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Thomas Milton Tinney, Sr.
Lived in Waynesville, Ohio
22 followers|21,166 views
Thomas Milton Tinney, Sr. (born 1941) is a 21st century specialist in genealogical research, who focuses primarily on worldwide collective genealogy and family history.  He has been recognized in both editions of Who's Who in Genealogy & Heraldry, Marquis Who's Who in the West (1998 - 1999), and Who's Who in America, (2000 through 2004).  His research papers are deposited with the Joseph Smith Jr. Collection at the University of Utah Marriott Library and Thomas Milton Tinney Papers, at the Utah State Historical Society.  He moved to Utah as a teenager and began a personal evaluation of all record sources, investigating and memorizing published and microform locations, thereby studying every available history, family history, and genealogy collection at the headquarters of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.  He has lived in Colorado, Texas and California, with travel and research evaluation done in every state of the contiguous United States; research elsewhere worldwide and visits to Canada and Mexico. 
Tinney, Sr. has studied the Melvyl® system since acquiring an executed License Agreement with the Regents of the University of California, 02 March 1992.  He has also maintained a listing of family history and genealogy articles, as well as written about intelligent design, and published online Theology & Science: The Bible Is Scientific.
Bragging rights
1. Kip Sperry, Professor of Family History, Church History and Doctrine, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, has included in his list of favorite sites. It is also included in Genealogy Resources, A Subject Tracer™ Information Blog developed and created by Internet expert, author, keynote speaker and consultant Marcus P. Zillman, M.S., A.M.H.A. for monitoring genealogy resources and sites on the Internet. 2. Family Genealogy and History Internet Education Directory - Wiki is included in the world's largest family history library online reference site, in Directories of Genealogical Websites. There are currently (retrieved 2011-09-06) over 25,000 links to this resource, noted by the Yahoo! Site Explorer. It is presented in other library and related locations worldwide, such as BYU Portals Selected Internet Research Sites | Family History | HBLL, and notable East Chicago History Room presentation. 3. Visitors to regularly originate from the United States, India, and China (when not censored). 4. The book, Crash Course in Family History, Fourth Edition, by Paul Larsen, page 173, lists, under Best Web Directories/Portals - FREE
Map of the places this user has livedMap of the places this user has livedMap of the places this user has lived
Waynesville, Ohio
Matching scholarly record sources with Mormon (LDS) family history library systems; listening to classical music, bicycling, and swimming.
Basic Information
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Ignorance, False Promises and Pseudoscience.
Is This Profit Promotion of DNA Fiction by Senior Genealogists?

The Promise & Perils of Sharing DNA
"Even before the launch of Obama’s Precision Medicine Initiative Cohort Program, millions of Americans had already had their DNA tested for insights into health, longevity, paternity, ancestry and more. It has become a lucrative field, and represents the fastest growing segment of the $830 million DNA lab industry, according to a March report from IBISWorld." . . . "Indeed, although researchers and commercial companies say they anonymize genomic information before sharing it, many acknowledge that future privacy is a false promise when it comes to genes." See also: White House Advisory Council Report Is Critical of Forensics Used in Criminal Trials. . . [The report said legal standards in cases involving scientific evidence should be “based upon scientific validity.” It added that “neither experience, nor judgment, nor good professional practices (such as certification programs and accreditation programs, standardized protocols, proficiency testing, and code of ethics) can substitute for actual evidence of foundational validity and reliability.”] . . . [In a separate report, the Innocence Project and the FBI partnered release a joint study that ultimately “found flaws in the testimony an astonishing 95 percent of the time.” Moreover, the Post notes, “DNA testing has revealed that bite-mark evidence underpinning convictions was simply incorrect. More generally, faulty forensic evidence has been found in roughly half of all cases in which post-conviction DNA testing has led to exoneration.”]. . .

In 2013, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints suggested "New Technology Makes Family History Easier, Even Fun", noting "An interesting development in family history research is the use of DNA testing to discover one’s ethnicity." Yet, evolution's hovel is built with fictive DNA straw. Fictive genetic non proofs, which are nothing more than pseudo-scientific estimates, have serious potential for doing irreparable harm to genealogy professionalism, as well as devastate the financial stability of mankind, by limiting insurability; may seriously compromise Latter-day Saints (Mormons) economically, and discriminate against worldwide ethnic populations for generations to come.
DNA testing cannot determine ancestry, including Elizabeth Warren’s.
You’re not 28 percent Finnish, either.

