh.

Airport
Gurgaon is served by Delhi's Indira Gandhi International Airport which is located just outside the city along National Highway 8 within the jurisdiction of Delhi. The airport is one of the busiest airports in India and provides domestic and international air connectivity.

Pedestrians and bicycles
The city lacks facilities for pedestrians with almost no proper sidewalks. There are no proper routes for bicycles, though a large part of the population in the city use bicycles for commuting. With no designated bicycle lanes in Gurgaon, riding a bicycle could be dangerous due to uncontrolled driving of cars and lack of infrastructure.The number of bicycles in Gurgaon is 76,984, as compared to 83,757 cars and 98,983 motorcycles and scooters.

Services
Utilities
Electricity in Gurgaon is provided by government owned Dakshin Haryana Bijli Vitran Nigam. Gurgaon has power consumer base of 360,000 with average power load of 700-800 MW. There are frequent power outages in the city, especially during the peak consumption season of summer. Apart from the power deficit, the equipment used by the power department like transformers, panels and transmission lines is either old or overburdened. Power fluctuations are not uncommon in Gurgaon. Several areas in the city face shortage of water supply.

Healthcare
Gurgaon has many hospitals and a number of medical research facilities within its city limits. Leading health care provider institutes include Fortis Hospital, Medanta and Max Hospital. Gurgaon has become a popular destination for medical tourism.

Telecommunications
For cellular voice module, most of the mobile network operators in Gurgaon use GSM technology, though a few carriers employ the CDMA platform. The mobile data service is offered through GPRS, CDMA, EDGE, UMTS/HSPA, WiMAX and LTE. Nine mobile phone service providers operate in Gurgaon - Airtel, Vodafone, Idea, Reliance, Tata Indicom, Aircel, MTS, Virgin Mobile and BSNL. All these carriers offer voice and data service in pay-as-you-go (prepaid) and on a monthly rental with plan (post paid) basis. Other dedicated Wireless Internet service providers operating in Gurgaon are Tikona, You Broadband and Nextra and Touch Net. Fixed line phone service in Gurgaon is provided by Airtel, Reliance, Tata Walky and BSNL, providing both voice and broadband services.
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New develop area in NCR NOIDA EXTENSION

Greater Noida is a census town with a population of 100,000 in the Gautam Budh Nagar district of the northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It comes under the purview of the National Capital Region (NCR) of India. Greater Noida is 48 km and one hour from New Delhi.

Rama Raman is its present Chairman and Chief Executive Officer. Metro connectivity from New Delhi to Greater Noida is on top priority as per statement of Rama Raman. Looking into the dire need of improving the transport system of the city, the work will be started by May 2014

Country India
State Uttar Pradesh District Gautam Budh Nagar
Established 1991 Government
 • Chairman & CEO Rama Raman
 • Planning agency Greater Noida Industrial Development Authority
Population (2011)
 • Total 107,676[1]
Demonym GreaterNoidaWala
Languages
 • Official Hindi, English
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 201308
Telephone code 0120
Vehicle registration UP-16
Nearest city Noida
Literacy 87%
Lok Sabha Constituency Gautam Buddh Nagar
Airport Taj International Airport
Highways Noida-Greater Noida Expressway and Yamuna Expressway
Sports Buddh International Circuit Jaypee Sports City, Jaypee Sports Complex & Greater Noida Cricket Stadium
Golf Course Jaypee Greens Golf
Website www.greaternoida.com

New developments
Greater Noida was a part of Noida; during the 1990s the Noida extension (now a part of Gautam Buddh Nagar) became what is today known as Greater Noida. Greater Noida has left Gurgaon behind in growth when it comes to absorption or sale of residential units and project launches.

Development is managed by the Greater Noida Industrial Development Authority (GNIDA).[7] Greater Noida is connected to Agra by the six-lane Yamuna Expressway. The annual Indian Grand Prix is held at the Buddh International Circuit which has helped putting the city firmly on the global map.

Greater Noida Cricket Stadium is an under-construction cricket stadium in Greater Noida, India. It is being built along with the Buddh International Circuit.

Greater Noida West

Greater Noida West previously knows as Noida extension is a part of Greater Noida, in Gautam Budh Nagar district of Uttar Pradesh and consists of 16 villages.All sectors under Noida Extension (Sector 1 to 4) are very much a part of the Greater Noida Industrial Development Authority (GNIDA).
As of late 2012, plans are being formed to rename it to Greater Noida (West).This area was primarily envisioned to provide planned housing for about a million middle and upper middle class citizens in the NCR region.

It is planned to have excellent connectivity to the other parts of the region using Metro, road and rail[citation needed]. Systematic infrastructure developments and vision to create residential and commercial spaces in the same region fueled its realty and commercial growth. Planned IT parks and industries in this area along with innumerable housing projects are important avenues for providing employment in this region. This area, however, is touched by land acquisition issues. Approval of the development master plan by NCR planning board has paved the way for rapid infrastructure, social and cultural development in this area. GNIDA declared its plans to extend the Noida City Centre line to Noida Extension with DMRC and further to Boraki in a PPP model to fuel the growth prospects in this area. Noida Extension has re-established itself as an excellently connected, planned yet affordable housing destination for urban dwellers in the NCR region. 16 villages in Noida Extension are Shahberi, Devia, Patwari, Ghanghola, Bisrakh, Roza-Yakoobpur, Haibatpur, Itaidha, Patwari, Noida, Aminabad, Khairpur, Asadallapur and Chipyana Buzurg.[11]

History
In the early 1980s the government of India realized that the rapid rate at which Delhi was expanding would result in chaos, so they planned to develop residential and industrial areas around the capital to reduce the demographic burden. Before Greater Noida, there were two areas that had been developed—Gurgaon, across the border from Haryana, and Noida, across the border with Uttar Pradesh.

Ravana
Bisrakh, UttarPradesh the birthplace of Demon king Ravana
Noida's infrastructure was carefully laid out, but the 1990s saw huge growth in the Indian economy. Migration to cities like Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, and Bangalore exceeded planning estimates. Noida was developed to accommodate population growth for 20–25 years. The massive population influx to Delhi, however, caused it to overload in a mere 15 years, although infill is not complete and illegal mining remains a problem.


Shaheed Bismil Park, Sector-Beta 1 in Greater Noida
The government of Uttar Pradesh decided to develop another city as an extension to Noida with better planning. The idea was to create a world-class city. It was planned to be approximately 25 km from Noida. A railway station near Boraki and an international airport were included later in the plan intending to develop Greater Noida as an independent city; the airport was scrapped in early 2012.

Greater Noida is a planned township. Roads are wide with service lanes for every major road. The sectors are named by letters of the Greek alphabet. All cabling and utilities are run underground. Alpha, Beta, and Gamma are the oldest sectors. The other sectors are named "Mu", "Omicron" and other Greek letter names. The present GNIDA office is in Gamma II sector just opposite the historical village Rampur Jagir/Jahangir where the great revolutionary Pandit Ram Prasad Bismil lived in 1919 when he was hidden underground after the Mainpuri conspiracy. A park has been named "Amar Shaheed Pt. Ram Prasad Bismil Udyan" by the Uttar Pradesh Government.

Demographics
As per provisional data of the 2011 census, Greater Noida had a population of 107,676, with 58,662 males and 49,014 females. The literacy rate was 86.5%.[18] The demographics of Greater Noida mainly consists of students, corporate employees, and labourers. Students are often temporary residents from other parts of India and abroad.

Climate
Greater Noida has a hot and humid climate for most of the year. The city climate becomes very hot during June which is followed by monsoon, the direction of which is unpredictable, happening after September. The Greater Noida monsoon has never been as bad as that experienced in other parts of India, such as Mumbai. Foggy and chilly winter weather lasts from November to February.

According to the Bureau of Indian Standards, the town falls under seismic zone-III, on a scale of I to V (in order of increasing proneness to earthquakes) while the wind and cyclone zoning is a "very high damage risk", according to the UNDP report. Greater Noida has Tropical Savanna Climate with three main seasons: summer, monsoon and winter. Aside from monsoon weather, it mainly remains dry.

Summer
In summer, i.e. from March to June, the weather remains hot and temperature ranges from a maximum of 45 °C (i.e. 113 °F) to a minimum of 23 °C (73 °F).

Monsoon
Monsoon season prevails during mid-June to mid-September with an average rainfall of 93.2 cm (36.7 inches).

Winter
The cold waves from the Himalayan region makes the winters in Greater Noida very chilly. Temperatures fall substantially down to as low as 3 to 4 °C at the peak of winter. Winters in Delhi get really chilly with bonfires all round the streets of Noida to beat the cold waves. Greater Noida is not immune to the problems of fog and smog. In January, a dense fog envelopes the city, reducing visibility on the streets.

Sports
Sports City
Located on Yamuna Expressway, Jaypee Sports City is a planned city aimed for sports, complete with various sports venues like an international standard cricket stadium, a hockey stadium and even an international Formula 1 racing circuit.

Buddh International Circuit
On 30 October 2011, Greater Noida hosted the inaugural Formula One Indian Grand Prix at the Buddh International Circuit constructed by Jaypee Group. It was the seventeenth round of the 2011 Formula One season, and the first Formula One Grand Prix to take place on the Indian subcontinent and even the circuit is the first of its kind in South Asia. The second Formula One Airtel Indian Grand Prix, held on 28 October 2012, was won by Red Bull Racing Driver Sebastian Vettel, his second consecutive win in India. The third Formula One Airtel Indian Grand Prix, held on 27 October 2013, was won by Red Bull Driver Sebastian Vettel, his third consecutive win in India.

Cricket
Greater Noida Cricket Stadium is under construction. It will seat 40,000 spectators initially, but will gradually be increased to 100,000. Cricket Stadium will be given a face lift similar to Lord's Cricket Ground. The stadium is scheduled to be ready in 2014. It will conform to norms and specifications prescribed by the ICC with associated amenities like media and corporate boxes, medical facilities, merchandise stores, a food court, an information kiosk and many others.

Golf
Jaypee Greens Golf Course, an 18-hole, par-72 course designed by Greg Norman, is situated in Greater Noida.[40] The course opened in June 2000 and received a "Tourism Friendly Golf Course" award from India's Ministry of Tourism in 2011.

Hockey
There will also be a hockey stadium which is under construction and has a sports training academy and infrastructure for other sports.

Commonwealth Games
The Time Trial cycling event for 2010 Commonwealth Games was held at Noida–Greater Noida Expressway.

India Expo Mart
Auto Expo-2014
The 12th Auto Expo 2014 (The Motor Show) was held at India Expo Mart, Greater Noida, Delhi-NCR from 7 to 11 February 2014, with press preview days on 5 and 6 February.
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National Capital Region (India) राष्ट्रीय राजधानी क्षेत्र (भारत)
The National Capital Region (NCR) in India is the designation for the conurbation or metropolitan area which encompasses the entire National Capital Territory of Delhi, which includes New Delhi, as well as urban areas surrounding it in neighboring states of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan.

NCR is India's largest and one of the world's largest agglomeration with a population of over 47,000,000 at the 2011 Census. All the areas of NCR together generated GDP of $128.9 billion in 2011-12, which was 7.5 percent of Indian GDP.

Government
 • Regional authority National Capital Region Planning Board
Area[1]
 • Total 51,109 km2 (19,733 sq mi) Population
 • Total 46,049,032
 • Density 900/km2 (2,300/sq mi) Website ncrpb.nic.in

History
In 1985, with enactment of the National Capital Region Planning Board Act, 1985 of Government of India, NCR Planning Board (NCRPB) was constituted. The aim of the concept was to develop a metropolitan area around Delhi, so as to divert increasing pressure of population from the region. The concept was essential in order to protect Delhi's infrastructure from excessive pressure and a planned development of the region.

In July 2013, NCR was expanded to include three more districts, Bhiwani, and Mahendragarh in the state of Haryana, as well as Bharatpur in the state of Rajasthan. This brought the number of districts in NCR to 19, with the total NCR area increasing 34% to 45,887 km2.[5]

Before July 2013, National Capital Region (NCR) had a total area of 34,144 km2 spanning over 15 districts in the states of Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, and Rajasthan, together with the National Capital Territory of Delhi, with the Nation Capital as its core. After the addition of three more districts (Bhiwani, Mahendragarh and Bharatpur) - NCR expanded to 18 districts having a total area of 46,208 km2. On 9 June 2015, Government of India approved the inclusion of three more districts in NCR - Jind and Karnal in the state of Haryana and Muzaffarnagar in U.P.[6] There are now a total of 23 districts (plus Delhi NCT) within NCR,[7][8][9] covering a total area of 51,109 km2.

The four constituent Sub-Regions of NCR are as follows:[2]

1. The Haryana Sub-Region comprises thirteen districts: Faridabad, Gurgaon, Mewat, Rohtak, Sonepat, Rewari, Jhajjar, Panipat, Palwal, Mahendragarh (Narnaul), Bhiwani, Jind and Karnal.

2. The Uttar Pradesh Sub-Region comprises seven districts: Meerut, Ghaziabad, Bulandshahr, Gautam Budh Nagar, Baghpat, Hapur and Muzaffarnagar.

3. The Rajasthan Sub-Region comprises two districts: Alwar & Bharatpur.

4. Delhi, which constitutes about 2.9% of the land area of the Region.

Uttar Pradesh is pushing to have the districts of Aligarh, Mathura and Agra included in the NCR.

A total of 20 districts in three neighbouring states of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan along with whole of the National Capital Territory of Delhi constitute the National Capital Region (NCR) of India as defined in National Capital Region Planning Board (NCRPB) Act, 1985.The areas and populations of these component districts are set out below

District State Area (km2) Population
Census 2001 Population
Census 2011 Capital
Delhi
Sub-region (NCT) 1,483 13,850,507 16,787,941
Delhi Delhi 1,483 13,850,507 16,787,941 Delhi
Uttar Pradesh
Sub-region Uttar Pradesh 10,853 11,567,090 14,575,668
Ghaziabad Uttar Pradesh 1,179 3,290,586 4,681,645 Ghaziabad
Gautam Budh Nagar Uttar Pradesh 1,282 1,202,030 1,648,115 Greater Noida
Bulandshahr Uttar Pradesh 4,441 222,826 323,629 Bulandshahr
Meerut Uttar Pradesh 2,559 2,997,361 3,443,689 Meerut
Baghpat Uttar Pradesh 1,321 1,163,991 1,303,048 Baghpat
Hapur Uttar Pradesh -- 1,138,562 1,328,322 Hapur
Muzaffarnagar Uttar Pradesh 3,008 4,367,321 2,861,354 Muzaffarnagar
Haryana
Sub-region Haryana 25,327 13,388,603 16,427,524
Faridabad Haryana 741 1,365,465 1,809,733 Faridabad
Gurgaon Haryana 1,258 870,539 1,514,432 Gurgaon
Mewat Haryana 1,507 789,750 1,089,263 Nuh
Rohtak Haryana 1,745 940,128 1,061,204 Rohtak
Sonipat Haryana 2,122 1,279,175 1,450,001 Sonipat
Rewari Haryana 1,594 765,351 900,332 Rewari
Jhajjar Haryana 1,834 880,072 958,405 Jhajjar
Panipat Haryana 1,268 967,449 1,205,437 Panipat
Palwal Haryana 1,359 829,121 1,042,708 Palwal
Mahendragarh Haryana 1,899 812,521 922,088 Narnaul
Bhiwani Haryana 4,778 1,425,022 1,634,445 Bhiwani
Jind Haryana 2,702 1,189,827 1,334,152 Jind
Karnal Haryana 2,702 1,274,183 1,200,000 Karnal
Rajasthan
Sub-region Rajasthan 13,446 5,093,734 6,222,641
Bharatpur Rajasthan 5,066 2,101,142 2,548,462 Bharatpur
Alwar Rajasthan 8,380 2,992,592 3,674,179 Alwar

Aims and Objectives
NCRPB prepares regional plan, which aims to promote growth and balanced development of the whole region through providing economic base in the identified major settlements (Metro Centres/Regional Centres) for absorbing economic development impulse of Delhi, efficient transport network, development of physical infrastructure, rational land use pattern, improved environment and quality of life, and discipline.[citation needed]

About 46% of the National Capital Region (NCR)home to 40-50 lakh (i.e., 4 to 5 million) people-is not connected to sewerage networks. Sewage from these areas flows into stormwater drains that empty directly into the Yamuna.

Till now, NCRPB has formulated Regional Plan-2001 and 2021.

Zones of NCR
NCT-Delhi
The basic policy for NCT-Delhi is to achieve environmentally sustainable development and redevelopment taking into account the limitation of developable land and water. No new major economic activities i.e., industries, wholesale trade and commerce, which may result in a large scale job creation both in formal as well as informal sectors, should be located in this zone. Only activities necessary to sustain the local population of NCT-Delhi should be permitted.

