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Channel #MsFrizzle and take your class on an adventure. Starting today, #GoogleExpeditions is available on iOS

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Thank you +Kim Meldrum for blazing the trail !

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Who's Next Was Released on 14 August 1971

Who's Next is the fifth studio album by English rock band The Who. It developed from the aborted Lifehouse project, a multi-media rock opera written by the group's Pete Townshend as a follow-up to the band's 1969 album Tommy. The project was cancelled due to its complexity and conflicts with Kit Lambert, the band's manager, but Townshend was persuaded to record the songs as a straightforward studio album.

The Who recorded Who's Next with assistance from recording engineer Glyn Johns. After producing the song "Won't Get Fooled Again" in the Rolling Stones Mobile Studio, they relocated to Olympic Studios to record and mix most of the album's remaining songs.

They made prominent use of the synthesizer on the album, particularly on "Won't Get Fooled Again" and "Baba O'Riley", which were both released as singles. The cover photo was shot by Ethan Russell and made reference to the monolith in the 1968 film 2001: A Space Odyssey, as it featured group members having urinated against a concrete piling protruding from a slag heap.

Who's Next was an immediate success when it was released on 14 August 1971. It has since been viewed by critics as the Who's best record and one of the greatest albums of all time. It was reissued on CD several times with additional songs originally intended for Lifehouse.

Recording and Production

The first session for what became Who's Next was at Mick Jagger's house, Stargroves, at the start of April 1971, using the Rolling Stones Mobile. The backing track of "Won't Get Fooled Again" was recorded there before the band decided to relocate recording to Olympic at Johns' suggestion; the first session was on 9 April, attempting a basic take of "Bargain".

The bulk of the sessions occurred during May, when the group recorded "Time is Passing", "Pure and Easy", "Love Ain't for Keeping" (which had been reworked from a rock track into an acoustic arrangement), "Behind Blue Eyes", "The Song Is Over", "Let's See Action" and "Baba O'Riley". Nicky Hopkins guested on piano, while Dave Arbus was invited by Moon to play violin on "Baba O'Riley". John Entwistle's "My Wife" was added to the album at the last minute late in the sessions, and was originally intended for a solo album.

In contrast to the Record Plant and Young Vic sessions, recording with Johns went well as he was primarily concerned about creating a good sound, whereas Lambert had always been more preoccupied about the group's image. Townshend recalled, "we were just getting astounded at the sounds Glyn was producing". Townshend used the early synthesizers and modified keyboard sounds in several modes: as a drone effect on several songs, notably "Baba O'Riley" and "Won't Get Fooled Again", as well as on "Bargain", "Going Mobile" and "The Song Is Over".

The synthesizer was used as an integral part of the sound, as opposed to providing gloss as was the case on other artists' albums up to this point. Moon's drumming had a distinctly different style from earlier albums, being more formal and less reliant on long drum fills – partly due to the synthesizer backing, but also due to the no-nonsense production techniques of Johns, who insisted on a good recording performance that only used flamboyancy when truly necessary. Johns was instrumental in convincing the Who that they should simply put a single studio album out, believing the songs to be excellent.

The group gave him free rein to assemble a single album of whatever songs he wanted in any order. Despite Johns' key contributions, he only received an associate producer credit on the finished album, though he maintained he acted mainly in an engineering capacity and based most of the arrangements on Townshend's original demos.

An ARP synthesizer similar to the one used on Who's Next. The album opened with "Baba O'Riley", featuring piano and synthesizer-processed Lowrey organ by Townshend. The song's title pays homage to Townshend's guru, Meher Baba, and minimalist composer Terry Riley (and is informally known as "Teenage Wasteland" from a line in the lyrics). The organ track came from a longer demo by Townshend, portions of which were later included on a Baba tribute album I Am, that was edited down for the final recording. Townshend later said this part had "two or three thousand edits to it".

The opening lyrics to the next track, "Bargain", "I'd gladly lose me to find you", came from a phrase used by Baba. Entwistle wrote "My Wife" after having an argument with his wife and exaggerating the conflict in the lyrics. The track features several overdubbed brass instruments recorded in a single half-hour session. "Pure and Easy", a key track from Lifehouse, did not make the final track selection, but the opening line was included as a coda to "The Song is Over".

"Behind Blue Eyes" featured three-part harmony by Daltrey, Townshend and Entwistle and was written for the main antagonist in Lifehouse, Brick. Moon, uncharacteristically, did not appear on the first half of the track, which was later described by Who biographer Dave Marsh as "the longest time Keith Moon was still in his entire life."