What is law today is not necessarily law tomorrow. The most current report; dated 07 SEP 2016, is from The U.S. Commission on Civil Rights; independent, bipartisan agency established by Congress in 1957.
This report examined the balance struck by federal courts, foremost among them the U.S. Supreme Court, in adjudicating claims for religious exemptions from otherwise applicable nondiscrimination law.
. . . 2. Religious exemptions to the protections of civil rights based upon classifications such as race, color, national origin, sex, disability status, sexual orientation, and gender identity, when they are permissible, significantly infringe upon these civil rights.
. . .
Recommendations included:
1. Overly-broad religious exemptions unduly burden nondiscrimination laws and policies. Federal and state courts, lawmakers, and policy-makers at every level must tailor religious exceptions to civil liberties and civil rights protections as narrowly as applicable law requires. In light of these assertions, it is helpful to review concerns about process related to sovereignty: Genetic "Markers"- Not a Valid Test of Native Identity

"The concept of genetic testing to prove Native American ancestry is one that is discussed more frequently in recent times, but there are many problems with the idea. Perhaps foremost of these problems is that to make a genetic test the arbiter of whether someone is Native American or not is to give up tribal sovereign ability to determine membership and relations. But even taken on their own scientific terms, the tests cannot do much to identify who is and who is not Native American. This is because they yield many false negatives and false positives (they readily misidentify non-Native people as Native, and misidentify Native people as non-Native), and the positive results they do yield at best are only probabilities, not certainties. If these were medical diagnostic tests, they would never be approved or adopted."

So, simply put, probabilities are not conclusive scientific facts; it is flawed use. Nevertheless, I see, using America as an evaluation platform, severe dangers to the very fabric of our enlightened society. If the religious foundations of the U.S. Constitution are taken away by generic "civil rights". then the current rising generations, will follow in the classic Roman pattern, and society as we know it will cease, with marriage and family ties defined as old fashioned and obsolete. Then, groups based on historical and genealogical identities will become refuse, or garbage, in political discourse; in particular, such groups we now know as the DAR, SAR, Federation of Family History Societies, lineage societies as a whole, genealogists, family historians, generational historians, FamilySearch (its vision, beliefs and collections), soc.genealogy.medieval; etc. Also, I can see political logic to genetically divest U.S. national contractual obligations to, say, American Indian Tribal Authorities, as being non essential, when compared to new blocks of voting groups, such as immigrant populations, tied to Federal welfare systems. If however, the American Indians are divested from their inalienable reservation land rights, and confiscation is attempted to take over casino revenues; then, I see also "the remnant of Jacob shall be among the Gentiles in the midst of many people as a lion among the beasts of the forest, as a young lion among the flocks of sheep: who, if he go through, both treadeth down, and teareth in pieces, and none can deliver."

Additionally, from a Book of Mormon perspective, there are warnings.
12 And my people who are a remnant of Jacob shall be among the Gentiles, yea, in the midst of them as a lion among the beasts of the forest, as a young lion among the flocks of sheep, who, if he go through both treadeth down and teareth in pieces, and none can deliver. 13 Their hand shall be lifted up upon their adversaries, and all their enemies shall be cut off. 14 Yea, wo be unto the Gentiles except they repent; for it shall come to pass in that day, saith the Father, that I will cut off thy horses out of the midst of thee, and I will destroy thy chariots; 15 And I will cut off the cities of thy land, and throw down all thy strongholds; 16 And I will cut off witchcrafts out of thy land, and thou shalt have no more soothsayers; 17 Thy graven images I will also cut off, and thy standing images out of the midst of thee, and thou shalt no more worship the works of thy hands; 18 And I will pluck up thy groves out of the midst of thee; so will I destroy thy cities.
[Western United States might take note of their own drought conditions,]
19 And it shall come to pass that all lyings, and deceivings, and envyings, and strifes, and priestcrafts, and whoredoms, shall be done away.
Also, 21 And I will execute vengeance and fury upon them, even as upon the heathen, such as they have not heard.
I ask: Will this come from currently planned nuclear strikes from Asia?

Is this a serious public relations mistake, for an organization, noted for being the source of all truth, to promote hope in fictional data sets? After all is said and done, "All true faith must be based upon correct knowledge or it cannot produce the desired results." Today, this is now updated in FamilySearch, the genealogy arm of the LDS Church, in subset "Hiring a DNA Testing Company", listed under Hiring a Professional Researcher.