Central National Capital Region (CNCR) excluding NCT-Delhi
Considering that the controlled/development/regulated Central NCR towns have been extended/modified, the modified CNCR would comprise the notified controlled/development/regulated areas of contiguous towns of Gurgaon-Manesar, Alwar-Bhiwadi, Faridabad-Ballabgarh, Ghaziabad-Loni, Baghpat, Baraut India|Loni, Noida, Greater Noida, Bahadurgarh, Sonepat-Kundli Charkhi Dadri, Bhiwani, Narnaul and the extension of the Ridge in Haryana.

The opportunities presented by CNCR need to be maximized to enable it to effectively reinforce/support NCT-Delhi by offering jobs, economic activities, comprehensive transport system, housing, social infrastructure and quality of environment, which are at par with the National Capital. Major economic and non-polluting activities intended to be located in NCT-Delhi should be located in the urbanisable areas planned in this zone and, where appropriate and necessary, in the rest of NCR.

Highway Corridor Zone
A Highway Corridor Zone is proposed with a minimum width of 500 metres inclusive of green buffer on either side of the right-of-way (ROW) along the National Highway (NH) 1, 2, 8, 10, 24, 58 and 91 converging at Delhi to enable the planned and regulated development along the stretches of these highways that are outside the controlled/development/regulated areas. In addition to the above, the Highway Corridor Zones along the NH 71, 71A, 71B, 119, 93, 235, 11A and Expressways have been proposed.

Educational Institutions
University
Raffles University Sharda University, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal,[14] Shiv Nadar University, Gautam Buddha University, Maharishi Dayanand University, Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University of Science and Technology, Murthal, Sonipat,[15] O P Jindal Global university, Sonipat,[16] Bhagat Phool Singh Mahila Vishwavidyalaya, Sonipat,[17] Amity University, Ansal University, SRM University, ITM University, BML Munjal University, Delhi University, MVN University, Indraprastha University and Monad University

Government Engineering College
Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Delhi Technological University, Gautam Buddha University School of Engineering, Government Engineering College Bharatpur

Private Engineering College
JSS Academy of Technical Education, Modinagar Institute of Technology, Meerut Institute of Engineering and Technology, Krishna Institute of Engineering and Technology, Institute of Management and Research, Babu Banarsi Das Institute of Engineering Technology & Research Centre, Inderprastha Engineering College, Doon Valley Institute of Technology, R. P. Inderaprastha Institute of Technology, Karnal, MSIET (Maa Saraswati Institute of Engineering and Technology), Jaypee Institute of Information Technology

Management
Indian Institute of Management Rohtak, DAV Institute of Management, Management Development Institute, Faculty of Management Studies, Gautam Buddha University School of Management, Indian Institute of Foreign Trade, IMT Ghaziabad, New Delhi Institute of Management, IILM Gurgaon Raffles University, Neemrana

Counter magnets
Counter-magnet towns are identified as those that can be developed as alternative centres of growth and attract migrants to them rather than Delhi. Promoting growth of counter magnet towns are the principal components of the strategy to reduce both migration and population explosion in the Delhi metropolitan area.

These towns are located in six states-Uttarakhand, Madhya Pradesh and Punjab, in addition to Uttar Pradesh, Haryana and Rajasthan, which are already part of the national capital region.

The criteria for selecting counter magnet towns are: that they should not be within approximately 250 kilometres from Delhi, should have their own established roots and potential of growth and should not be centres of either religious, strategic or environmental importance.

These are:

Haryana state - Hisar, 160 km, Ambala, 200 km, Karnal (now in NCR), 125 km
Madhya Pradesh state - Gwalior, 320 km 
Punjab state - Patiala, 230 km
Rajasthan state - Jaipur, 260 km, Kota, 525 km
Uttar Pradesh state - Bareily, 250 km, Kanpur, 260 km, Moradabad, 160 km
Uttarakhand - Dehradun, 240 km

Budget housing options in Delhi/NCR
A lot of places in Delhi might be selling exorbitantly at Rs 10,000 – 35,000/ sq. ft. but the adjoining areas such as Ghaziabad on Delhi’s North, Noida on its East, Faridabad on its South and Bhiwadi, Dharuheda and Neemrana further down Gurgaon on Delhi’s South-western periphery offer housing options within Rs. 30 lakh. Improving infrastructure and connectivity has made these areas closer, accessible and high on ROI index too. Some of these places have yielded profits as high as 55% in just two years as per 99acres.com data. Let’s look at these places closely.
 


Budget housing options in Delhi/NCR
Finding a decent 2bhk in a habitable location within the modest budget of Rs. 30 lakh might seem unlikely in Delhi, but a lot of newly developed places like Noida Extension (now known as Greater Noida West), Bhiwadi and Dharuheda near Gurgaon and Yamuna Expressway has plenty of such options. The projects that offer flats in such budget might be in their soft launch stage but that gives the buyers ample time to arrange for finances because of the attractive construction linked plans attached to these projects. If you are looking for developed localities and ready-to-move-in projects, then Ghaziabad and Faridabad have lots on the platter. Crossing Republik, Raj Nagar and Raj Nagar Extension in Ghaziabad has 1bhks (measuring around 600 sq. ft.) and 2bhks (measuring around 1000 sq. ft.) for Rs. 20 - 30 lakh. You can find similar deals in Nehar Par, BPTP, Sector 85 and Sector 87 in Faridabad. Gurgaon’s peripheral areas including Bhiwadi, Dharuheda and Manesar are also becoming preferred choices for affordable housing for those working in Gurgaon.

Affordable localities in Noida

Though from being an affordable housing destination, Noida has slowly transformed into a hub of luxury and high-end projects, there are still some localities here that offer residential flats within Rs. 30 lakh.

One of the most popular choices in Noida is Noida Extension, an extension of Greater Noida in Gautam Budh Nagar District of Uttar Pradesh. Now known as Greater Noida West, it is well connected to Noida, Greater Noida and Gaziabad and offers direct connectivity to NH-24. It has thousands of units available for Rs. 3,050 - 3,350/ sq. ft. The area has witnessed a capital appreciation of around 25% during the last two years. The proposed metro line from the existing City Centre to Noida Extension will further improve the area’s connectivity. There are few places in Noida that offer projects for the mid-income category and Noida Extension has emerged as one such rare abode offering affordability, connectivity with all modern amenities.
 

Apart from Noida Extension, Sector 151 and Sector 150 also have builder flats in the price category of Rs. 3,200 - 3,250/ sq.ft. and Rs. 3,950 - 4,500/ sq.ft. respectively. The sectors have witnessed a capital appreciation of almost 40% during the last two years owing to the advent of MNCs in the adjoining sectors.
 
Affordable localities in Greater Noida

Most of the sectors in Greater Noida are offering flats within the price bracket of Rs. 3000 and 4000/ sq. ft. But sadly, the area has not seen significant growth over the past few years. A lot of sectors in Greater Noida have in fact either witnessed price stagnation or even a dip in the property prices due to the deteriorating law and order situation in the area, distance from Noida and Delhi, farmer agitation over land acquisitions and over-supply of projects. Hence a lot of inventory remains unsold in the area.
 

For those who want to book a flat here for future use (10-12 years from now) can invest in areas that will fall on route of the proposed metro between Noida and Greater Noida. The proposed metro will start from Noida City Centre and will enter Greater Noida through Knowledge Park-II and traverse Pari Chowk, Sector-Alpha 1 and 2, before terminating at Depot station proposed near recreational green, Knowledge Park-IV in Greater Noida.
 

Yamuna Expressway in Greater Noida needs a special mentioning since the area has attracted a lot of private developers who have come up with residential projects in the area. With availability of huge land parcels here, the stretch is all set to act as the next node for large-scale developments such as integrated townships and logistics and warehousing hubs. Real estate experts, however, caution those who are looking for short term gains from the area as it would take another 5-7 years for the area to get inhabited.

Affordable localities in Faridabad

If you want to earn a handsome return on a long term investment, which costs you not more than Rs 25 – 30 lakh, Faridabad is where you should focus. One can get good options here for Rs. 3200 – Rs 4500/ sq. ft. because the city is in the middle of development and areas near NH2 are in demand. Although metro has connected Faridabad with Delhi, the city has not yet witnessed a hike in prices like Noida and Ghaziabad. For good return on investment, sectors adjacent to main Faridabad are the ones to look out for since they are experiencing major infrastructure development.
 

Areas such as sectors - 77, 80, 87 and Neharpar are emerging as preferred destinations for both home buyers and investors for these have both residential and commercial properties. Prominent developers such as Ansal, Omaxe, Pal Infrastructure, BPTP, Triveni, RPS etc are developing projects here with amenities at par with projects in Noida and Ghaziabad. The fact that the new master plan for Faridabad also includes areas such as Neharpar and other developing sectors (70 to 91), the realty scenario in these sectors has boomed drastically.
 

A lot of sectors including Sector 70, 77, 78, 87 and Neharpar have seen capital appreciation above 40% in just two years. Real Estate experts maintain that the positive trend is here to stay owing to the HUDA also taking various initiatives to improve connectivity and infrastructure such as widening of existing bypass at sector 37 in Faridabad.
 
Affordable localities in Ghaziabad

Ghaziabad, the gateway of UP, has emerged as a favored destination for the mid-segment home buyers looking for 2bhks within Rs. 25 – 30 lakh. The widening of the present eight-laned NH-24 to 14 lanes is expected to further boost the property values in the city.
 

Not only are the popular areas like Kaushambi, Vaishali and Indirapuram doing well on the ROI index, non-prime regions like Raj Nagar, Raj Nagar Extension and Crossing Republik have also fared well in terms of yielding profits. These areas are densely populated with a lot of local as well as known builders coming up with residential projects and townships. The major issues that these localities are grappling with are lack of good infrastructure and connectivity to other regions of NCR. Once these issues get resolved, these non-prime regions will see further growth.
 

However, it is wise to book a property in Ghaziabad's non-prime areas before property prices flare up like that in Noida. One can get a 1bhk here for Rs. 15-20 lakh, a 2bhk for Rs. 20-30 lakh and a 3bhk between Rs. 30 and 40 lakh depending on the area, project and location. It is notable that both Crossing Republik and Raj Nagar Extension have witnessed a growth of 55% in just two years. It is expected that with better connectivity and improving infrastructure, these areaa will become at par with sectors in Noida.

Affordable localities in Gurgaon

The property prices in Gurgaon have become out of reach for home aspirants and those with limited budget for investment. Thus, buyers have started exploring places close to Gurgaon. Bhiwadi in Rajasthan and Dharuheda and Manesar in Haryana serve as budget housing destinations for lower and mid-income segment.
 

In Bhiwadi, major construction is going on the main Alwar bypass and Bhiwadi Alwar road. The most sought after location in this satellite township is the Alwar bypass road. It is notable that Bhiwadi has witnessed a capital appreciation of 25% in the last two years with property rates here having risen from Rs. 2000/ sq. ft. to Rs 2500/ sq. ft.
 

Manesar is one of the fastest growing industrial towns in the country and its proximity to Delhi, Gurgaon and commercial hubs like Mumbai, Jaipur, Rewari and Ahmedabad has added to its strategic value. The area offers flats within the price bracket of Rs. 3,800 - 4,100/ sq.ft. and has seen a growth of over 11% in the last two years. Since it takes less than half hour for one to reach IFFCO Chowk, Gurgaon from Manesar, a lot of working class people prefer taking apartments on rent in Manesar for it has far lower rental as well as capital values than Gurgaon.
 

Dharuheda, lies at a distance of just 30 km from Gurgaon and owing to its proximity to the Delhi-Mumbai industrial corridor, the satellite city is witnessing a flurry of industrial and residential activity and has yielded 30% return on investment in the last two years. Currently, flats in Dharuheda are selling at Rs. 2,600 - 3,050/sq.ft.

The localities mentioned above have emerged as affordable real estate destinations in NCR over the past few years. Residential demand has predominantly been from local end-users or investors from Delhi, seeking affordable options. These areaa benefit from their respective strategic locations, industrial development/employment generation opportunities and good connectivity from Delhi. Thus, property prices have witnessed an upward movement of approximately 15-55% Y-o-Y over the past two calendar years. Residential units available in these belts are priced in the average range of Rs. 3000 – 4000/ sq. ft. So, if you don’t have pockets deep enough to book your dream home in Delhi, go for these budget housing locations.

Delhi Insite Report Oct-Dec 2014

City Highlights -

With healthy appreciation in housing prices in most residential pockets, the realty atmosphere in Delhi NCR seems to be improving. Micro-markets of Greater Noida, Bhiwadi and Dharuhera have recovered from last quarter’s dip and so have most localities in Delhi. This growth is seen as a result of key policy announcements and stability of new governance at the Center.

Surajpur in Greater Noida topped the ROI charts for Delhi NCR in Oct-Dec 2014 with 20 per cent increase in the capital value of residential apartments. This was followed by Sector 31 in Gurgaon and Mayur Vihar III in East Delhi with an appreciation of 18 per cent each. Some other localities in Gurgaon that fared high on the ROI chart include Sushant Lok Phase-I (16 per cent), Sector-68 and 59 that rose by 15 per cent each and Sohna that rose by 13 per cent.

Interestingly, in Delhi, a lot of localities recovered from last quarter’s dip and showed good growth. Some of them include Paschim Vihar, Chattarpur, Vasant Kunj, Uttam Nagar, Rohini and Greater Kailash. Despite being secondary markets, these localities revived due to better investor sentiment in Oct-Dec 2014 in comparison to the last quarter.
For Ghaziabad where even the popular trans-hindon localities saw a fall in property prices last quarter, this quarter was rewarding. While both Kaushambi and Vasundhara witnessed seven per cent capital appreciation, housing prices in Vaishali and Indirapuram jumped up by five and four per cent respectively. The presence of growth drivers such as metro and proximity to NH 24 and Anand Vihar ISBT can be attributed to the popularity of these localities among both end users as well as investors.
The two national highways crossing Ghaziabad, NH 24 and NH-58 witnessed a jump of almost seven and nine per cent respectively in the prices of residential apartments mainly due to key policy announcements including widening of NH-24 and affordable housing options on NH-58.
Sector 131 emerged as the front-runner in Noida with 12 per cent growth in capital values. Apart from this, most sectors falling along Noida-Greater Noida Expressway also gained this quarter majorly owing to their location and the infra developments happening around.
For Greater Noida, the realty market has started moving now with most localities giving healthy returns. Apart from Surajpur, which performed the best in the entire Delhi NCR region, Sector 16, Sector Omicron, ZETA, Chi and Chi-Pi also saw good hikes in the prices of residential apartments. Cost efficiency, affordability and improving connectivity are seen as the growth stimulators here.
Bhiwadi which suffered due to the overall slump in Delhi NCR last quarter, grew by 5 per cent in Oct-Dec 2014. The sub-city along with Dharuhera are growing as economical investment zones.
The supply equation in Delhi remained unchanged with builder floors being the most supplied property type followed by society apartments in Oct-Dec 2014. Within builder floors, ready to move in 3BHK emerged as the most supplied unit. For all other pockets in Delhi NCR, the number of under-construction society apartments were higher than all other property types.
“Sense of steady economic improvement seemed to have helped Delhi NCR realty market recover from the 2-year long slump.”

Residential Land Analysis

Top performers of land in delhiScanty land parcels in Delhi have opened doors for micro-markets in NCR that are becoming favored choices for investing in residential land. As a result, while Tronica City and Govind Puram in Ghaziabad are among the top gainers; otherwise popular areas of South Delhi – Chattarpur and Vasant Kunj saw drops in the prices of residential land in Oct-Dec 2014 as against the last quarter.
Tronica City in Ghaziabad has a total of 12 residential and eight industrial sectors. The UP government has allotted 2400 acres land for plotted development and is going to allot 1200 acres of additional land in the near future. The policy on freehold conversion of these plots and easy sale, purchase and transfer of land here by the State government has made it earn a profit of 35 per cent this quarter.
top non performers of landGovind Puram in Ghaziabad also ranked as one of the top gainers in residential land category this quarter with a 15 per cent capital appreciation. Located on Hapur Road, the locality enjoys good connectivity with Noida, East Delhi and Ghaziabad through NH-24 and NH-58. It caters to the housing needs of those with limited budgets and offers a mix of society flats, builder floors, independent houses and plots. Demand from mid-income housing category and those working in the industrial zones nearby including Kavi Nagar, Buland Shaher and Meerut road keep the realty market buzzing.
">Other localities that witnessed price appreciation include Sector 41-Noida, Sector 31-Gurgaon and Sector 50-Gurgaon. Price appreciation in these localities is attributable to increase in ‘ask’ prices by sellers, as well as good connectivity to adjoining localities.
Land prices in Yamuna Expressway (also known as Taj Expressway) however fell down by 18 per cent majorly owing to the new Land Acquisition Act by Yamuna Expressway Industrial Development Authority’s (YEIDA) announced in July this year. The authority had allotted the residential plots scheme in 2009-10 but failed to hand over possession of these plots to allottees due to mass farmer protest. As per the new Act, if a farmer denies to accept compensation for his land, government will have to re-acquire the same land implementing 2013 Act. This has marred land rates in the area. Weak investor sentiments in case of residential land can be attributed to price depreciation in most localities including Najafgarh and Badarpur.
 “Availability of land parcels at economical rates and new policy on freehold plots has benefited Tronica City and Govind Puram in Ghaziabad.”