The closing track, "Won't Get Fooled Again", was critical of revolutions. Townshend explained, "a revolution is only a revolution in the long run and a lot of people are going to get hurt". The song features the Lowrey organ fed through an ARP synthesizer, which came from Townshend's original demo and was re-used for the finished track.

The Full LP

Side one

1. "Baba O'Riley" Roger Daltrey (verses), Townshend (bridge) 5:08
2. "Bargain" Daltrey (verses), Townshend (bridge) 5:34
3. "Love Ain't for Keeping" Daltrey 2:10
4. "My Wife" Entwistle 3:41
5. "The Song Is Over" Townshend (verses), Daltrey (chorus) 6:14

Side two

6. "Getting in Tune" Daltrey 4:50
7. "Going Mobile" Townshend 3:42
8. "Behind Blue Eyes" Daltrey 3:42
9. "Won't Get Fooled Again" Daltrey 8:32

#thewho   #rocknroll   #musichistory   #rockmusic   #70smusic  


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Berlin is Divided On 13 August 1961

Shortly after midnight on this day in 1961, East German soldiers begin laying down barbed wire and bricks as a barrier between Soviet-controlled East Berlin and the democratic western section of the city. Note to politicians: walls don't work, and they will ultimately be torn down!

After World War II, defeated Germany was divided into Soviet, American, British and French zones of occupation. The city of Berlin, though technically part of the Soviet zone, was also split, with the Soviets taking the eastern part of the city.

After a massive Allied airlift in June 1948 foiled a Soviet attempt to blockade West Berlin, the eastern section was drawn even more tightly into the Soviet fold. Over the next 12 years, cut off from its western counterpart and basically reduced to a Soviet satellite, East Germany saw between 2.5 million and 3 million of its citizens head to West Germany in search of better opportunities. By 1961, some 1,000 East Germans–including many skilled laborers, professionals and intellectuals–were leaving every day.

In August, Walter Ulbricht, the Communist leader of East Germany, got the go-ahead from Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev to begin the sealing off of all access between East and West Berlin. Soldiers began the work over the night of August 12-13, laying more than 100 miles of barbed wire slightly inside the East Berlin border. The wire was soon replaced by a six-foot-high, 96-mile-long wall of concrete blocks, complete with guard towers, machine gun posts and searchlights. East German officers known as Volkspolizei (“Volpos”) patrolled the Berlin Wall day and night.

Many Berlin residents on that first morning found themselves suddenly cut off from friends or family members in the other half of the city. Led by their mayor, Willi Brandt, West Berliners demonstrated against the wall, as Brandt criticized Western democracies, particularly the United States, for failing to take a stand against it. President John F. Kennedy had earlier said publicly that the United States could only really help West Berliners and West Germans, and that any kind of action on behalf of East Germans would only result in failure.

The Berlin Wall was one of the most powerful and iconic symbols of the Cold War. In June 1963, Kennedy gave his famous “Ich bin ein Berliner” (“I am a Berliner”) speech in front of the Wall, celebrating the city as a symbol of freedom and democracy in its resistance to tyranny and oppression. The height of the Wall was raised to 10 feet in 1970 in an effort to stop escape attempts, which at that time came almost daily. From 1961 to 1989, a total of 5,000 East Germans escaped; many more tried and failed. High profile shootings of some would-be defectors only intensified the Western world’s hatred of the Wall.

Finally, in the late 1980s, East Germany, fueled by the decline of the Soviet Union, began to implement a number of liberal reforms. On November 9, 1989, masses of East and West Germans alike gathered at the Berlin Wall and began to climb over and dismantle it. As this symbol of Cold War repression was destroyed, East and West Germany became one nation again, signing a formal treaty of unification on October 3, 1990.

#berlinwall   #germany   #communism   #eastgermany   #coldwar   #westgermany   #sovietunion   #berlin

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Welcome to summertime, may all your days be filled with amazing sunrises full of promises to discover ! #sunrise #newday #summertime #beach #rejuvenate

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Amplified IT is proud to announce the launch of 4 new tools to help GAFE schools work smarter, with 3 more coming this Fall from Amplified Labs -- our new product development division led by EDU Add-ons pioneer +Andrew Stillman and backed by a rockstar team of engineers. Check out the site to learn more about what we've been cooking!

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Check Gmail offline and more great extensions w Kimberley Hall full hour of YouTube! #gafesummit
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