Evaluate one such company and its claims, that: "Once you've taken your test, we'll search our network of AncestryDNA members and identify your cousins—the people who share your DNA." And, AncestryDNA promotes itself as "The World's Largest Consumer DNA Database". Their site includes A Comprehensive Map of AncestryDNA Ethnicity Regions; currently listing 26 areas.

Well, from a Biblical standpoint, this is indeed true. We are all related as descending posterity of the prophet Noah, whose cousin relatives and ancestry, consisting of all mankind living prior to the flood, were then DNA hourglass [not bottleneck] squeezed into the one small family unit that survived. [" . . . Even if we use rates appropriate for the present world (x = 1 and C = 1.5), over 3 billion people could easily have been on the earth at the time of Noah."]. Ignorance: Any laundry list of people used on the earth, contains names and surnames, that are all related to each other, as a "cousin-hood". This is not established genealogical proof. And contrary to marketing of higher "fit" expectations, over time, increasing DNA sample bases will make more complex, not refine, the ability to truly genealogically validate each person's identity, if the statistical downward disparity in the volume of all other unrecorded supporting factors does become globally marginalized. Mankind is then only a DNA number, like 666; having no godlike characteristics or feelings; being only a materialistic entity.

Distortion of genealogical properties when the sample is very large
. . .
"We will soon enter an era in which it will become routine to analyze samples with hundreds of thousands if not millions of individuals. For these large sample sizes, the standard coalescent will no longer serve as an adequate model for evolution. The DTWF model is mathematically cumbersome to work with, which was one of the original motivations for adopting the coalescent for modern population genetics analyses. However, for these very large sample sizes, we will need to develop new mathematically and computationally tractable stochastic processes that better approximate realistic models of human population evolution, and under which we can efficiently compute genealogical quantities like we have been able to under the coalescent."

Fundamental limits on the accuracy of demographic inference based on the sample frequency spectrum
. . .
. . .
"Numerous empirical studies in population genetics have used a summary statistic called the sample frequency spectrum (SFS), which summarizes the information in a sample of DNA sequences. Despite their popularity, the accuracy of inference methods based on the SFS is difficult to characterize theoretically, and it is currently unknown how the estimation accuracy improves as more sites in the genome are used. Here, we establish information theoretic limits on the accuracy of all estimators that use the SFS to infer population size histories. We study the rate of convergence to the true answer as the amount of data increases, and obtain the surprising result that it is exponentially worse than known convergence rates for many classical estimation problems in statistics."

As I stated heretofore, promises, promises, promises, as larger databases become available, reveal more complexity in the systems proposed analysis, and for which "we will need to develop new mathematically and computationally tractable stochastic processes that better approximate realistic models of human population evolution".

DNA is not the problem.  As of 2015 and 2016 era papers, full public admission is made that models used in the past are going to be readjusted to "efficiently compute genealogical quantities".  All this is bad news to the family history community. They have been led to believe that as the size of their genetic sample base increases, via $$$ transfers to various sampling companies, they will have further stunning improvements in pedigree accuracy. NOT SO! And so the cat is out of the bag, finally, finally! The scientific community needs the genealogy community to give it the parameters it needs to figure out future approximate estimates on what its independently (so called) derived assumptions and mathematical calculations are based. Dollars $$$ will thus continuously flow from "widows pockets", genealogists and family historians, since with every new future adjustment, past assessments will all be ancient history. This is an ideal economic and business model; a fabulous way to keep coffers full.

Furthermore, "Genealogical Discontinuities among Etruscan, Medieval, and Contemporary Tuscans", accepted June 10, 2009, concludes by stating what is not  "a safe general assumption": "Only a handful of populations of preclassical Europe have been studied genetically, all of them only for mtDNA, and hence generalizations on their relationships with their current counterparts appear premature. Therefore, it is not clear yet whether these data may eventually force us to reconsider the results of studies inferring demographic history under the assumption that genetic diversity in current populations is a good proxy for the (unknown) diversity in past populations of the same region. At this stage, one can only emphasize that cases of both genetic continuity and discontinuity have been observed. Therefore, the notion that the modern inhabitants of a region are descended from its ancient residents does not seem a robust general assumption, but rather a hypothesis that whenever possible should be tested empirically using ancient DNA."

"This study shows that genealogical links can be detected between people who inhabited Tuscany at different time periods, but so far not between the Bronze Age and more recent inhabitants of the region." Additionally, "Analyses of mtDNA diversity in the British Isles (Töpf et al. 2007), and Iceland (Helgason et al. 2009), also showed sharp differences between historical and current populations. In addition, a large fraction (up to 80%, depending on the region considered) of the Dutch surnames were displaced from the areas in which their frequency was highest three centuries ago (Manni et al. 2005)."