DELHI NCR > North, East, West, South and Dwarka

North, East, West, South and Dwarka mapMayur Vihar Phase III has been the frontrunner in Delhi with an 18 per cent rise in the prices of residential apartments. The locality is situated close to Noida border and mostly consists of DDA society apartments. It has been climbing the growth ladder for the last one year majorly owing to sound infrastructure and competitive property prices than its adjoining phases – Mayur Vihar I and II.
The newly emerging locality Aaya Nagar in South Delhi continues to see an upward movement in the prices of both builder/society flats and individual houses. This quarter, it earned an appreciation of three per cent. Having a metro station of its own–Arjan Garh has made it sit high on location attractiveness index. In addition to this, the area is witnessing a lot of civic reforms in terms of better service roads and drainage management.
Prices of residential property in Chattarpur also jumped by nine per cent in Oct-Dec 2014. The area is one of the prime residential regions in South Delhi that witnesses great demand for high-income housing. Apart from this, Greater Kaislash II and Vasant Kunj in South Delhi also grew up on the ROI scale with eight and seven per cent capital appreciation respectively. Real estate experts feel that these areas will continue to see uptrend in prices because of inflating construction costs and circle rates.
In North-West Delhi, Janakpuri, Paschim Vihar and Rohini fared among the top contributors with 11, nine and four per cent hike in property prices in the last quarter. While Janakpuri and Paschim Vihar are largely secondary markets with more supply for ready to move in and re-sale inventory; some sectors in Rohini are newly developed and seeing construction of a lot of builder floors. Most sectors in Rohini, especially Rohini sector 13, where prices have jumped by nine per cent in the last quarter, have an edge over most other localities in Delhi in terms of price competitiveness. Connectivity via metro is an added advantage too for these sectors.
Most localities in East Delhi are facing tough competition from Ghaziabad where property is available at economical rates and infrastructure is continuously improving. As a result, IP Extension and Patparganj – two of the most popular residential localities here saw falls in property prices.
Most sectors in the Dwarka sub-city fared among the top non-performing localities for Oct-Dec 2014. Previously inflated prices, price corrections and low sales volumes have led to a 16, nine and seven per cent fall in the property prices in Sector 16, 18 and 17 respectively in Dwarka. The presence of metro, wide roads and sound social infrastructure has not been able to pull up property prices.
Rental Analysis

The rental markets of Saket in South Delhi, Paschim Vihar in North-West Delhi and most sectors in the Dwarka sub-city saw decent transactions this quarter (Oct-Dec vs Jul-Sep 2014).
While rentals in Saket climbed by 19 per cent, those in Paschim Vihar rose by 18 per cent. Sectors 13, 18 and 19 in Dwarka saw an increase of nine per cent each in the rental rates. Presence of civic amenities and metro in all these localities make them popular among the masses for rented accommodations.
The uptrend in rental rates in Dwarka can be attributed to the presence of as many as 10 metro stations and price competitiveness in comparison to other established localities in Delhi.
In East Delhi, Mayur Vihar Phase 1 witnessed a 10 per cent increase in rental rates. The locality is among one of the favored ones for rental accommodations due to its proximity to Noida and Ghaziabad and also due to the presence of sound social as well as physical infrastructure. The sector mostly consists of DDA apartments and has a sound security system in place. Amenities like markets, schools and public parks are ample.
Kirti Nagar in West Delhi also saw an 11 per cent hike in the rental rates. The locality constitutes builder floors and independent houses and is popular among migrant students and working individuals as it has a metro station of its own.
Localities in Delhi that saw a fall in the rental rates include Vasant Vihar and Hauz Khas in South Delhi and Pitampura and Rohini in North-West Delhi. The drop may be attributed to corrections in previously inflated rental rates in these areas.

Capital Values

LOCALITY Oct-Dec 2014 Jul-Sep 2014 Change
Aaya Nagar 3600 3500 3%
Chattarpur 4900 4500 9%
Greater Kailash 18500 18200 2%
Greater Kailash II 21500 20000 8%
I P Extension 11100 11900 7%
Janakpuri 12100 10950 11%
Khanpur 3500 3750 -7%
Lajpat Nagar 14450 14200 2%
Mayur Vihar - I 13500 12850 5%
Mayur Vihar - II 12000 12500 -4%
Mayur Vihar - III 9000 7650 18%
Mehrauli 4100 4000 3%
Narela 4600 4900 -6%
Paschim Vihar 10900 10000 9%
Patparganj 11500 11650 -1%
Pitampura 11250 11100 1%
Rohini 11200 10800 4%
Saket 15650 16150 -3%
Sector-12 Dwarka 9550 9100 5%
Sector-13 Dwarka 8600 8650 -1%
Sector-13 Rohini 12950 11850 9%
Sector-14 Dwarka 9050 8400 8%
Sector-16 Dwarka 6650 7900 -16%
Sector-17 Dwarka 8100 8700 -7%
Sector-18A Dwarka 9250 9300 -1%
Sector-18B Dwarka 7950 8700 -9%
Sector-22 Dwarka 9250 9350 -1%
Sector-4 Dwarka 8950 8600 4%
Sector-5 Dwarka 8950 8650 3%
Sector-9 Rohini 14300 13750 4%
Sheikh Sarai 16100 14700 10%
Vasant Kunj 15350 14400 7%
 Rental values

LOCALITY Oct-Dec 2014 Jul-Sep 2014 Change
Anand Niketan 55 48 15%
Hauz Khas 27 33 -18%
Kirti Nagar 20 18 11%
Lajpat Nagar 30 33 -9%
Malviya Nagar 26 25 4%
Mayur Vihar - I 23 21 10%
Saket 31 26 19%
Sarvodaya Enclave 27 31 -13%
Sarvpriya Vihar 30 26 15%
Shivalik 28 24 17%
Vasant Vihar 35 44 -20%
* Values represent average capital and rental per sq ft rates

Supply analysis

Supply of affordable housing options in Delhi has gone up by 120 per cent in the last one year owing to huge demand for this category. Interestingly, the total supply for high-income housing segment has also gone up by almost 65 per cent due to inflating construction costs in some regions.

Property type zone1 delhiAvailability of Different Types of Property

Builder floors have dominated property supply in Delhi with the current quarter reflecting a 50 per cent share. Builder floors were followed by society apartments (47 per cent) and independent houses or villas (just 3 per cent). Interestingly, the abundant supply of builder floors is owing to the floor based system that is prevalent in Delhi. A low rise by an independent builder/owner can comprise of multiple floors that can have multiple owners.
There have been insignificant changes in the supply of builder floors in the last quarter compared to the previous one. However, annual numbers reveal the total supply of builder floors in Delhi has risen by almost 5 per cent.
Due to absence of new launches in the region, number of society apartments are far lesser in number than builder floors and independent houses. Developers focus more on peripheral areas like Greater Noida, Ghaziabad, Bhiwadi and Dharuhera where land cost is economical and demand for society apartments is higher.
budget wise zone 1 delhi

Availability of Property in Different Budgets

High construction costs and inflated circle rates have led to high income segment being the most supplied in Delhi. Majority of residential units available fall in the price range of Rs 60 lakh-1 crore, reflecting little change from the previous quarters. An annual comparison reveals that total supply for high-income housing segment in Delhi has gone up by almost 65 per cent.
Interestingly, the supply for affordable category in Delhi (property priced within Rs 40 lakh) has gone up by 120 per cent in the last one year.
There has been a 15 per cent increase in the supply of residential units priced over Rs 1 crore in the last one year (Oct-Dec 2013 vs Oct-Dec 2014).
RTM UC budget zone 1 delhiReady to Move vs. Under-construction

If one looks at the property priced within Rs 40 lakh in Delhi, most of the supply (over 80 per cent) is under construction. This could be owing to new projects launched in affordable localities of Delhi.
The scene, however, is quite different for all other budget categories wherein most of the property supply is ready to occupy and a small share of inventory is under construction. For property ranging above Rs 40 lakh, over 80 per cent is ready to occupy with most of it being re-sale property and only 15-20 per cent is under construction property. This indicates that Delhi has limited options for under construction or new property for mid, high and luxury housing segments.
This could be the reason for investor interest shifting towards adjoining areas like Ghaziabad, Greater Noida, Bhiwadi and Dharuhera that are emerging as new growth corridors due to a lot of builder action and under construction inventory that leaves scope for earning profits on investments.
Quarter-on-quarter numbers for under construction versus ready to move inventory hardly shows any changes as the equation has had always remained same in Delhi’s case.
BHK zone1 delhiBHK-wise Distribution of Property

For the quarter ending December 2014, 3BHK emerged as the most supplied unit for builder floors and society apartments in Delhi followed by 2 BHK, 4 BHK and 1 BHK. The trend has remained same in Delhi for years owing to the preference given to more spacious apartments. An average 3 BHK in Delhi measures around 1300-1600 sq ft and a 2 BHK around 900-1200 sq ft.
Delhi is primarily a resale market because of hardly any new project launches. Within the 3 BHK category, more than three quarters is ready to occupy and the remaining is under construction. Interestingly, even the least supplied unit i.e. 1 BHK has 90 per cent as ready to move and just 10 per cent under construction inventory.
Quarter-on-quarter comparison reveals that the supply of ready to move in 1BHK units have gone up by four per cent and the number of ready to move 4BHK units have gone up marginally by two per cent. Subsequently, supply of under construction 1BHK units has gone down by four per cent while that for 4BHK units has dropped by two per cent. For 2BHK and 3BHK units, the equation did not alter in this quarter.
“With a few fresh launches and limited under construction inventory, Delhi is majorly a re-sale market with builder floors as the most supplied property type.”

DELHI NCR > Noida, Greater Noida and Ghaziabad

The realty atmosphere in Noida, Greater Nodia and Ghaziabad was rewarding for most of the prominent and even newly emerging localities this quarter. Affordable regions have emerged as profitable ones and frontrunners include Surajpur in Greater Noida, Sector 131 in Noida and NH-58 in Ghaziabad.

 Surajpur in Greater Noida emerged as the most profitable investment zone in this pocket owing to the industrial development happening around that is leading to a rise in demand for affordable residential inventory. With 20 per cent capital appreciation in Oct-Dec 2014 as compared to Jul-Sep 2014, a society apartment in Surajpur is now available at Rs 3000 per sq ft. The presence of UPSIDC – the state agency for developing industries and industrial infrastructure – is one of the major growth drivers for Surajpur.
Located on Noida-Greater Noida Expressway, Sector 131 is one of the prime residential localities in Noida. Presence of good civic and social infrastructure like well-known schools and markets in the vicinity and smooth connectivity to Delhi and Greater Noida through the 8-lane expressway places it well on location attractiveness index. Capital prices in the sector jumped by 12 per cent this quarter.
Most other sectors located across the Noida-Greater Noida Expressway have performed well in Oct-Dec 2014 majorly owing to their location and the sound infrastructure that the entire stretch has.
In Ghaziabad, NH-58 has been among the frontrunners with close to 10 per cent appreciation in property prices. Proposed connectivity with NH-24 and extension of Delhi metro are the major growth drivers for localities built along the highway.
Interestingly, capital rates in Govind Puram recovered post a 2-year long decline. Improving infrastructure and connectivity links including proposed extension of NH-58 are responsible for a nine per cent capital appreciation this quarter.
Capital rates in Kaushambi and NH-24 also jumped by seven per cent each due to no known reasons apart from the overall improved realty atmosphere in Delhi NCR.
“Major highways including NH-24 and NH-58 in Ghaziabad and the Noida-Greater Noida Expressway are emerging as growth corridors. ”

Noida Extension (Greater Noida West) that had been plateauing for over a year jumped by five per cent this quarter. This surge is seen as the result of Greater Noida Authority’s announcement of acquiring 156 hectares in Shahberi - the village at the heart of the land crisis that gripped Noida Extension three years ago. The Authority is likely to complete the re-acquisition within two months.
Localities that did not perform well on the ROI scale this quarter include NH-91, Lal Kuan and Bhopura in Ghaziabad, Sector 168 in Noida and Knowledge Park III in Greater Noida. While Knowledge Park III saw minor some price corrections (two per cent), capital rates fell in NH-91, Lal Kuan and Bhopura due to slow pace of infra developments. Sector 168 in Noida which houses projects by some of the most well-known builders witnessed a seven per cent depreciation due to low sales volumes in the sector.
Rental Analysis

Rentals in Sector ZETA and ZETA I in Greater Noida appreciated by 33 per cent each due to supply of low cost furnished as well as un-furnished apartments on rent.
Rentals in Ahinsa Khanda and Ahinsa Khand 2 in Indirapuram jumped by 18 and 20 per cent respectively. These sectors are located near NH-24 that provides easy connectivity to most areas in Delhi and Noida. Presence of good civic amenities including market places, schools and public transport also makes Indirapuram a preferred locality for rented accommodations.
Raj Nagar Extension in Ghaziabad also fared well in terms of rental appreciation and rates here grew by 17 per cent. In other words, a 1000 sq ft apartment that cost Rs 6000 in Jul-Sep 2014 now costs around Rs 7000 per month.
For Noida, sectors near Noida Greater Noida Expressway gained in terms of rentals this quarter majorly owing to the location, connectivity and the improving infrastructure in terms of presence of schools, offices and colleges on both sides of the Expressway. As a result, rental rates in Sectors 137, 121, 120 and 110 increased by 5 per cent-10 per cent.