GENETICS & GENEALOGY: Genetic Genealogy:
Genealogical DNA test - List of Genetic Genealogy Topics
My problem with injecting DNA into genealogy research comes from changing scientific "truths" over time. The Synaptic Scoop, 18 Jun 2013, discusses "neurogenesis". Significantly, [The more 14C that is in the atmosphere, the more it is integrated into our own body’s DNA when new cells are created.] Researchers found that [Atmospheric detonation of atomic bombs from 1955-1963 shot worldwide 14C levels through the roof.] This can be compared with solar activity. carbon dating – The Synaptic Scoop (archived)

[From constant stream of particles in the form of solar wind to the unpredictable bombardment from solar flares and coronal mass ejections, Earth often feels the effects of its stellar companions.]
Space Weather: Sunspots, Solar Flares & Coronal Mass Ejections
[When the twisted field lines cross and reconnect, energy explodes outward with a force exceeding that of millions of hydrogen bombs.]
Anatomy of Sun Storms & Solar Flares (Infographic)

From a historical standpoint, on Sept. 1, 1859, the Carrington Event was
[the largest geomagnetic storm ever recorded.] [Just before dawn the next day, skies all over planet Earth erupted in red, green, and purple auroras so brilliant that newspapers could be read as easily as in daylight. Indeed, stunning auroras pulsated even at near tropical latitudes over Cuba, the Bahamas, Jamaica,
El Salvador, and Hawaii.] A Super Solar Flare - NASA Science

Additionally, scientists do not understand the how and why of a tropic environment for the North Pole region. [Researchers are not sure what caused the sudden boost of carbon dioxide that set the greenhouse effect on broil. Possible culprits could be huge releases of methane from the ocean, gigantic continent-sized burning of trees, or lots of volcanic eruptions.]
Study: North Pole Once Was Tropical - CBS Fox News

[Analysis of two ancient trees found a surge in carbon-14 -- a carbon isotope that derives from cosmic radiation -- which occurred just in AD 774 and AD 775, the team report in the journal Nature on Sunday.] . . .
In Tree Rings, Japanese Scientists Find 8th-Century Mystery

Nevertheless, the fact remains (that due to the changes in solar radiation and intensity on different earth areas over time); using DNA as a biological constant over time that can be used to identify human ancestry, is technically and scientifically incorrect; forever outside the scope of being a primary source tool for competent genealogical or family history research, especially prior to written records. Solar Flare Unleashes Violent Plasma 'Rainstorm' (Video)

Major X-Class Solar Flares Unleashed by Sun (Photos) |
[The story begins, in a sense, in classrooms around the world, where students are taught that the rate of decay of a specific radioactive material is a constant. This concept is relied upon, for example, when anthropologists use carbon-14 to date ancient artifacts . . .Their findings strengthened the argument that the strange swings in decay rates were caused by neutrinos from the sun. The swings seemed to be in synch with the Earth's elliptical orbit, with the decay rates oscillating as the Earth came closer to the sun (where it would be exposed to more neutrinos) and then moving away.]
The Strange Case of Solar Flares and Radioactive Elements (archived)

[IceCube is a particle detector at the South Pole that records the interactions of a nearly massless sub-atomic particle called the neutrino. . . . IceCube studies the neutrinos themselves; their energies far exceed those produced by accelerator beams.] From: IceCube Neutrino Observatory. Scientific American Magazine January 13, 2014 issue: Superpowerful X-ray Laser Boils Atoms in Molecules, Nanosystems and Solids and Explodes Proteins, All in the Name of Science. [. . . the laser boils away the atoms' electrons from the inside out. . . . the inner shell takes the brunt of the radiation . . . The two electrons in that shell shoot off, leaving empty space in their wake; the atom is hollow. Within a few femtoseconds (quadrillionths of a second), other electrons get sucked in to replace the lost ones, and the cycle of core-hole formation and vacancy filling continues until no electrons are left. This process occurs for molecules as well as solid matter.]

[Accordingly, (14)C may prove to be a source of genetic alteration that is impossible to avoid due to the universal presence of radiocarbon in the environment.] Carbon-14 decay . . . [Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014] - PubMed - NCBI [Naturally occurring radioactivity muddles DNA - Natural radioactivity within DNA can alter chemical compounds, providing a new pathway for genetic mutations.] Welcome to The Visible Embryo

I think DNA research applications for genealogical research are directly related and equivalent to fingerprinting. [Even identical twins (who share their DNA) do not have identical fingerprints.] It is all a matter of assigning a degree of confidence. [Since the early 20th century, fingerprint detection and analysis has been one of the most common and important forms of crime scene forensic investigation. More crimes have been solved with fingerprint evidence than for any other reason.] Dermatoglyphics is the science by which we can [determine whether these impressions could have come from the same individual. The flexibility of friction ridge skin means that no two finger or palm prints are ever exactly alike in every detail; even two impressions recorded immediately after each other from the same hand may be slightly different.] So if we want an ancestry background check, we should gather all the family fingerprints and put them all together and compare them, both for the father's side and the mother's side. Then, with the same degree of confidence of determining DNA "matches", we should be able to directly trace back all our ancestry. Yes, No, Maybe? Biometric [identification utilizing a physical attribute that is unique to every human] includes [iris recognition, the use of dental records in forensic dentistry, the tongue and DNA profiling, also known as genetic fingerprinting.] The problem I have with all of this is the logic behind the big story, because I am told that DNA is the "engine" that creates all of this unique identification in every human being. That, however, says to me, that over generations of time, every person, father, son, mother daughter, brother, sister, relative, each had a former DNA "engine" creator that produced another individual that in and of itself, starts off life with its own altered DNA "record" (it must be so to produce individuality); this then produces other altered DNA "records" in its posterity. So, the issue is not with the continuous replication process which is so nicely discussed exactingly in family history DNA related venues, it is with the very fact that everyone who is a human being is individually genetically altered. And unless you can trace genealogy created patterns in fingerprints, iris recognition, or some other form of biometric identification, you certainly cannot with confidence, trace back with any degree of certainty, unique DNA profiling, which ever so minutely changes from one person to another, over all generations of time. This is of course my own personal opinion on the matter, fortified by my own experience of seeing enthusiastic DNA potential "matches" that are in professional research, directly contradicted by written record sources.

(1) DNA testing cannot be used currently to discover one’s ethnicity.
(2) Ethnicity Regions are only at present, pseudoscience conjecture.
(3) Effective family history research requires primary document data.

Cannabis use linked to gene mutation;
dated 24 May 2016
"Scientists from The University of Western Australia have identified how using cannabis can alter a person's DNA structure, causing mutations which can expose them to serious illnesses, and be passed on to their children and several future generations."

"In the study published in the journal Mutation Research – Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis, researchers assert they've been able to show for the first time how marijuana can be linked to serious illnesses and the implications for future generations, the International Business Times in Australia reports."

From Drug Enforcement Administration
Museum & Visitors Center - Cannabis, Coca, & Poppy:
Nature’s Addictive Plants

The oldest known written record on cannabis use comes from the Chinese Emperor Shen Nung in 2727 B.C. Ancient Greeks and Romans were also familiar with cannabis, while in the Middle East, use spread throughout the Islamic empire to North Africa. In 1545 cannabis spread to the western hemisphere where Spaniards imported it to Chile for its use as fiber.,+A+History+of+Pharmaceutics&source=bl&ots=S5OTqXaa_9&sig=wcGIE7XSe1eDuX2nYfYYVp8l9ac&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjRyeHVq5bNAhXJLmMKHRw-DbI4ChDoAQg4MAc#v=onepage&q=Medicine%20in%20China%2C%20A%20History%20of%20Pharmaceutics&f=false

Cannabis is . . .  the most commonly used illegal drug both in the world and the United States.

CONCLUSION: Drug use causing additional unnatural cell mutations over time in various population groups, effectively destroys using DNA generational analysis, as a tool in professional genealogical research applications, past, present or future. "The scientists, from the University of West Australia, conducted an extensive review of scientific literature. They discovered that THC - the active chemical compound in cannabis - interferes with the segregation of chromosomes during cell division"

Thomas A. Kunkel wrote back on Feb 26 2004, concerning DNA Replication Fidelity. He wrote: "interest in the fidelity of DNA copying mechanisms remains high because the balance between correct and incorrect DNA synthesis is relevant to a great deal of biology. High fidelity DNA synthesis is beneficial for maintaining genetic information over many generations and for avoiding mutations that can initiate and promote human diseases such as cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Low fidelity DNA synthesis is beneficial for the evolution of species, for generating diversity leading to increased survival of viruses and microbes when subjected to changing environments, and for the development of a normal immune system." . . . "To perform these tasks, cells harbor multiple DNA polymerases (2, 3), many of which have only been discovered in the past 5 years and whose cellular functions are not fully understood. These polymerases differ in many features including their fidelity. This diversity and the sequence complexity of genomes provide the potential to vary DNA synthesis error rates over a wider range than was appreciated a few years ago. . . ."