Capital Values

LOCALITY
Oct-Dec 2014

Jul-Sep 2014

Change

Abhay Khand
5800

5500

5%

Ahinsa Khand
5800

5600

4%

Ahinsa Khand 2
5350

5100

5%

Bhopura
3000

3350

10%

Chi - Phi
3800

3600

6%

Crossing Republik
3750

3650

3%

Govind Puram
2600

2400

8%

Greater Noida West
3250

3150

3%

Indirapuram
5900

5700

4%

Kaushambi
6300

5900

7%

Knowledge Park III
4450

4550

-2%

Lal Kuan
2250

2500

-10%

Mohan Nagar
4500

4300

5%

NH-58
2950

2700

9%

NH-91
2200

2500

-12%

NH-24
2950

2750

7%

Noida Extension
9750

9300

5%

Noida-Greater Noida Expressway
5000

4500

11%

Omicron sector Gr Noida
3350

3250

3%

Pari Chowk
4100

4000

3%

Raj Nagar Extention
3050

3100

-2%

Sector Chi Gr Noida
3850

3600

7%

Sector ZETA Gr Noida
3400

3150

8%

Sector-131 Noida
11200

10000

12%

Sector-16 Gr Noida
3300

3000

10%

Sector-Pi Gr Noida
3800

3600

6%

Shalimar garden
4050

3800

7%

Surajpur
3000

2500

20%

Vaishali
6550

6350

3%

Vasundhara
5650

5300

7%

Yamuna Expressway
3000

2900

3%

Sector-168 Noida
7450

7900

-6%

Rental Values

LOCALITY
Oct-Dec 2014

Jul-Sep 2014

Change

Ahinsa Khand
13

11

18%

Raj Nagar Extention
7

6

17%

Sector Chi Gr Noida
9

8

13%

Sector ZETA Gr Noida
8

6

33%

Sector ZETA I Gr Noida
8

6

33%

Sector-110 Noida
13

12

8%

Sector-110 Noida
13

12

8%

Sector-120 Noida
12

11

9%

sector-121 Noida
11

10

10%

Sector-Pi Gr Noida
8

7

14%

Vaishali
12

12

0%

Vasundhara
10

10

0%

* Values represent average capital and rental per sq ft rates

Supply Analysis

With the supply of residential apartments increasing by 10 per cent in Oct-Dec 2014, under-construction inventory in Noida, Greater Noida and Ghaziabad is on a rise. Notably, 35 per cent of the total property supply in these pockets falls in the affordable housing segment.

property type zone 2 delhiAvailablity of Different Types of Property

Society apartments continue to be the most supplied property type in all three pockets – Noida, Greater Noida and Ghaziabad in comparison to builder floors and independent houses/villas. Quarter-on-quarter comparison reveals that the number of residential apartments in these three pockets have gone up by 10 per cent.
Annual comparison reveals that the supply of apartments has gone by 15 per cent owing to a number of new project launches in the last one year with Greater Noida West. A slight decrease in the supply of ready to move in residential apartments reflect that fewer projects have been delivered this quarter versus the previous one.
Though there are insignificant changes with respect to percentages in the supply of builder floors during this quarter versus the previous one, the number has doubled in the last one year. This could be due to the rising demand of affordable property in these areas.
Independent houses or villas however are the least supplied property type as they cater to the luxury segment needs and these pockets witness more demand from low-income and mid-income housing segments.
budget wise zone 2 delhiAvailability of Property in Different Budgets

Noida, Greater Noida and Ghaziabad cater to the affordable segment category the most with 35 per cent of its supply within Rs 40 lakh. Out of these three, Greater Noida has the maximum supply of apartments in this range (43 per cent), followed by Noida (29 per cent) and finally Ghaziabad (28 per cent).
More than a quarter of the supply of residential apartments in these three pockets fall in the mid-income housing (Rs 40-60 lakh) category. Of these three, Noida has almost half of the supply and the remaining two areas - Greater Noida and Ghaziabad have 25 per cent supply each for this budget range.
Only a quarter of the total supply of residential apartments in these areas falls in the high-income housing (Rs 60 lakh 1 crore) category. It is notable that Noida has the maximum share of supply for this budget category with 60 per cent of its residential apartments in the range of Rs 60 lakh-1 crore. This is followed by Ghaziabad with a 30 per cent and Greater Noida with just 10 per cent supply share.
Unlike Gurgaon, Noida, Greater Noida and Ghaziabad cater more to the budget housing needs and thus has limited supply (14 per cent of the total apartment supply) for the luxury housing segment, which ranges above Rs 1 crore.
RTM UC budget zone 2 delhiReady to Move vs. Under-construction

It is notable that 70 per cent of the supply of residential apartments in Noida is currently under construction and only 30 per cent is ready to move in. This indicates that a lot of inventory is going to be available in 3-4 years from now.
The picture is similar for Greater Noida with its share of 75 per cent of under construction and only 25 per cent ready to move in inventory.
For Ghaziabad, however, the ready-to-move versus under construction inventory equation is different from the other two regions. Since most of the Trans Hindon localities are well-developed, 60 per cent of the property supply is ready to occupy and the rest 40 per cent is under construction.
Quarter-on-quarter analysis shows the maximum supply for both ready to move in and under construction inventory for apartments, builder floors and independent houses fall in the affordable housing segment (< Rs 40 lakh). From Jul-Sep 2014 to Oct-Dec 2014 quarter there has been a 2 per cent increase in supply of the ready to occupy inventory and a subsequent 2 per cent decrease in the supply of under construction inventory. This is majorly due to more project completions and fewer project launches in the last quarter.
BHK zone2 delhiBHK-wise Distribution of Property

2 BHK and 3 BHK continue to be the most supplied units in Noida, Greater Noida and Ghaziabad in Oct-Dec 2014. This is because of more demand for affordable property
A few developers in these areas are launching luxury and ultra-luxury projects, hence 4BHK and 5BHK are not among the favored units and thus have limited supply.
For Oct-Dec 2014, 2 BHK is the most supplied unit (48 per cent) in Ghaziabad followed by 3 BHK (34 per cent), 1BHK (12 per cent) and 4BHK (6 per cent).
With more than 45 per cent share in the supply of apartments, 2 BHK is also the most popular unit in Greater Noida followed closely by 3 BHK (36 per cent).
In Noida however, 3 BHK is more popular than 2 BHK with close to 45 per cent supply share. 2 BHK follows closely with a 40 per cent share.
DELHI NCR > Gurgaon, Bhiwadi, Dharuhera and Faridabad

Though low sales volumes for high-end properties in Gurgaon kept the market pensive, property prices continue to trot up due to increasing construction costs and circle rates. Bhiwadi and Dharuhera revive due to planned industrial and infrastructural development in the satellite towns.

With over 18 per cent capital appreciation, Sector 65 topped the list of best performing localities in Gurgaon. Located along the Golf Course Extension road and close to Sohna Gurgaon road and NH-8, the sector not only has an edge over others in terms of connectivity to Delhi and others parts of Gurgaon but also has a sound infrastructural set up. It is seen as one of the fastest developing residential sectors in Gurgaon.
Property prices in Sushank Lok Phase 1 jumped by 16 per cent in Oct-Dec 2014 as against the previous quarter. Mostly consisting of plotted development with independent builder floors, the locality is 5 km from Huda City Centre metro station and enjoys good connectivity to Delhi and other regions in Gurgaon via NH-8.
Sohna continues to deliver good returns and has yielded a profit of 13 per cent in the last quarter mainly due to the infra developments subsequent to the announcement of a separate Sohna Master Plan-2031 that was notified in 2013. The sub-pocket benefits from good connectivity with the prime locations of Gurgaon, Delhi and Faridabad and caters to the spill-over demand from Gurgaon.
Capital rates in Bhiwadi and Dharuhera jumped by six and nine per cent each. Affordability, connectivity, and upcoming industrial and infrastructural developments including widening of NH-8 and bullet Train linking Alwar- Delhi-Panipat-Meerut from Dharuhera are making these pockets investment hot spots.
Sectors on a growth radar in Faridabad include Sectors-80, 86 and 81. All these fall under the Nehar Par area where major policy announcements including the upcoming Faridabad-Nehar Par-Gurgaon Expressway, Eastern Peripheral Road and Western Peripheral Road have positively impacted the realty market. Capital appreciation in these sectors can also be attributed to the extension of Delhi Metro from Badarpur to YMCA Chowk that is expected to get operational in May 2015.
Prices of residential apartments in IMT Manesar dipped by four per cent in the last quarter and hardly witnessesd any hike in the last one year (only 1 per cent). The land acquisition row between farmers, builders and the Haryana Government in addition to civic woes such as lack of arterial roads and erratic power supply have contributed to this de-growth.
“Improving investor interest and infra developments helped Bhiwadi and Dharuhera recover from last quarter’s slump.”

Rental Analysis

In Gurgaon, DLF City Phase IV topped the list of highest gainers in terms of rental appreciation. With close to 80 per cent growth in the rental rates, the locality now has a 2000 sq ft apartment available at Rs 46000 per month. This was followed by Sector-46 in Gurgaon. The sector is located adjacent to Cyber Park and hence demand from working migrants keeps increasing. This has resulted in 58 per cent hike in rentals in Oct-Dec 2014 as against the previous quarter.
Rental rates for localities along NH-8 continue to trend up owing to easy connectivity via the highway. Huge demand for affordable rental accommodations from working population in Gurgaon keep the rental markets of neighboring sub-cities Bhiwadi and Dharuhera vibrant too where one can get a 2bhk for Rs 8,000- 10,000 per month.
Sectors that witness high demand for rental spaces in Fariadabad include the ones close to Delhi and the main bypass road such as Sectors-76, 86 and 87. With metro connectivity from Badarpur to Central Secretariat and metro line till YMCA Chowk going to be operational in May 2015, Faridabad is going to be few minutes from Nehru Place, Jor Bagh and most other places in South Delhi. Improved connectivity is the reason why both demand and rental rates in Faridabad are on a rise.

Capital Values

LOCALITY Oct-Dec 2014 Jul-Sep 2014
Change

Alwar Bhiwadi Road
2750

2600

6%

Alwar Road
2750

2600

6%

Dharuheda
2950

2700

9%

Dwarka Expressway Gurgaon
5350

5200

3%

Golf Course Ext. Road
9000

8550

5%

Golf Course Road
13550

13150

3%

Green Field
4250

3800

12%

IMT Manesar
4050

4200

-4%

Mehrauli Gurgaon Road
12900

11850

9%

MG Road
12500

11850

5%

Nehar Par
3950

3750

5%

New Gurgaon
4800

4550

5%

NH-8
3100

2850

9%

Sector 46 Faridabad
5950

5800

3%

Sector 81 Faridabad
5000

4850

3%

Sector 84 Faridabad
3650

3550

3%

Sector-102 Gurgaon
5300

5150

3%

Sector-106 Gurgaon
5350

5200

3%

Sector-108 Gurgaon
5800

5650

3%

Sector-110 Gurgaon
6000

5850

3%

Sector-30 Gurgaon
13550

12250

11%

Sector-43 Gurgaon
11200

10000

12%

Sector-59 Gurgaon
11000

9600

15%

Sector-61 Gurgaon
8900

8600

3%

Sector-65 Gurgaon
8400

7100

18%

Sector-68 Gurgaon
6450

5600

15%

Sector-73 Gurgaon
4900

4750

3%

Sector-79 Gurgaon
5050

4900

3%

Sector-85 Gurgaon
5000

4500

11%

Sector-88A Gurgaon
6700

6500

3%

Sohna
4250

3750

13%

Sohna Road
8200

7400

11%

Southern Peripheral Road
6150

6000

3%

Sushant Lok
11800

10500

12%

Sushant Lok Phase - I
12350

10650

16%

Rental Values

LOCALITY
Oct-Dec 2014

Jul-Sep 2014

Change

DLF CITY PH-IV
23

13

77%

Sector-46 Gurgaon
19

12

58%

Sector-45 Gurgaon
16

11

45%

Golf Course Road
25

20

25%

Sector-33 Gurgaon
17

14

21%

Ardee City
15

13

15%

Nehar Par
8

8

0%

Sector 82 Faridabad
8

8

0%

Sector-43 Gurgaon
19

20

-5%

Sector-86 Gurgaon
6

7

-14%

Sector-43 Gurgaon
16

20

-20%

DLF CITY PH-II
14

24

-42%

* Values represent average capital and rental per sq ft rates

Supply Analysis

Society apartments continue to have the most supplied property type in both Faridabad and Gurgaon. While the supply of affordable properties in Gurgaon saw a surge this quarter, the numbers remained same for Faridabad that continue to supply mid-income housing options the most.

property type zone 3 delhiAvailability of Different Types of Property

Society apartments are the most supplied property type in Gurgaon and Faridabad followed by builder floors and independent houses/villas. In Faridabad, residential apartments have more than half of the share in the total property supply. Independent houses/villas are very few in numbers and builder floors have less than half of the total supply.
For Oct-Dec 2014, society apartments have had the maximum share of supply in Gurgaon, followed by a very low percentage of builder floor supply and an even negligible share of independent houses/villas.
There have been insignificant changes in the supply of different type of properties in Gurgaon and Faridabad in Oct-Dec 2014 quarter as against the previous one.
budget wise zone 3 delhiAvailability of Property in Different Budgets

Due to high construction costs and inflated property rates, most properties in Gurgaon fall in the luxury housing segment. In other words, almost 60 per cent of the properties in Gurgaon are priced as Rs 1 crore and above. Only a quarter of total supply of property in the pocket falls in the high-end housing segment which is priced between Rs 60 lakh and Rs 1 crore.
As is evident from the numbers, a very insignificant portion of the total supply of property in Gurgaon falls in the affordable and mid-income housing category.
In Faridabad, however, the property segregation on the basis of budget is quite different from Gurgaon. Mid-income housing (Rs 40-60 lakh) and high-income housing (Rs 60 lakh-1 crore) have equal shares in the total property supply. Even affordable housing supply, i.e. the property priced within Rs 40 lakh has a 20 per cent share and luxury housing supply, i.e. property priced above Rs 1 crore is the least (only 10 per cent) supplied.
RTM UC budget zone 3 delhiReady to Move vs. Under-construction

There have been no major changes in the supply figures for both under construction and ready to occupy property for Gurgaon and Faridabad. This could be because of fewer deliveries as well as fewer product launches this quarter.
Affordable and mid-income housing categories (property falling within Rs 60 lakh) have the maximum supply of under construction category. This could be due to the launch of some affordable projects in Gurgaon in the last one year. And since all these projects are new, supply for ready to move in inventory in these categories is below 20 per cent.
Gurgaon has wholesome supply of ready to move in inventory in the high income and luxury housing categories.
In Faridabad, properties priced within Rs 40 lakh have an equal supply of ready to move in and under construction inventory. However, almost three quarters of the total supply of properties priced in the range of Rs 40 and 60 lakh are ready to occupy. The high-income housing and luxury housing segment also majorly consists of ready to move in apartments and builder floors.
BHK zone3 delhiBHK-wise Distribution of Property

3 BHK is the most supplied category in Faridabad and Gurgaon, followed by 2 BHK, 4 BHK and 1 BHK. Within 3 BHKs, ready to move in inventory is slightly more than under construction apartments.
1 BHK units are almost nominal in numbers in both Gurgaon and Faridabad. This could be due to low demand for these units for both sale and rental purposes.
More than half of the 2 BHK units in Gurgaon and Faridabad are under construction indicating that the supply for these units will increase considerably in the coming 2-4 years when these projects would get delivered.
4 BHK units on the other hand have lesser under construction inventories than ready to move in ones due to frail demand as well as supply for these units.
Quarter-on-quarter comparison shows that there have been insignificant changes in the supply of ready to move in and under construction inventory in Gurgaon and Faridabad for all units in the Oct-Dec 2014 as compared to the previous quarter. The equations in both these regions remain constant due to the inherent nature of these realty markets.
“2BHKs continue to be the most supplied apartment units in both Faridabad and Gurgaon with almost half the share in the total property supply.”
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Delhi is a city that bridges two different worlds. Old Delhi, once the capital of Islamic India, is a labyrinth of narrow lanes lined with crumbling havelis and formidable mosques. In contrast, the imperial city of New Delhi created by the British Raj is composed of spacious, tree-lined avenues and imposing government buildings. Delhi has been the seat of power for several rulers and many empires for about a millennium. Many a times the city was built, destroyed and then rebuilt here. Interestingly, a number of Delhi's rulers played a dual role, first as destroyers and then as creators.
 
The city's importance lies not just in its past glory as the seat of empires and magnificent monuments, but also in the rich anddiverse cultures. No wonder chroniclers of Delhi culture - from Chand Bardai and Amir Khusro to present days writers - have never been at a loss for topics. In Delhi, you will discover that the city is sprinkled with dazzling gems: captivating ancient monuments, fascinating museums and art galleries, architectural wonders, a vivacious performing-arts scene, fabulous eating places and bustling markets.
Delhi has been the political hub of India. Every political activity in the country traces its roots here. This was true even of the mythological era. The Pandavas of the Mahabharata had their capital at Indraprastha, which is believed to have been geographically located in today's Delhi.

Delhi Facts
 
Area: 1,483 sq km
Latitudinal parallel: 28.3oN
Longitudinal meridian: 77.13oE
Altitude: 293 m above sea level
Population: 16.78 million (Census 2011) 
Average Temperature: 45oC (Max) - usually in May - Jun, 5oC (Min) - usually in Dec - Jan
Desirable Clothes: Woollen for winters and light cotton for summers
Rainfall: 714 mm
Monsoon: July to mid-September
Population: 13.85 (Census 2001)
Season: Extreme climate with very hot summer and very cold winter
Best time to visit: October to March
STD Code: 011
Languages: Hindi, English, Urdu and Punjabi
Religions: Hinduism, Islam, Sikhism, Buddhism, Jainism, Christianity, Zoroastrianism, Judaism and Bahai Faith
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Capital of Indian Nation "DELHI" 

Delhi (/ˈdɛli/, Hindustani pronunciation: [d̪ɪlliː] Dilli), officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi, is the Capital territory of India. It has a population of about 11 million and a metropolitan population of about 16.3 million, making it the second most populous city and second most populous urban agglomeration in India. Such is the nature of urban expansion in Delhi that its growth has expanded beyond the NCT to incorporate towns in neighbouring states and at its largest extent can count a population of about 25 million residents as of 2014.

The NCT and its urban region have been given the special status of National Capital Region (NCR) under the Constitution of India's 69th amendment act of 1991. The NCR includes the neighbouring cities of Gurgaon, Noida, Ghaziabad, Faridabad, Neharpar (Greater Faridabad), Greater Noida, Bahadurgarh, Sonepat, Panipat, Karnal, Rohtak, Bhiwani, Rewari, Baghpat, Meerut, Alwar, Bharatpur and other nearby towns. A union territory, the political administration of the NCT of Delhi today more closely resembles that of a state of India, with its own legislature, high court and an executive council of ministers headed by a Chief Minister. New Delhi is jointly administered by the federal government of India and the local government of Delhi, and is the capital of the NCT of Delhi.

Delhi has been continuously inhabited since the 6th century BC. Through most of its history, Delhi has served as a capital of various kingdoms and empires. It has been captured, ransacked and rebuilt several times, particularly during the medieval period, and modern Delhi is a cluster of a number of cities spread across the metropolitan region.

Country India
Region North India
Settled 6th century B.C., 3000 B.C. (from legend)
Incorporated 1857
Capital formation 1911
Union territory 1956
Established 1 Feb 1992
Capital New Delhi
Districts 11
Government
 • Lt. Governor Najeeb Jung
 • Chief Minister Arvind Kejriwal (AAP)
 • Legislature Unicameral (70 seats)
 • Parliamentary constituency 7
 • High Court Delhi High Court
Area
 • City 1,484.0 km2 (573.0 sq mi)
 • Water 18 km2 (6.9 sq mi)
 • Metro 46,208 km2 (17,841 sq mi)
Elevation 0–125 m (0–409 ft)
Population (2011)
 • City 11,007,835
 • Rank 2nd
 • Density 11,297.01/km2 (29,259.12/sq mi)
 • Urban 16,314,838 (2nd)
 • Metro[2] 21,753,486
Demonym Delhiite, Dehlvi, Delhiwala
Languages
 • Official Hindi, English[3]
 • Second official Urdu, Punjabi[3]
Time zone Indian Standard Time (UTC+5.30)
Pincode(s) 110001-110098, 1100xx
Area code(s) +91 11
ISO 3166 code IN-DL
Website Delhi.gov.in

Toponymy and idioms

There are a number of legends associated with the origin of the name Delhi. One is that it is derived from Dhillu or Dilu, a king who built a city at this location in 50 BC and named it after himself. Another legend holds that the name of the city is based on the Hindi/Prakrit word dhili (loose) and that it was used by the Tomaras to refer to the city because the Iron Pillar of Delhi had a weak foundation and had to be moved. The coins in circulation in the region under the Tomaras were called dehliwal. 

According to the Bhavishya Purana, King Prithiviraja,of Indraprastha built a new fort in the modern-day Purana Qila area for the convenience of all four castes in his kingdom. He ordered the construction of a gateway to the fort and later named the fort dehali.[12] Some historians believe that the name is derived from Dilli, a corruption of dehleez or dehali—both terms meaning 'threshold' or 'gateway'—and symbolic of the city as a gateway to the Gangetic Plain. Another theory suggests that the city's original name was Dhillika. 

The people of Delhi are referred to as Delhiites or Dilliwalas. The city is referenced in various idioms of the Northern Indo-Aryan languages. Examples include:

Abhi Dilli door hai or its Persian version, Hanouz Dehli dour ast, literally meaning Delhi is still far away, which is generically said about a task or journey still far from completion. 

Dilli dilwalon ka shehr or Dilli Dilwalon ki meaning Delhi belongs to the large-hearted/daring.[

Aas-paas barse, Dilli pani tarse, literally meaning it pours all around, while Delhi lies parched. An allusion to the sometimes semi-arid climate of Delhi, it idiomatically refers to situations of deprivation when one is surrounded by plenty.

History
The area around Delhi was probably inhabited before the second millennium BC, and there is evidence of continuous inhabitation since at least the 6th century BC. The city is believed to be the site of Indraprastha, the legendary capital of the Pandavas in the Indian epic Mahabharata.[8] According to this epic this land was initially a huge mass of forests called 'Khandavaprastha' which was burnt down to build the city of Indraprastha. The earliest architectural relics date back to the Maurya period (c. 300 BC); in 1966, an inscription of the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka (273–235 BC) was discovered near Srinivaspuri. Remains of eight major cities have been discovered in Delhi. The first five cities were in the southern part of present-day Delhi. Anang Pal of the Tomara dynasty founded the city of Lal Kot in AD 736. The Chauhans conquered Lal Kot in 1180 and renamed it Qila Rai Pithora.

The iron pillar of Delhi, is said to have been fashioned at the time of Chandragupta Vikramaditya (375–413) of the Gupta Empire.
The king Prithviraj Chauhan was defeated in 1192 by Muhammad Ghori, a Tajik invader from Afghanistan, who made a concerted effort to conquer northern India. By 1200, native Hindu resistance had begun to crumble, the dominance of foreign Turkic Muslim dynasties in India was to last for the next five centuries. On the death of Muhammad in 1206, the Turkic slave-general, Qutb-ud-din Aibak, broke away from the Ghurid Dynasty and became the first Sultan of Delhi. He began construction of the Qutb Minar and Quwwat-al-Islam (might of Islam) mosque, the earliest extant mosque in India. Qutb-ud-din faced widespread Hindu rebellions and it was his successor, Iltutmish (1211–36), who consolidated the Turkic conquest of northern India.

A view of Qutab minor
At 72.5 m (238 ft), A UNESCO World Heritage Site, the Qutub Minar is the world's tallest free-standing brick minaret.[23]
For the next three hundred years, Delhi was ruled by a succession of Turkic and an Afghan, Lodhi dynasty. They built a number of forts and townships that are part of the seven cities of Delhi.[24] Delhi was a major centre of Sufism during this period.[25] The Mamluk Sultanate (Delhi) was overthrown in 1290 by the Khilji dynasty (1290–1320). Under the second Khilji ruler, Ala-ud-din Khilji, the Delhi sultanate extended its control south of the Narmada River in the Deccan. The Delhi sultanate reached its greatest extent during the reign of Muhammad bin Tughluq (1325–1351). In an attempt to bring the whole of the Deccan under control, he moved his capital to Daulatabad, Maharashtra in central India, but by moving away from Delhi he lost control of the north and was forced to return to Delhi to restore order. The southern provinces then broke away. In the years following the reign of Firoz Shah Tughlaq (1351–1388), the Delhi sultanate rapidly began to lose its hold over its northern provinces. Delhi was captured and sacked by Timur Lenk in 1398. Near Delhi, Timur massacred 100,000 captives. Delhi's decline continued under the Sayyid dynasty (1414–1451), until the sultanate was reduced to Delhi and its hinterland. Under the Afghan Lodhi dynasty (1451–1526), the Delhi sultanate recovered control of the Punjab and the Gangetic plain to once again achieve domination over northern India. However, the recovery was short-lived and in 1526 the sultanate was destroyed by Babur, founder of the Mughal dynasty.

In 1526, Babur, a descendant of Genghis Khan and Timur, from the Fergana Valley in modern-day Uzbekistan, invaded India, defeated the last Lodhi sultan in the First Battle of Panipat and founded the Mughal Empire that ruled from Delhi and Agra.[8] The Mughal dynasty ruled Delhi for more than three centuries, with a sixteen-year hiatus during the reigns of Sher Shah Suri and Hemu from 1540 to 1556.[28] In 1553, the Hindu king, Hemu acceded to the throne of Delhi by defeating forces of Mughal Emperor Humayun at Agra and Delhi. However, the Mughals re-established their rule after Akbar's army defeated Hemu during the Second Battle of Panipat in 1556. Shah Jahan built the seventh city of Delhi that bears his name Shahjahanabad, which served as the capital of the Mughal Empire from 1638 and is today known as the Old City or Old Delhi.

Red Fort with the Indian Flag at the center
A UNESCO World Heritage Site, Red fort is the location from which the Prime Minister of India addresses the nation on Independence Day After the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, the Mughal Empire's influence declined rapidly as the Hindu Maratha Empire rose to prominence.[33] In 1737, Maratha forces sacked Delhi following their victory against the Mughals in the First Battle of Delhi. In 1739, the Mughal Empire lost the huge Battle of Karnal in less than three hours against the numerically outnumbered but military superior Persian army led by Nader Shah of Persia during his invasion after which he completely sacked and looted Delhi, the Mughal capital, carrying away immense wealth including the Peacock Throne, the Daria-i-Noor, and Koh-i-Noor. The Mughals, severely further weakened, would never overcome this crushing defeat and humiliation which would also let the way open for more invaders to come, including eventually the British.[34][35][36] Nader eventually agreed to leave the city and India after forcing the Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah I to beg him for mercy and granting him the keys of the city and the royal treasury. A treaty signed in 1752 made Marathas the protectors of the Mughal throne in Delhi.

Humayun's tomb (reddish coloured against the sky A UNESCO World Heritage Site, built in 1560, Humayun's Tomb is the first example of Mughal tomb complexes.

In 1757, the Afghan ruler, Ahmad Shah Durrani, sacked Delhi. He returned to Afghanistan leaving a Mughal puppet ruler in nominal control. The Marathas again occupied Delhi in 1758, and were in control before their defeat in 1761 at the third battle of Panipat, and the city was captured again by Ahmad Shah. However, in 1771, the Marathas established a protectorate over Delhi when the Maratha ruler, Mahadji Shinde, recaptured Delhi and the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II was installed as a puppet ruler in 1772. In 1783, Sikhs under Baghel Singh captured Delhi and Red Fort, however due to treaty Sikhs withdraw from Red Fort and agreed to restore Shah Alam as the emperor.In 1803, during the Second Anglo-Maratha War, the forces of British East India Company defeated the Maratha forces in the Battle of Delhi. During the Indian Rebellion of 1857, Delhi fell to the forces of East India Company after a bloody fight known as the Siege of Delhi. The city came under the direct control of the British Government in 1858. It was made a district province of the Punjab. In 1911, it was announced that the capital of British held territories in India was to be transferred from Calcutta to Delhi. The name "New Delhi" was given in 1927, and the new capital was inaugurated on 13 February 1931. New Delhi, also known as Lutyens' Delhi, was officially declared as the capital of the Union of India after the country gained independence on 15 August 1947. During the partition of India, thousands of Hindu and Sikh refugees, mainly from West Punjab fled to Delhi, while many Muslim residents of the city migrated to Pakistan. Migration to Delhi from the rest of India continues (as of 2013), contributing more to the rise of Delhi's population than the birth rate, which is declining.

The Constitution (Sixty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1991 declared the Union Territory of Delhi to be formally known as the National Capital Territory of Delhi. The Act gave Delhi its own legislative assembly along Civil lines, though with limited powers. In December 2001, the Parliament of India building in New Delhi was attacked by armed militants, killing six security personnel. India suspected Pakistan-based militant groups were behind the attack, which caused a major diplomatic crisis between the two countries. There were further terrorist attacks in Delhi in October 2005 and September 2008, resulting in a total of 103 deaths.

The area around Delhi was probably inhabited before the second millennium BC, and there is evidence of continuous inhabitation since at least the 6th century BC.[7] The city is believed to be the site of Indraprastha, the legendary capital of the Pandavas in the Indian epic Mahabharata.[8] According to this epic this land was initially a huge mass of forests called 'Khandavaprastha' which was burnt down to build the city of Indraprastha. The earliest architectural relics date back to the Maurya period (c. 300 BC); in 1966, an inscription of the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka (273–235 BC) was discovered near Srinivaspuri. Remains of eight major cities have been discovered in Delhi. The first five cities were in the southern part of present-day Delhi. Anang Pal of the Tomara dynasty founded the city of Lal Kot in AD 736. The Chauhans conquered Lal Kot in 1180 and renamed it Qila Rai Pithora.


The iron pillar of Delhi, is said to have been fashioned at the time of Chandragupta Vikramaditya (375–413) of the Gupta Empire.[20][21]
The king Prithviraj Chauhan was defeated in 1192 by Muhammad Ghori, a Tajik invader from Afghanistan, who made a concerted effort to conquer northern India.[8] By 1200, native Hindu resistance had begun to crumble, the dominance of foreign Turkic Muslim dynasties in India was to last for the next five centuries. On the death of Muhammad in 1206, the Turkic slave-general, Qutb-ud-din Aibak, broke away from the Ghurid Dynasty and became the first Sultan of Delhi. He began construction of the Qutb Minar and Quwwat-al-Islam (might of Islam) mosque, the earliest extant mosque in India. Qutb-ud-din faced widespread Hindu rebellions and it was his successor, Iltutmish (1211–36), who consolidated the Turkic conquest of northern India.[8][22]

A view of Qutab minor
At 72.5 m (238 ft), A UNESCO World Heritage Site, the Qutub Minar is the world's tallest free-standing brick minaret.[23]
For the next three hundred years, Delhi was ruled by a succession of Turkic and an Afghan, Lodhi dynasty. They built a number of forts and townships that are part of the seven cities of Delhi.[24] Delhi was a major centre of Sufism during this period.[25] The Mamluk Sultanate (Delhi) was overthrown in 1290 by the Khilji dynasty (1290–1320). Under the second Khilji ruler, Ala-ud-din Khilji, the Delhi sultanate extended its control south of the Narmada River in the Deccan. The Delhi sultanate reached its greatest extent during the reign of Muhammad bin Tughluq (1325–1351). In an attempt to bring the whole of the Deccan under control, he moved his capital to Daulatabad, Maharashtra in central India, but by moving away from Delhi he lost control of the north and was forced to return to Delhi to restore order. The southern provinces then broke away. In the years following the reign of Firoz Shah Tughlaq (1351–1388), the Delhi sultanate rapidly began to lose its hold over its northern provinces. Delhi was captured and sacked by Timur Lenk in 1398.[26] Near Delhi, Timur massacred 100,000 captives.[27] Delhi's decline continued under the Sayyid dynasty (1414–1451), until the sultanate was reduced to Delhi and its hinterland. Under the Afghan Lodhi dynasty (1451–1526), the Delhi sultanate recovered control of the Punjab and the Gangetic plain to once again achieve domination over northern India. However, the recovery was short-lived and in 1526 the sultanate was destroyed by Babur, founder of the Mughal dynasty.

In 1526, Babur, a descendant of Genghis Khan and Timur, from the Fergana Valley in modern-day Uzbekistan, invaded India, defeated the last Lodhi sultan in the First Battle of Panipat and founded the Mughal Empire that ruled from Delhi and Agra.[8] The Mughal dynasty ruled Delhi for more than three centuries, with a sixteen-year hiatus during the reigns of Sher Shah Suri and Hemu from 1540 to 1556.[28] In 1553, the Hindu king, Hemu acceded to the throne of Delhi by defeating forces of Mughal Emperor Humayun at Agra and Delhi. However, the Mughals re-established their rule after Akbar's army defeated Hemu during the Second Battle of Panipat in 1556. Shah Jahan built the seventh city of Delhi that bears his name Shahjahanabad, which served as the capital of the Mughal Empire from 1638 and is today known as the Old City or Old Delhi.

Red Fort with the Indian Flag at the center
A UNESCO World Heritage Site, Red fort is the location from which the Prime Minister of India addresses the nation on Independence Day After the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, the Mughal Empire's influence declined rapidly as the Hindu Maratha Empire rose to prominence. In 1737, Maratha forces sacked Delhi following their victory against the Mughals in the First Battle of Delhi. In 1739, the Mughal Empire lost the huge Battle of Karnal in less than three hours against the numerically outnumbered but military superior Persian army led by Nader Shah of Persia during his invasion after which he completely sacked and looted Delhi, the Mughal capital, carrying away immense wealth including the Peacock Throne, the Daria-i-Noor, and Koh-i-Noor. The Mughals, severely further weakened, would never overcome this crushing defeat and humiliation which would also let the way open for more invaders to come, including eventually the British. Nader eventually agreed to leave the city and India after forcing the Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah I to beg him for mercy and granting him the keys of the city and the royal treasury. A treaty signed in 1752 made Marathas the protectors of the Mughal throne in Delhi.

Humayun's tomb (reddish coloured against the sky A UNESCO World Heritage Site, built in 1560, Humayun's Tomb is the first example of Mughal tomb complexes.In 1757, the Afghan ruler, Ahmad Shah Durrani, sacked Delhi. He returned to Afghanistan leaving a Mughal puppet ruler in nominal control. The Marathas again occupied Delhi in 1758, and were in control before their defeat in 1761 at the third battle of Panipat, and the city was captured again by Ahmad Shah. However, in 1771, the Marathas established a protectorate over Delhi when the Maratha ruler, Mahadji Shinde, recaptured Delhi and the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II was installed as a puppet ruler in 1772.[41] In 1783, Sikhs under Baghel Singh captured Delhi and Red Fort, however due to treaty Sikhs withdraw from Red Fort and agreed to restore Shah Alam as the emperor.In 1803, during the Second Anglo-Maratha War, the forces of British East India Company defeated the Maratha forces in the Battle of Delhi. During the Indian Rebellion of 1857, Delhi fell to the forces of East India Company after a bloody fight known as the Siege of Delhi. The city came under the direct control of the British Government in 1858. It was made a district province of the Punjab. In 1911, it was announced that the capital of British held territories in India was to be transferred from Calcutta to Delhi. The name "New Delhi" was given in 1927, and the new capital was inaugurated on 13 February 1931. New Delhi, also known as Lutyens' Delhi,was officially declared as the capital of the Union of India after the country gained independence on 15 August 1947.[45] During the partition of India, thousands of Hindu and Sikh refugees, mainly from West Punjab fled to Delhi, while many Muslim residents of the city migrated to Pakistan. Migration to Delhi from the rest of India continues (as of 2013), contributing more to the rise of Delhi's population than the birth rate, which is declining.