One, two, four, eight – lessons from dividing cells
January 6, 2016 by Wei Theng Poh
. . .
"By probing the mechanism(s) that leads to cells extinguishing checkpoint signaling in the presence of the DNA damage, we hope to gain a fundamental understanding of an event that possibly confers survival advantages to cancer cells types. And that would be half the battle in thinking about how to treat this disease."

Scientists propose an algorithm to study DNA faster and more accurately
January 18, 2016
. . .
"Bioinformatics is a very topical subject; every new sequenced genome raises so many additional questions that scientists simply do not have time to answer them all."

It is intentionally and willfully misleading for any company to suggest, in public notices, as if they have all the answers; that current genetics can provide to unsuspecting new or advanced genealogy researchers, connective genetic data sets to written record sources. The power of positive prediction of similar results over time, is subject to cellular functions not yet fully understood, as noted in the more current publications; and, which cells, from research undertaken and reviewed, in the recent past, have been found to be sensitive, re: DNA, to harmful drugs ingestion. Genetic data conclusions, at present, are like a beautiful 4th of July celebration, one great find after another lights the headlines sky, each having its 15 seconds of glory, then flowing down as burnt embers as a new theory and postulations follow the wake; ever learning, approximately, but not finding ultimate truth.

DNA Testing: A Plus (+) or Minus (-) For Genealogy?
Mathematics Indicates That It Just Does Not Add Up.

What is genetic ancestry testing?
Noted by the U.S. Library of Medicine.
. . .
The American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) developed a position paper on ancestry testing, with their final testing statement, dated 13 Nov 2008.
. . .
"Perhaps the most important aspect of reporting confidence in ancestry determinations is to accurately convey the level of uncertainty in the interpretations and to convey the real meaning of that uncertainty." . . . "Population genetic inference is ultimately a statistical exercise, and rarely can definitive conclusions about ancestry be made beyond the assessment of whether putative close relatives are or are not related." . . .

"It is well known that horoscopes use vague statements which recipients think are more tailored than they really are (referred to as the ‘Forer effect’). Genetic ancestry tests do a similar thing, and many exaggerate far beyond the available evidence about human origins. You cannot look at DNA and read it like a book or a map of a journey. For the most part these tests cannot tell you the things they claim to – they are little more than genetic astrology."

As to putative close relatives. there is "The risk of false inclusion of a relative in parentage testing – an in silico population study", from U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institute of Health. "Aim - To investigate the potential of false inclusion of a close genetic relative in paternity testing by using computer generated families." . . . "Conclusions - The results highlight the risk of false inclusion in parentage testing. These data provide a valuable reference when incorporating either a mutation in the father’s DNA type or if a close relative is included as being the father; particularly when there are varying numbers of non-matching loci." Interestingly, "The chance of a false inclusion and exclusion is greater when testing one putative parent and an offspring (a duo scenario) than when there is an additional confirmed parent (a trio scenario)."  So, even at this basic level, using "10 000 computer-simulated families over three generations [that] were generated based on genotypes using 15 short tandem repeat loci." . . . "The results highlight the risk of false inclusion in parentage testing."  Therefore, notable senior genealogists should figure, or calculate, how this negatively plays out with confidence levels, using the more limited DNA testing that actually can be done (using even known paper or compiled professionally documented pedigrees), over time.

There appears to be an adjustment in statistical probabilities for DNA based relationships, with any given individual, to any given or proposed pedigree that they might be associated with, depending upon placement from one's direct line or cousin sources, as father, son, brother, uncle, nephew, etc. This implies that there are no concrete standards that can be established over time to specify real individual identities. Thus, DNA proof is mercurial, and being of human origins, also subject to unknown moral value systems and actions, which then further complicates validating assumptions; additionally made more subjective by each new value system accepted and promulgated in every future living generation. Examples: Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings:
A Brief Account
Accountant wins legal claim to baronetcy in 'cuckoo in the nest' case that could challenge the British class system

Received: 12 Jan 2015
Accepted: 5 Oct 2015
Published online: 14 Dec 2015
Ethnic and Racial Studies
Volume 39, Issue 2, 2016
Special Issue: 
The Impact of Diasporas: Markers of Identity
. . .
In the blood:
the myth and reality of genetic markers of identity
". . . statistical methods are nonetheless claimed to be able to predict successfully the population of origin of a DNA sample. Such methods are employed in commercial genetic ancestry tests, and particular genetic signatures, often in the male-specific Y-chromosome or maternally-inherited mitochondrial DNA, have become widely identified with particular ancestral or existing groups, such as Vikings, Jews, or Zulus. . . . We describe the conflict between population genetics and individual-based genetics and the pitfalls of over-simplistic genetic interpretations, arguing that although the tests themselves are reliable, the interpretations are unreliable and strongly influenced by cultural and other social forces."