The Constitution (Sixty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1991 declared the Union Territory of Delhi to be formally known as the National Capital Territory of Delhi. The Act gave Delhi its own legislative assembly along Civil lines, though with limited powers. In December 2001, the Parliament of India building in New Delhi was attacked by armed militants, killing six security personnel. India suspected Pakistan-based militant groups were behind the attack, which caused a major diplomatic crisis between the two countries. There were further terrorist attacks in Delhi in October 2005 and September 2008, resulting in a total of 103 deaths.

Ecology
Delhi is located at 28.61°N 77.23°E, and lies in Northern India. It borders the Indian states of Haryana on the north, west and south and Uttar Pradesh (UP) to the east. During the British Raj, Delhi was part of the province of Punjab and is still historically and culturally connected to the Punjab region.[51] Two prominent features of the geography of Delhi are the Yamuna flood plains and the Delhi ridge. The Yamuna river was the historical boundary between Punjab and UP, and its flood plains provide fertile alluvial soil suitable for agriculture but are prone to recurrent floods. The Yamuna, a sacred river in Hinduism, is the only major river flowing through Delhi. The Hindon River separates Ghaziabad from the eastern part of Delhi. The Delhi ridge originates from the Aravalli Range in the south and encircles the west, north-east and north-west parts of the city. It reaches a height of 318 m (1,043 ft) and is a dominant feature of the region.

The National Capital Territory of Delhi covers an area of 1,484 km2 (573 sq mi), of which 783 km2 (302 sq mi) is designated rural, and 700 km2 (270 sq mi) urban therefore making it the largest city in terms of area in the country. It has a length of 51.9 km (32 mi) and a width of 48.48 km (30 mi).

Delhi is included in India's seismic zone-IV, indicating its vulnerability to major earthquakes, but earthquakes have not been common in recent history.

Climate
Delhi features an atypical version of the humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa). The warm season lasts from 9 April to 8 July with an average daily high temperature above 36 °C (97 °F). The hottest day of the year is 22 May, with an average high of 38 °C (100 °F) and low of 25 °C (77 °F).[54] The cold season lasts from 11 December to 11 February with an average daily high temperature below 18 °C (64 °F). The coldest day of the year is 4 January, with an average low of 2 °C (36 °F) and high of 15 °C (59 °F).[54] In early March, the wind direction changes from north-westerly to south-westerly. From April to October the weather is hot. The monsoon arrives at the end of June, along with an increase in humidity.[55] The brief, mild winter starts in late November, peaks in January and heavy fog often occurs.[56]

Temperatures in Delhi usually range from 5 to 40 °C (41.0 to 104.0 °F), with the lowest and highest temperatures ever recorded being −6.7 and 47.8 °C (19.9 and 118.0 °F) respectively.The annual mean temperature is 25 °C (77 °F); monthly mean temperatures range from 13 to 32 °C (55 to 90 °F). The highest temperature recorded in July was 45 °C (113 °F) in 1931. The average annual rainfall is approximately 714 mm (28.1 in), most of which falls during the monsoon in July and August. The average date of the advent of monsoon winds in Delhi is 29 June.

Air pollution
Delhi is the most polluted[63] city in the world and according to one estimate, air pollution causes the death of about 10,500 people in Delhi every year. During 2013-14, peak levels of fine particulate matter (PM) in Delhi increased by about 44%, primarily due to high vehicular and industrial emissions, construction work and crop burning in adjoining states.[64][67][68][69] Delhi has the highest level of the airborne particulate matter, PM2.5 considered most harmful to health, with 153 micrograms.[70] Rising air pollution level has significantly increased lung-related ailments (especially asthma and lung cancer) among Delhi's children and women. The dense smog in Delhi during winter season results in major air and rail traffic disruptions every year. According to Indian meteorologists, the average maximum temperature in Delhi during winters has declined notably since 1998 due to rising air pollution.


Dense smog blankets Connaught Place, Delhi.
Environmentalists have criticised the Delhi government for not doing enough to curb air pollution and to inform people about air quality issues.[65] Most of Delhi's residents are unaware of alarming levels of air pollution in the city and the health risks associated with it;[68][69] however, as of 2015, awareness, particularly among the foreign diplomatic community and high-income Indians, was noticeably increasing.[75] Since the mid-1990s, Delhi has undertaken some measures to curb air pollution – Delhi has the third highest quantity of trees among Indian cities[76] and the Delhi Transport Corporation operates the world's largest fleet of environmentally friendly compressed natural gas (CNG) buses.[77] In 1996, the Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) started a public interest litigation in the Supreme Court of India that ordered the conversion of Delhi's fleet of buses and taxis to run on compressed natural gas (CNG) and banned the use of leaded petrol in 1998. In 2003, Delhi won the United States Department of Energy's first 'Clean Cities International Partner of the Year' award for its "bold efforts to curb air pollution and support alternative fuel initiatives".[77] The Delhi Metro has also been credited for significantly reducing air pollutants in the city.[78]

However, according several authors, most of these gains have been lost, especially due to stubble burning, a rise in the market share of diesel cars and a considerable decline in bus ridership.According to CSE and System of Air Quality Weather Forecasting and Research (SAFAR), burning of agricultural waste in nearby Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh regions results in severe intensification of smog over Delhi.The state government of Uttar Pradesh is considering imposing a ban on crop burning to reduce pollution in Delhi NCR and an environmental panel has appealed to India's Supreme Court to impose a 30% cess on diesel cars.[83][84]

The Circles of Sustainability assessment of Delhi gives a marginally more favourable impression of the ecological sustainability of the city only because it is based on a more comprehensive series of measures than only air pollution. Part of the reason that the city remains assessed at basic sustainability is because of the low resource-use and carbon emissions of its poorer neighbourhoods.[85]

Civic administration[edit]

Map showing the nine districts of Delhi
See also: Divisions of Delhi, Districts of Delhi and List of towns in National Capital Territory of Delhi
As of July 2007, the National Capital Territory of Delhi comprises nine districts, 27 tehsils, 59 census towns, 300 villages,[86] and three statutory towns, the Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD) – 1,397.3 km2 or 540 sq mi, the New Delhi Municipal Council (NDMC) – 42.7 km2 or 16 sq mi and the Delhi Cantonment Board (DCB) – 43 km2 or 17 sq mi).[87][88] On 16 July 2012, the Delhi Government decided to increase the number of districts from nine to 11.[89]

The Delhi metropolitan area lies within the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), which has five local municipal corporations; North Delhi Municipal Corporation, South Delhi Municipal Corporation, East Delhi Municipal Corporation, NDMC and DCB. The former MCD was divided into three smaller Municipal Corporations – North Delhi, South Delhi and East Delhi.[90] According to the 2011 census, MCD is among the largest municipal bodies in the world, providing civic services to about 11 million people.

Delhi (civic administration) was ranked 5th out of 21 Cities for best governance & administrative practices in India in 2014. It scored 3.6 on 10 compared to the national average of 3.3.[92]

Delhi houses the Supreme Court of India, and the regional Delhi High Court, along with the Small Causes Court for civil cases; the Magistrate Court and the Sessions Court for criminal cases, has jurisdiction over Delhi. The city is administratively divided into eleven police-zones, which are subdivided into 95 local police stations.[93]

Government and politics[edit]
The Supreme Court of India with Green coloured lawn and the building which shows its entrance to the court
Supreme court is the apex court in the country.
Main article: Government of Delhi
The National Capital Territory of Delhi has its own Legislative Assembly, Lieutenant Governor, council of ministers and Chief Minister. Members of the legislative assembly are directly elected from territorial constituencies in the NCT. The legislative assembly was abolished in 1956, after which direct federal control was implemented until it was re-established in 1993. The Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD) handles civic administration for the city as part of the Panchayati Raj Act. The Government of India and the Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi jointly administer New Delhi, where both bodies are located. The Parliament of India, the Rashtrapati Bhavan (Presidential Palace), Cabinet Secretariat and the Supreme Court of India are located in the municipal district of New Delhi. There are 70 assembly constituencies and seven Lok Sabha (Indian parliament's lower house) constituencies in Delhi.[94][95]

The Indian National Congress (Congress) formed all the governments in Delhi until the 1990s, when the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), led by Madan Lal Khurana, came to power.[96] In 1998, the Congress returned to power under the leadership of Sheila Dikshit, who was subsequently re-elected for 3 consecutive terms. But in 2013, the Congress was ousted from power, with the newly formed Aam Aadmi Party (AAP) led by Arvind Kejriwal forming the government with outside support from the Congress.[97] However, that government was short-lived, collapsing only after 49 days.[98] Delhi was then under President's rule till February, 2015.[99] On February 10, 2015, the Aam Aadmi Party returned to power after a landslide victory, winning 67 out of the 70 seats in Delhi Legislative Assembly.[100]

Economy[edit]
A view of a road at Connaught Place showing busy traffic
Connaught Place in Delhi is an important economic hub of the National Capital Region
Delhi is the largest commercial centre in northern India; it has an estimated net State Domestic Product (FY 2010) of ₹1595 billion (US$25 billion) in nominal terms and ~₹6800 billion (US$110 billion) in PPP terms.[101] As of 2013, the per capita income of Delhi was Rs. 230000, highest in India. GSDP in Delhi at the current prices for 2012-13 is estimated at Rs 3.88 trillion (short scale) against Rs 3.11 trillion (short scale) in 2011-12.

As per the Economic survey of Delhi (2005–2006), the tertiary sector contributes 70.95% of Delhi's gross SDP followed by secondary and primary sectors, with 25.20% and 3.85% contributions respectively. Delhi's workforce constitutes 32.82% of the population, and increased by 52.52% between 1991 and 2001. Delhi's unemployment rate decreased from 12.57% in 1999–2000 to 4.63% in 2003. In December 2004, 636,000 people were registered with various employment exchange programs in Delhi.[104] In 2001 the total workforce in national and state governments and the quasi-government sector was 620,000, and the private sector employed 219,000.[104] Key service industries are information technology, telecommunications, hotels, banking, media and tourism. Construction, power, health and community services, and real estate are also important to the city's economy. Delhi has one of India's largest and fastest growing retail industries. Manufacturing also grew considerably as consumer goods companies established manufacturing units and headquarters in the city. Delhi's large consumer market and the availability of skilled labour has attracted foreign investment. In 2001, the manufacturing sector employed 1,440,000 workers and the city had 129,000 industrial units.

Utility services[edit]
See the caption for details
The headquarters of the New Delhi Municipal Corporation (NDMC).
Delhi's municipal water supply is managed by the Delhi Jal Board (DJB). As of 2005–06, it supplied 650 million gallons per day (MGD), whereas the estimated consumption requirement is 963 MGD. The shortfall is met by private and public tube wells and hand pumps. At 240 MGD, the Bhakra storage is DJB's largest water source, followed by the Yamuna and Ganges rivers. Delhi's groundwater level is falling and its population density is increasing, so residents often encounter acute water shortage.

In Delhi, daily domestic solid waste production is 8000 tonnes which is dumped at three landfill locations by MCD.[109] The daily domestic waste water production is 470 MGD and industrial waste water is 70 MGD.[110] A large portion of the sewage flows untreated into the Yamuna river.[110]

The city's electricity consumption is about 1,265 kWh per capita, but actual demand is higher.[111] In Delhi power distribution is managed by Tata Power Distribution and BSES Rajdhani since 2002. The Delhi Fire Service runs 43 fire stations that attend about 15,000 fire and rescue calls per year.The state-owned Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited (MTNL) and private enterprises Vodafone, Airtel, Idea Cellular, Reliance Infocomm, Aircel and Tata Docomo provide telephone and cell phone service to the city. Cellular coverage is available in GSM, CDMA, 3G and 4G.

Transport[edit]
Main article: Transport in Delhi
Shown here is the check-in counter at Terminal 2 of the airport.
Indira Gandhi International Airport in Delhi, it is the busiest airport in South Asia.[113] Shown here is the check-in counter at Terminal 3 of the airport.
A green coloured Delhi Transport Corporation CNG bus in the middle of the road
The Delhi Transport Corporation operates the world's largest fleet of compressed natural gas buses, totalling 9,000.
The entrance of the Anand Vihar station
Anand Vihar Terminal railway station, opened in 2009
Front view of a Delhi Metro Train
The Delhi Metro
The Delhi-Gurgaon Expressway
The Delhi-Gurgaon Expressway, connecting Delhi to the Indira Gandhi International Airport
A Delhi underground metro station
A Delhi underground metro station
Air[edit]
Indira Gandhi International Airport, situated to the southwest of Delhi, is the main gateway for the city's domestic and international civilian air traffic. In 2012-13, the airport was used by more than 35 million passengers,making it one of the busiest airports in South Asia. Terminal 3, which cost ₹96.8 billion (US$1.5 billion) to construct between 2007 and 2010, handles an additional 37 million passengers annually.

The Delhi Flying Club, established in 1928 with two de Havilland Moth aircraft named Delhi and Roshanara, was based at Safdarjung Airport which started operations in 1929, when it was the Delhi's only airport and the second in India. The airport functioned until 2001, however in January 2002 the government closed the airport for flying activities because of security concerns following the New York attacks in September 2001. Since then, the club only carries out aircraft maintenance courses,[118] and is used for helicopter rides to Indira Gandhi International Airport for VIP including the president and the prime minister.[119]

A second airport open for commercial flights has been suggested, by expansion of Meerut Airport or construction of a new airport in Greater Noida.[120]

Road[edit]
Delhi has the highest road density of 2103 km/100 sq. km in India.

Buses are the most popular means of road transport catering to about 60% of Delhi's total demand. Delhi has one of India's largest bus transport systems. Buses are operated by the state-owned Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC), which owns largest fleet of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)-fueled buses in the world. Personal vehicles especially cars also form a major chunk of vehicles plying on Delhi roads. Delhi has the highest number of registered cars compared to any other metropolitan city in India. Taxis, Auto Rickshaws and Cycle Rickshaws also ply on Delhi roads in large numbers.

Important Roads in Delhi

Some roads and expressways serve as important pillars of Delhi's road infrastructure:

Inner Ring Road is one of the most important "state highways" in Delhi. It is a 51 km long circular road, which connects important areas in Delhi. Owing to more than 2 dozen grade-separators/flyovers, the road is almost signal-free.
Outer Ring Road is another major artery in Delhi that links far-flung areas of Delhi.
The Delhi Noida Direct Flyway (DND Flyway) is an eight-laned access controlled tolled expressway which connects Delhi to Noida (an important satellite city of Uttar Pradesh). The acronym DND stands for "Delhi-Noida Direct".
'The Delhi Gurgaon Expressway is a 28 km (17 mi) expressway connecting Delhi to Gurgaon, an important satellite city of Haryana.
The Delhi Faridabad Skyway is controlled tolled expressway which connects Delhi to Faridabad, an important satellite city of Haryana.
National Highways Passing Through Delhi

Delhi is connected by Road to various parts of the country through several National highways:

National Highway 1 (India) or (NH 1) is a National Highway in Northern India that links the National capital New Delhi to the town of Attari in Punjab near the Indo-Pakistani border.
National Highway 2 (India) (NH 2), commonly referred as Delhi-Kolkata Road is a busy Indian National Highway that runs through the states of Delhi, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, and West Bengal.
National Highway 8 (India) (NH 8), is a National Highway in India that connects the Indian capital city of New Delhi with the Indian Financial capital city of Mumbai.
National Highway 10 (India) (NH 10) is a National Highway in northern India that originates at Delhi and ends at the town of Fazilka in Punjab near the Indo-Pakistani border.
National Highway 24 (India) (NH 24) is a National Highway in India that connects the National capital Delhi to Uttar Pradesh state capital Lucknow running 438 kilometers in length.
Railway[edit]
Delhi is a major junction in the Indian railway network and is the headquarters of the Northern Railway. The five main railway stations are New Delhi railway station, Old Delhi, Nizamuddin Railway Station, Anand Vihar Railway Terminal and Sarai Rohilla. The Delhi Metro, a mass rapid transit system built and operated by Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC), serves many parts of Delhi and the neighbouring cities Gurgaon, Noida and Ghaziabad. As of August 2011, the metro consists of six operational lines with a total length of 189 km (117 mi) and 146 stations, and several other lines are under construction. The Phase-I was built at a cost of US$2.3 billion and the Phase-II was expected to cost an additional ₹216 billion (US$3.4 billion).Phase-II has a total length of 128 km and was completed by 2010. Delhi Metro completed 10 years of operation on 25 December 2012. It carries millions of passengers every day. In addition to the Delhi Metro, a suburban railway, the Delhi Suburban Railway exists.