Forensic DNA evidence is not infallible
28 October 2015 Clarified: 05 November 2015

As DNA analysis techniques become more sensitive, we must be careful to reassess the probabilities of error, argues Cynthia M. Cale.

"Earlier this month, the Texas Forensic Science Commission raised concerns about the accuracy of the statistical interpretation of DNA evidence, and it is now checking whether convictions going back more than a decade are safe." Note in particular: "The term 'touch DNA' conveys to a courtroom that biological material found on an object is the result of direct contact. In fact, forensic scientists have no way of knowing whether the DNA was left behind through such primary, direct transfer. It could also have been deposited by secondary transfer, through an intermediary. (If I shake your hand then I could pass some of your skin cells onto something that I touch next.)" How, then can anyone convey with any degree of honesty, that any test outside of the "sanitary" laboratory, can be used with any "X" degree of reputable assurance? Especially, if samples are submitted to a receiving laboratory, with intent to skew objectivity? And, consider further, any ancestral families and their remains, or known artifacts, how they could have been "touched" by various means; "kissed" or "hugged" or had other body parts replaced, and I could go on and on; are they not to a high degree of uncertainty, constantly diluted over time and weathering, by various elements intruding, etc.?
Examples: Solving the Mystery of an Ancient Epidemic -  Sep 15, 2015 - The Atlantic
. . .
[The authors also suggested another possibility: that the DNA found in the teeth wasn’t from the Plague of Athens pathogen at all. “While we cannot exclude the possibility that the Athens sequence is a previously unidentified infectious agent,” they concluded, “it is quite reasonable to assume that the sequence is actually that of a modern, free-living soil bacterium, a possibility that could have been explored by extracting DNA from surrounding soil samples as additional negative controls.”]
Yersinia pestis and the Plague of Justinian
541–543 AD: a genomic analysis
. . . Interpretation
We conclude that the Y pestis lineages that caused the Plague of Justinian and the Black Death 800 years later were independent emergences from rodents into human beings. These results show that rodent species worldwide represent important reservoirs for the repeated emergence of diverse lineages of Y pestis into human populations.

Non-Identafible Pedigrees and a Bayesian Solution dated 26 Feb 2016
. . .
"Some methods aim to correct or test for relationships or to reconstruct the  pedigree, or family tree. We show that these methods cannot resolve ties for correct relationships due to identifiability of the pedigree likelihood which is the probability of inheriting the data under the pedigree model. This means  that no likelihood-based method can produce a correct pedigree inference with high probability. This lack of reliability is critical both for health and forensics applications. . . . This means that errors in pedigree prediction have dramatic effects on downstream analysis."
. . .
"Half-Cousins and Full-Cousins Relationships. To the best of our knowledge Donnelly [5] was the first to remark that pairs of pedigrees either of the half-cousin or of the full-cousin type and having equal numbers of edges are non-identifiable" . . . "Fig. 2. Half-cousins and grand-half-avuncular relationships are non-identifiable even when there is a third individual of interest." . . . "These examples mean that the likelihood alone is not a practical tool for testing relationships, for inferring pedigrees, or for correcting pedigrees that have relationship errors since the pedigrees under consideration might be non-identifiable."

In suggesting a potential solution, mention is made that: "As yet, all these details are an open problem."

"Isaac Newton’s discoveries were so numerous and varied that many consider him to be the father of modern science." . . . "Newton was knighted in 1705 and upon his death in 1727 was the first scientist given the honor of burial in Westminster Abbey."