Metro[edit]
The Delhi Metro is a rapid transit system serving Delhi, Gurgaon, Faridabad, Noida, and Ghaziabad in the National Capital Region of India. Delhi Metro is the world's 13th largest metro system in terms of length. Delhi Metro was India's first modern public transportation system, which has revolutionised travel by providing a fast, reliable, safe, and comfortable means of transport. The network consists of six lines with a total length of 189.63 kilometres (117.83 miles) with 142 stations, of which 35 are underground, five are at-grade, and the remainder are elevated. All stations have escalators, elevators, and tactile tiles to guide the visually impaired from station entrances to trains. It has a combination of elevated, at-grade, and underground lines, and uses both broad gauge and standard gauge rolling stock. Four types of rolling stock are used: Mitsubishi-ROTEM Broad gauge, Bombardier MOVIA, Mitsubishi-ROTEM Standard gauge, and CAF Beasain Standard gauge. The Phase-I of Delhi Metro was built at a cost of US$2.3 billion and the Phase-II was expected to cost an additional ₹216 billion (US$3.4 billion).[123] Phase-II has a total length of 128 km and was completed by 2010.[124] Delhi Metro completed 10 years of operation on 25 December 2012. It carries millions of passengers every day.[125] In addition to the Delhi Metro, a suburban railway, the Delhi Suburban Railway exists.

Delhi Metro is being built and operated by the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Limited (DMRC), a state-owned company with equal equity participation from Government of India and Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi. However, the organisation is under administrative control of Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India. Besides construction and operation of Delhi metro, DMRC is also involved in the planning and implementation of metro rail, monorail and high-speed rail projects in India and providing consultancy services to other metro projects in the country as well as abroad. The Delhi Metro project was spearheaded by Padma Vibhushan E. Sreedharan, the Managing Director of DMRC and popularly known as the "Metro Man" of India. He famously resigned from DMRC, taking moral responsibility for a metro bridge collapse which took five lives. Sreedharan was awarded with the prestigious Legion of Honour by the French Government for his contribution to Delhi Metro.

Regional Rapid Transit System (RRTS)[edit]
The 08 RRTS Corridors have been proposed by National Capital Region Planning Board (NCRPB) to facilitate the people travelling from nearby cities in NCR to Delhi. The three main corridors in first phase are as follows which are expected to become operational before 2019:

Delhi - Alwar via Gurgaon
Delhi - Panipat via Sonepat
Delhi - Meerut via Ghaziabad
Remaining five corridors are also approved by National Capital Region Planning Board but are planned in the second phase.

To make the project operational NCRPB has formed a separate body named as "National Capital Region Transport Corporation on the lines of DMRC to independently formalise and monitor its progress.

Roads of 2006 and 2007

The 32-lane toll gate at the Delhi-Gurgaon border is the largest in South Asia and the second largest in Asia.[127]
As of 2007, private vehicles account for 30% of the total demand for transport.[121] Delhi has 1922.32 km of road length per 100 km2, one of the highest road densities in India.[121] It is connected to other parts of India by five National Highways: NH 1, 2, 8, 10 and 24. The city's road network is maintained by MCD, NDMC, Delhi Cantonment Board, Public Works Department (PWD) and Delhi Development Authority.[128] The Delhi-Gurgaon Expressway connects Delhi with Gurgaon and the international airport. "The Delhi-Faridabad Skyway". connects Delhi with the neighbouring industrial town of Faridabad. The DND Flyway and Noida-Greater Noida Expressway connect Delhi with the suburbs of Noida and Greater Noida.[129][130] Delhi's rapid rate of economic development and population growth has resulted in an increasing demand for transport, creating excessive pressure on the city's transport infrastructure. As of 2008, the number of vehicles in the metropolitan region, Delhi NCR, is 11.2 million (11.2 million). In 2008, there were 85 cars in Delhi for every 1,000 of its residents.

To meet the transport demand, the State and Union government constructed a mass rapid transit system, including the Delhi Metro.[121] In 1998, the Supreme Court of India ordered that all public transport vehicles in Delhi must be fuelled by compressed natural gas (CNG).[133] Buses are the most popular means of public transport, catering for about 60% of the total demand. The state-owned Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC) is a major bus service provider which operates the world's largest fleet of CNG-fuelled buses.Delhi Bus Rapid Transit System runs between Ambedkar Nagar and Delhi Gate.

Demographics[edit]
[hide]Population Growth of Delhi 
Census Pop. %±
1901 405,819

1911 413,851 2.0%
1921 488,452 18.0%
1931 636,246 30.3%
1941 917,939 44.3%
1951 1,744,072 90.0%
1961 2,658,612 52.4%
1971 4,065,698 52.9%
1981 6,220,406 53.0%
1991 9,420,644 51.4%
2001 13,782,976 46.3%
2011 16,753,235 21.6%
source:[135]
† Huge population rise in 1951 due to large
scale migration after Partition of India in 1947.
A complete view of Akshardham temple with people entering the temple
Swaminarayan Akshardham in Delhi is the largest Hindu temple complex in the world. Hinduism is the predominant faith in Delhi.
According to the 2011 census of India, the population of Delhi is 16,753,235. The corresponding population density was 11,297 persons per km2, with a sex ratio of 866 women per 1000 men, and a literacy rate of 86.34%. In 2004, the birth rate, death rate and infant mortality rate per 1000 population were 20.03, 5.59 and 13.08, respectively. In 2001, the population of Delhi increased by 285,000 as a result of migration and by 215,000 as a result of natural population growth – this made Delhi one of the fastest growing cities in the world. By 2015, Delhi is expected to be the third-largest conurbation in the world after Tokyo and Mumbai.[137] Dwarka Sub City, Asia's largest planned residential area, is located within the National Capital Territory of Delhi.[138]

Others include Christians (0.9%) & Baha'is (0.1%)
Religion in Delhi[139]
Religion Percent
Hinduism
  
81%
Islam
  
9.9%
Sikhism
  
5%
Jainism
  
1.1%
Others
  
1.2%
Hinduism is Delhi's predominant religious faith, with approximately 81% of Delhi's population, followed by Islam(9.9%), Sikhism(5%), Jainism(1.1%), and others(1.2%).[141] Other minority religions include Buddhism, Zoroastrianism, Christianity, Baha'ism and udaism. Punjabi & Hindi are the most widely spoken languages in Delhi.English is the principal written language of the city and the most commonly used language for the official purposes. In addition to Hindi and English, Punjabi with Gurmukhī alphabets and Urdu also have official language status in Delhi.

According a 1999–2000 estimate, the total number of people living below the poverty line, defined as living on US$11 or less per month, in Delhi was 1,149,000, or 8.23% of the total population, compared to 27.5% of India as a whole.[144] 52% of Delhi residents who live in slums[145] without basic services like water, electricity, sanitation, sewage system or proper housing.[146][147] In 2005, Delhi accounted for the highest percentage (16.2%) of the crimes reported in 35 Indian cities with populations of one million or more.[148] The city has the highest rate of kidnapping and abduction cases with 9.3%; the national rate is 2.2%.[149] Delhi accounts for 15.4% of crime against women in Indian cities.[149]

Findings from surveys conducted by the Centre for the Study of Developing Societies (CSDS) in Delhi estimate an average of 40% of the voters in Delhi belong to the upper castes. About 12% are Brahmins, 7% are Punjabi Khatris, 7% are Rajputs, 6% belong to the Vaishya (Bania) and Jain communities and 8% are from other upper castes.Jat community, roughly 5% of Delhi's population and located mostly in the rural parts of outer Delhi. OBC communities such as the Gujjars, Yadavs and the lower OBCs together form about 18% of Delhi's population. The Dalit communities 17% of Delhi's population.

Culture
See also: Culture of India
An image showing a number of pots which are made traditionally, black coloured with red and green work on it.

Traditional pottery on display in Dilli Haat
Delhi's culture has been influenced by its lengthy history and historic association as the capital of India. This is exemplified by many significant monuments in the city. Delhi is also identified as the location of Indraprastha, the ancient capital of the Pandavas. The Archaeological Survey of India recognises 1200 heritage buildings and 175 monuments as national heritage sites. In the Old City, the Mughals and the Turkic rulers constructed several architecturally significant buildings, such as the Jama Masjid – India's largest mosque[153] and the Red Fort. Three World Heritage Sites – the Red Fort, Qutab Minar and Humayun's Tomb – are located in Delhi.[154] Other monuments include the India Gate, the Jantar Mantar – an 18th-century astronomical observatory – and the Purana Qila – a 16th-century fortress. The Laxminarayan temple, Akshardham temple, the Bahá'í Lotus temple and the ISKCON temple are examples of modern architecture. Raj Ghat and associated memorials houses memorials of Mahatma Gandhi and other notable personalities. New Delhi houses several government buildings and official residences reminiscent of British colonial architecture, including the Rashtrapati Bhavan, the Secretariat, Rajpath, the Parliament of India and Vijay Chowk. Safdarjung's Tomb is an example of the Mughal gardens style. Some regal havelis (palatial residences) are in the Old City.[155]

Lotus Temple, is a Bahá'í House of Worship completed in 1986. Notable for its flowerlike shape, it serves as the Mother Temple of the Indian subcontinent and has become a prominent attraction in the city. The Lotus Temple has won numerous architectural awards and been featured in hundreds of newspaper and magazine articles. Like all other Bahá'í Houses of Worship, is open to all regardless of religion, or any other distinction, as emphasised in Bahá'í texts. The Bahá'í laws emphasise that the spirit of the House of Worship be that it is a gathering place where people of all religions may worship God without denominational restrictions. The Bahá'í laws also stipulate that only the holy scriptures of the Bahá'í Faith and other religions can be read or chanted inside in any language; while readings and prayers can be set to music by choirs, no musical instruments can be played inside. Furthermore, no sermons can be delivered, and there can be no ritualistic ceremonies practised.

Chandni Chowk, a 17th-century market, is one of the most popular shopping areas in Delhi for jewellery and Zari saris.[157] Delhi's arts and crafts include, Zardozi[158]  – an embroidery done with gold thread – [159] and Meenakari[160] – the art of enamelling.

Festivals

Rashtrapati Bhavan been lit up for Diwali.
Delhi's association and geographic proximity to the capital, New Delhi, has amplified the importance of national events and holidays like Republic Day, Independence Day (15 August) and Gandhi Jayanti. On Independence Day, the Prime Minister addresses the nation from the Red Fort. Most Delhiites celebrate the day by flying kites, which are considered a symbol of freedom.[161] The Republic Day Parade is a large cultural and military parade showcasing India's cultural diversity and military strength.[162][163] Over the centuries, Delhi has become known for its composite culture, and a festival that symbolises this is the Phool Walon Ki Sair, which takes place in September. Flowers and pankhe – fans embroidered with flowers – are offered to the shrine of 13th century Sufi saint Khwaja Bakhtiyar Kaki and the Yogmaya temple, both situated in Mehrauli.[164]

A view of Pragati Maidan from inside
The Pragati Maidan in Delhi hosts the World Book Fair annually.
Religious festivals include Diwali (the festival of lights), Mahavir Jayanti, Guru Nanak's Birthday, Raksha Bandhan, Durga Puja, Holi, Lohri, Chauth, Krishna Janmastami, Maha Shivratri, Eid ul-Fitr, Moharram and Buddha Jayanti.[163] The Qutub Festival is a cultural event during which performances of musicians and dancers from all over India are showcased at night, with the Qutub Minar as a backdrop.[165] Other events such as Kite Flying Festival, International Mango Festival and Vasant Panchami (the Spring Festival) are held every year in Delhi. The Auto Expo, Asia's largest auto show,[166] is held in Delhi biennially. The World Book Fair, held biannually at the Pragati Maidan, is the second largest exhibition of books in the world. Delhi is often regarded as the "Book Capital" of India because of high readership.

Cuisine[edit]
Main article: Indian cuisine
A dish of rice (white) with Karai chicken (dark orange) on it in a plate
Rice and Karai chicken from Delhi
As India's national capital and centuries old Mughal capital, Delhi influenced the food habits of its residents and is where Mughlai cuisine originated. Along with Indian cuisine, a variety of international cuisines are popular among the residents.[169] The dearth of food habits among the city's residents created a unique style of cooking which became popular throughout the world, with dishes such as Kebab, biryani, tandoori. The city's classic dishes include Butter chicken, Aloo Chaat, chaat, dahi vada, kachori, chole bhature, Chole kulche, jalebi and lassi.[169][170]:40–50, 189–196

The fast living habits of Delhi's people has motivated the growth of street food outlets.[170]:41 A trend of dining at local dhabas is popular among the residents. High profile restaurants have gained popularity in recent years, among the popular restaurants are the Karim Hotel, the Punjab Grill and Bukhara.[171] The Gali Paranthe Wali (the street of fried bread) is a street in Chandni Chowk particularly for food eateries since the 1870s. Almost the entire street is occupied by fast food stalls or street vendors. It has nearly become a tradition that almost every prime minister of India has visited the street to eat paratha at least once. Other Indian cuisines are also available in this area even though the street specializes in north Indian food .[170]:40–50[172]

Education
Main article: Education in Delhi
All India Institute of Medical Sciences with green lawn in front
All India Institute of Medical Sciences is a global leader in medical research and treatment.
Private schools in Delhi – which use either English or Hindi as the language of instruction – are affiliated to one of three administering bodies, the Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE), the Central Board for Secondary Education (NCERT (CBSE))[174] or the National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS). In 2004–05, approximately 15.29 lakh (1.529 million) students were enrolled in primary schools, 8.22 lakh (0.822 million) in middle schools and 6.69 lakh (0.669 million) in secondary schools across Delhi.[175] Female students represented 49% of the total enrolment. The same year, the Delhi government spent between 1.58% and 1.95% of its gross state domestic product on education.

Entrance of Indian Institute of Technology
Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi is ranked as Asia's fourth-best institute in science and technology in the year 1999.

Schools and higher educational institutions in Delhi are administered either by the Directorate of Education, the NCT government or private organisations. In 2006, Delhi had 165 colleges, five medical colleges and eight engineering colleges,[175] seven major universities and nine deemed universities.[175] Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology, Delhi Technological University, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University and National Law University are the only state universities,[177] Indira Gandhi National Open University is for distance education and the rest are central universities.[178] As of 2008, about 16% of all Delhi residents possessed at least a college graduate degree.

Media
Pitampura TV Tower with background of blue sky
Pitampura TV Tower broadcasts programming to Delhi
See also: Media of India
As the capital of India, Delhi is the focus of political reportage, including regular television broadcasts of Parliament sessions. Many national media agencies, including the state-owned Press Trust of India, Media Trust of India and Doordarshan, is based in the city. Television programming includes two free terrestrial television channels offered by Doordarshan, and several Hindi, English and regional-language cable channels offered by multi system operators. Satellite television has yet to gain a large quantity of subscribers in the city.

Print journalism remains a popular news medium in Delhi. The city's Hindi newspapers include Navbharat Times, Hindustan Dainik, Punjab Kesari, Pavitra Bharat, Dainik Jagran, Dainik Bhaskar and Dainik Desbandhu. Amongst the English language newspapers, The Hindustan Times, with a daily circulation of over a million copies, is the single largest daily. Other major English newspapers include Times of India, The Hindu, Indian Express, Business Standard, The Pioneer and The Asian Age'Top Story (Daily). Regional language newspapers include the Malayalam daily Malayala Manorama and the Tamil dailies Dinamalar and Dinakaran.[181]

Radio is a less popular mass medium in Delhi, although FM radio has gained popularity[183] since the inauguration of several new stations in 2006.[184] A number of state-owned and private radio stations broadcast from Delhi.[185][186]

Sports[edit]
Main article: Sports in Delhi
Delhi has hosted many major international sporting events, including the first and also the ninth Asian Games,[187] the 2010 Hockey World Cup, the 2010 Commonwealth Games and the 2011 Cricket World Cup. Delhi lost bidding for the 2014 Asian Games,[188] and considered making a bid for the 2020 Summer Olympics.[189] However, sports minister Manohar Singh Gill later stated that funding infrastructure would come before a 2020 bid.[190] There are indications of a possible 2028 bid.

The 2010 Commonwealth Games, which ran from 3 to 14 October 2010, was one of the largest sports event held in India.[191][192] The opening ceremony of the 2010 Commonwealth Games was held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, the main stadium of the event, in New Delhi at 7:00 pm Indian Standard Time on 3 October 2010.[193] The ceremony featured over 8,000 performers and lasted for two and a half hours.[194] It is estimated that ₹3.5 billion (US$55 million) were spent to produce the ceremony.[195] Events took place at 12 competition venues. 20 training venues were used in the Games, including seven venues within Delhi University.[196] The rugby stadium in Delhi University North Campus hosted rugby games for Commonwealth Games.[196][197] The mess left behind after the Commonwealth Games prompted Prime Minister Manmohan Singh to replace Sports and Youth Affairs minister Manohar Singh Gill with Ajay Maken in 19 January 2011 Cabinet reshuffle.[198]

Cricket and football are the most popular sports in Delhi.[199] There are several cricket grounds, or maidans, located across the city. The Feroz Shah Kotla Ground (known commonly as the Kotla) is one of the oldest cricket grounds in India and is a venue for international cricket matches. It is the home ground of the Delhi cricket team, which represents the city in the Ranji Trophy, the premier Indian domestic first-class cricket championship.[200] The Delhi cricket team has produced several world-class international cricketers such as Virender Sehwag, Gautam Gambhir, Virat Kohli, Madan Lal, Chetan Chauhan and Bishan Singh Bedi to name a few. The Railways and Services cricket teams in the Ranji Trophy also play their home matches in Delhi, in the Karnail Singh Stadium and the Harbax Singh Stadium respectively. The city is also home to the Indian Premier League team Delhi Daredevils, who play their home matches at the Kotla, and was the home to the Delhi Giants team (previously Delhi Jets) of the now defunct Indian Cricket League.

Ambedkar Stadium, a football stadium in Delhi which holds 21,000 people, was the venue for the Indian football team's World Cup qualifier against UAE on 28 July 2012.[201] Delhi hosted the Nehru Cup in 2007[202] and 2009, in both of which India defeated Syria 1–0.[203] In the Elite Football League of India, Delhi's first professional American football franchise, the Delhi Defenders played its first season in Pune.[204] Buddh International Circuit in Greater Noida, a suburb of Delhi, hosts the annual Formula 1 Indian Grand Prix.[205] The Indira Gandhi Arena is also in Delhi.

Delhi is a member of the Asian Network of Major Cities 21.

World Heritage status[edit]
In February 2014, Government of India approved Delhi's bid for World Heritage City status. The historical city of Shahjahanabad and Lutyens' Bungalow Zone in New Delhi have been cited in the bid. A team from UNESCO is scheduled to visit Delhi in September, 2014 to validate its claims. Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage (INTACH) has acted as the nodal agency for the bid. The announcement of accepted cities will be made in June, 2015.[citation needed] But Government of India withdrew nomination on 21st May, 2015.
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The New Gurgaon Region comprises of sectors falling between the proposed Dwarka Expressway and Manesar Industrial area, on either sides of the NH-8, to the South-West and South-East of present urban Gurgaon. (Refer Map.1). Most of these sectors were delineated in the Master-Plan 2021 but later few sectors i.e. sector 89-A, 89-B, 95-A and 95-B were added according to the latest Gurgaon-Manesar Urban Complex (GMUC) -2031, Master Plan. Based on the scale of development and prevailing real estate market dynamics, the NH-8 running through the New Gurgaon Region further divides it into two sub regions namely, North New Gurgaon Region and South New Gurgaon Region. In the Gurgaon market, after Golf Course Extension Region, New Gurgaon Region is the most popular destination for real estate activities and development, for developers as well as investors.

The New Gurgaon Region is in proximity to the Manesar industrial area. Both these regions will have direct impact on one another, in terms of development of industries and commercial buildings in Manesar and similarly absorption of residential projects in New Gurgaon Region. At present the workers and people employed in the industries and companies functioning in Manesar, have to commute from Gurgaon because of insufficient residential sectors in and around Manesar.

New Gurgaon is an upcoming area in the Western part of Gurgaon. This region is accessible through Dwarka Expressway and National Highway 8 as well. This area will also be connected via metro through the proposed metro link. It is located close to the integrated industrial hub of Manesar which adds up to its locational advantages being close to work or business. A green belt separates New Gurgaon from IMT Manesar. The land was previously agricultural and there are a number of villages like Nakhrola, Sikadnerpur, Nawada Fatehpur and Kankrola are present here. The place is mostly uninhabited with only a fraction of the area developed. This region will see a mix of residential and commercial development. DLF, Vatika and Orris group are the major landholders in this region. DLF Privana, Vatika India Next City, DLF New Town Heights, Emaar MGF Palm Hills are some of the residential projects in progress in New Gurgaon. VSR 83 Avenue, Vatika City Center, DLF Galleria 91, SS Omnia and Earth Skygate are the commercial projects in this region. The developers here are offering properties at very affordable rates with one of the lowest property rates in Gurgaon.
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SUMMARY
USD 1,000 Billion investments for infrastructure sector projected in 12th five year plan (2012-17).
USD 650 Billion investments in urban infrastructure estimated over next 20 years.
100% FDI permitted through the automatic route for townships, cities.
10% of India’s GDP is based on construction activity.

REASONS TO INVEST
An investment of USD 1,000 Billion has been projected for the infrastructure sector until 2017, 40% of which is to be funded by the private sector. 45% of infrastructure investment will be funneled into construction activity and 20% set to modernise the construction industry.
The Indian government has undertaken a number of measures to ease access to funding for the sector.
Construction activities contribute more than 10% of India’s GDP.
The construction industry in India has seen sustained demand from the industrial and real estate sector.
An estimated USD 650 Billion will be required for urban infrastructure over the next 20 years.
Housing for seniors has seen increased interest levels from corporates, the hospitality and healthcare industries over the last few years.

STATISTICS
2nd largest employer and contributor to economic activity, after agriculture sector. The construction sector accounts for second highest inflow of FDI after the services sector and employs more than 35 Million people.
50% of the demand for construction activity in India comes from the infrastructure sector, the rest comes from industrial activities, residential and commercial development etc. The Indian construction industry is valued at over USD 126 Billion.
Indian cities contribute significantly to India’s GDP. As per a mid-term appraisal in 2012, the urban share of the GDP was 62% – 63% in 2009-10. This was further projected to increase to 70% – 75% in 2030.
In 2001, about 286 Million were living in urban areas across India. It had the second largest urban population in the world. As per the Indian Census, 2011, the urban population had increased to 377 Million, thereby registering a growth of around 32%. As per recent estimates, nearly 590 Million people will live in Indian cities by 2030.
Between 2005-08, the real estate sector grew by about 30% annually before slowing down significantly due to a 2008 global financial crisis. It grew by about 8% between 2009-11 and 6.5% in 2012-13.
As per industry estimates, the Indian real estate market is estimated to be approximately USD 78.5 Billion in 2013 and is expected to grow to approximately USD 140 Billion by 2017.
According to FICCI-EY Real Estate Report 2013, India’s real estate requires about USD 42 Billion (excluding housing for economically weaker sections) in investments by 2015. Residential real estate alone will require an investment of USD 29 Billion.

GROWTH DRIVERS
India has an estimated urban housing shortage of 18.8 Million dwelling units. The housing shortage in rural India is estimated at 47.4 Million units, in 2012.
Present levels of urban infrastructure are inadequate to meet the demands of the existing urban population. There is need for re-generation of urban areas in existing cities and the creation of new, inclusive smart cities to meet the demands of increasing population and migration from rural to urban areas. Future cities of India will require smart real estate and urban infrastructure.
The Government of India is in the process of launching a new urban development mission. This will help develop 500 cities, which include cities with a population of more than 100,000 and some cities of religious and tourist importance. These cities will be supported and encouraged to harness private capital and expertise through PPPs, to holster their infrastructure and services in the next 10 years.
To provide quality urban services on a sustainable basis in Indian cities, the need of the hour is that urban local bodies enter into partnership agreements with foreign players, either through joint ventures, private sector partners or through other models.

FDI POLICY
100% FDI through the automatic route is permitted in townships, housing, built-up infrastructure and construction-development projects (including, but not restricted to housing, commercial premises, hotels, resorts, hospitals, educational institutions, recreational facilities, city and regional level infrastructure). The major conditions under which foreign investment can be made in this sector are:
10 hectares is the minimum land area for the development of serviced housing plots. 50,000 sq.mts. is the minimum built-up area for construction-development projects. For combination projects, any one of the prior two conditions would suffice. There are specific exemptions for smart cities, housing projects and old age homes.
A minimum capitalization of USD 10 Million is envisaged for wholly-owned subsidiaries and USD 5 Million for joint ventures with Indian partners. The funds will have to be brought in within six months of date commencement of business of the company.
The original investment cannot be repatriated before a period of three years from completion of minimum capitalization. The term ‘original investment’ means the entire amount is brought in as FDI. The lock-in period of three years will be applied from the date of receipt of each instalment/tranche of FDI or from the date of completion of minimum capitalization, whichever is later. However, the investor may be permitted to exit earlier, with prior approval of the government through the Foreign Investment Promotion Board (FIPB).
The conditions of minimum capitalization, minimum area requirement, lock in period and minimum development above do not apply to hotels and tourism sectors, hospitals, Special Economic Zones (SEZs), the education sector, old age homes and investment by NRIs.
FDI is not allowed in the real estate business or construction of a farmhouse.
100% FDI is allowed under the automatic route for urban infrastructure areas like urban transport, water supply, sewerage and sewage treatment subject to relevant rules and regulations.
FDI POLICY FOR INDUSTRIAL PARKS:
100% FDI is allowed under the automatic route. ‘Industrial Park’ is a project in which quality infrastructure in the form of plots of developed land or built-up space or a combination with common facilities is developed and made available to all the allottee units for the purposes of industrial activity.
FDI in industrial parks is not subject to the conditionalities applicable for  construction development projects etc., provided the industrial parks meet with the under-mentioned conditions.
It should comprise a minimum of 10 units and no single unit should occupy more than 50% of the allocable area.
The minimum percentage of the area to be allocated for industrial activity will not be less than 66% of the total allocable area.

SECTOR POLICY
THE JAWAHARLAL NEHRU NATIONAL URBAN RENEWAL MISSION:
The programme was instated to improve the quality of life and infrastructure in the cities and it covered a total of 63 cities initially, which were later increased to 68. The mission has helped focus attention of policy makers in all three tiers of the government on the challenges facing the cities and towns of India and created dynamism in a sector that has long suffered neglect. The government of India is in the process of launching a new urban development mission. This will help develop 500 cities, which includes cities with a population of more than 100,000 and some cities of religious and tourist importance. Four fundamental activities will underpin this development. These are, the provision of safe drinking water and sewerage, use of recycled water for growing organic fruits and vegetables, solid waste management and digital connectivity.
THE NATIONAL URBAN HOUSING AND HABITAT POLICY, 2OO7:
This policy aims to bridge the gap between the supply and demand of housing and infrastructure in the country. This policy intends to promote sustainable development of habitat in the country with a view to ensuring equitable supply of land shelter and services at affordable prices to all sections of society. The core focus of this policy is to provide affordable housing for all, with a specific focus on LIG and EWS.
REAL ESTATE INVESTMENT TRUSTS (REITS) & INFRASTRUCTURE INVESTMENT TRUSTS (INVITS):
REITs will provide the necessary support to the sector in terms of required large scale investments.
REAL ESTATE REGULATION & DEVELOPMENT BILL, 2O13:
The Real Estate Regulation & Development Bill has been formulated to bring in transparency and efficiency in the real estate sector. The Real Estate Regulation & Development bill is a pathbreaking law that is expected to bring uniform regulatory environment to the sector and protect consumers from unfair practices. It is a pioneering initiative to protect the interest of consumers, promote fair play in real estate transactions and ensure timely execution of projects.
MODEL STATE AFFORDABLE HOUSING POLICY FOR URBAN AREAS, 2O13:
The aim of this policy is to create an enabling environment for providing ‘affordable housing for all’ with special emphasis on EWS and LIG and other vulnerable sections of society. The policy further aims to promote Public Private People Participation (PPPP) for addressing the shortage of adequate and affordable housing.

FINANCIAL SUPPORT
PROVISIONS IN THE UNION BUDGET, 2O14-15:
SMART CITIES:
The Government of India in the Union Budget 2014-15, has announced a project to develop ‘One Hundred Smart Cities’ as satellite towns of larger cities by modernizing the existing mid-sized cities in the country. INR 70.6 Billion has been allocated in the current fiscal year for the same. The following has also been announced in the budget in relation to smart cities:
To encourage development of ‘Smart Cities’, which will also provide habitation for the neo-middle class, requirement of the built-up area and capital conditions for FDI is being reduced from 50,000 sq. mts. to 20,000 sq. mts., from USD 10 Million to USD 5 Million respectively. To further encourage this, projects which commit at least 30% of the total project cost for low cost affordable housing will be exempted from minimum built-up area and capitalisation requirements.
A National Industrial Corridor Authority, with its headquarters in Pune is being set up to coordinate the development of Industrial Corridors with emphasis on Smart Cities linked to transport connectivity to spur growth in manufacturing and urbanization.
Master Planning of the Amritsar-Kolkata Industrial Corridor will be completed expeditiously for the development of Industrial Smart Cities in seven states of the country. The seven states to be covered in this project are Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal.
Master planning of three new smart cities in the Chennai-Bengaluru Industrial Corridor region, viz., Ponneri in Tamil Nadu, Krishnapatnam in Andhra Pradesh and Tumkur in Karnataka are to be completed.
A Perspective Plan for the Bengaluru Mumbai Economic Corridor and Vizag-Chennai Corridor is to be completed with provision for 20 new industrial clusters.
A proposed allocation of INR 40 Billion, to set up a mission on low cost affordable housing, will be anchored in the National Housing Bank.
A proposed allocation of INR 1 Billion, to develop metro projects in Lucknow & Ahmedabad.
INR 80 Billion has been allocated for the National Housing Bank with a view to expand and continue to support rural housing in the country.
State governments concerned are purposed to be notified as sponsoring authority for metro rail projects covered under project import regulations, 1986.
REITS AND INVITS:
A new tax structure for real estate and infrastructure investments trusts. Both of them have been given pass-through status.
STATE INCENTIVES:
Apart from the above, each state in India offers additional incentives for investments and special incentive packages for mega projects.
INCENTIVES FOR DEVELOPING SEZ/EMC’S/OTHER SECTORAL CLUSTERS:
The major incentives and facilities available to SEZ developers include:
Exemption from customs/excise duties for development of SEZs for authorized operations approved by the BOA.
Income Tax exemption on income derived from the business of development of the SEZ in a block of 10 years, in 15 years under Section 80-IAB of the Income Tax Act.
Exemption from Central Sales Tax (CST).
Exemption from Service Tax (Section 7, 26 and the Second Schedule of the SEZ Act).
INCENTIVES FOR DEVELOPING ELECTRONIC MANUFACTURING CLUSTERS:
Brownfield EMC: The assistance will be restricted to 75% of project costs, subject to the ceiling of INR 0.5 Billion. The remaining project cost will be financed by other stakeholders of the EMC with a minimum industry contribution of 15% of the project cost.
Greenfield EMC: The assistance will be restricted to 50% of the project cost subject to ceiling of INR 0.5 Billion for every 100 acres of land. The remaining project cost shall be financed by other stakeholders of EMC with a minimum industry contribution of 25% of the project cost.
The administrative expenses are to be restricted to 3% of the central assistance in the project. Expenses towards the preparation of a detailed project report will also be considered a part of project cost.
AREA-BASED INCENTIVES:
Incentives for units in SEZ/NIMZ as specified in respective acts or the setting up of projects in special areas such as the North-east, Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh & Uttarakhand.

INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES
Construction development in residential, retail, commercial and hospitality sectors.
Technologies and solutions for smart sustainable cities and integrated townships.
Technologies for the promotion of low cost and affordable housing.
Green building solutions.
Sustainable and environmentally friendly building materials.
Training and skill development of construction sector workers.
Smart cities.
Urban water supply, urban sewerage and sewage treatment.

FOREIGN INVESTORS
Hines (USA)
Veolia (France)
Ascendas (Singapore)
Aqualyng AS (Norway)
Tishman Speyer (USA)
Emaar Properties (UAE)
The Trump Organization (USA)
Alstom (France)
Hydro-Comp Enterprises (Cyprus)
GIZ (Germany)

AGENCIES
The Ministry of Urban Development
The Ministry of Rural Development
The JNNURM
The Confederation of Real Estate Developers Associations of India
The Builders Association of India
The Construction Industry Development Council
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