Newton's study of biblical chronology did not make him less credible. Newton and Leibniz both invented calculus, which includes "limits, functions, derivatives, integrals, and infinite series." Unfortunately, there is no way to invent a genetic genealogy mapping calculus, that can consistently and accurately close the uncertainty gaps between DNA sample inference points and professionally established pedigree node points. It is all a matter of biased conjecture. As far as medieval records go, followers of John Wycliffe "undertook the first complete English translations of the Christian scriptures in the 14th century." I, however, use the KJV, though I know of some who consider the German a better translation. From a professional genealogical research specialist standpoint, I can state I have read the said Bible from cover to cover, verbally, out-loud, a study undertaken from childhood, which expanded later into all world religious beliefs in various library settings in the United States. Reading out-loud all names in the pedigrees, and in comparison with the textual thrust of ideas presented therein, led me to the conclusion, (with a study of family behaviors and historical events, plus parallel artifacts discovered), that it was indeed historical, and in particular, a handed down record. Biblical text is a family centric written ancestry; not contrived, postulated, and not comic DNA fantasy.

Basic philosophical differences: [The proposal that one type of organism could descend from another type goes back to some of the first pre-Socratic Greek philosophers, such as Anaximander and Empedocles.] . . .
[Simple organisms have therefore been the dominant form of life on Earth throughout its history and continue to be the main form of life up to the present day, with complex life only appearing more diverse because it is more noticeable.] However, experimental evolution, extrapolated in real time, does suggest that in infinite time and space, there would have developed life forms that would have become so complex as to evolve over time to the point that they could overcome death and live forever in all types of environments. In fact, that is essentially part of the objectives in current cancer research, to determine what turns off, on, or redirects the positive signals in healthy cells. Date: April 14, 2016 Source: Institute of Cancer Research Summary: Cancer cells use a mutant gene to coerce neighboring healthy tissue into helping with the disease's growth and spread, a major new study reports. Healthy cells are persuaded to release unique growth signals which cancer cells can use to multiply but cannot secrete themselves, researchers found. This is like a genetic rerun of [Dracula's attempt to move from Transylvania to England so that he may find new blood and spread the undead curse, and of the battle between Dracula and a small group of men and women led by Professor Abraham Van Helsing.]

From a Philosophy standpoint: [In several of Plato's dialogues, Socrates promulgates the idea that knowledge is a matter of recollection, and not of learning, observation, or study.] Baird, Forrest E.; Kaufmann, Walter, eds. (2008). Philosophic Classics: From Plato to Derrida (Fifth ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-158591-6. The Mormon faith does not cause me to fear anything. The Mormons are not Zion, they have not created Zion, some try to live Zion, but it is not a done deal. The love of God and the Merits of Jesus Christ are the only things that sustain me, and I fear and tremble daily before Them, because of my own known imperfections, but not any man. Nevertheless, the ideas of Socrates are found in the Remarks by President Brigham Young, made in the Tabernacle, in Great Salt Lake City, March 16, 1862 . . . [It is often remarked that we do not understand things alike, but I am of the opinion that the inhabitants of the earth understand in the spirit, or, in other words, in the intelligent portion of their organisms, nearer alike than they have power to communicate. We believe we are entitled to the gift of the Holy Ghost in extent according to the discretion and wisdom of God and our faithfulness; which gift brings all things to our remembrance, past, present, and to come, that are necessary for us to know, and as far as our minds are prepared to receive the knowledge of God revealed by that all-wise Agent. The Holy Ghost is God's minister, and is delegated to visit the sons and daughters of men. All intelligent beings pertaining to this earth are instructed from the same source.] Reported By: G. D. Watt. I have had, in my younger years, the opportunity to read completely through every volume of the Journal of Discourses; it is compelling.

DNA does not support evolution. Conjectures offer no support at all, because the sample sizes and availability for them, over time do not exist. From a Christian standpoint, many saints' bodies from Adam on down, have already been resurrected; from a secular standpoint, mass movements, like the Syrian migrations of today, Chinatowns and pockets of ethnic groups, do not make geographic maps realistic. It is all sad, sad, comic DNA fantasy. I have been reading over time, thousands of professional and popular articles on the subject, Googled worldwide, etc.

This is not sect centric; it was linguistically motivated, coming from item by Johann Albrecht Bengel (24 June 1687 – 2 November 1752); i.e., Bengelius, Greek-language scholar; re: Greek New Testament and related commentaries. [His fame was such that almost 200 years later, Hermann Hesse has the hero of The Glass Bead Game discuss Bengel's writings.]. . . [Hermann Karl Hesse . . . (2 July 1877 – 9 August 1962) was a German-born Swiss poet, novelist, and painter. His best-known works include Steppenwolf, Siddhartha, and The Glass Bead Game, each of which explores an individual's search for authenticity, self-knowledge and spirituality. In 1946, he received the Nobel Prize in Literature.]

Item: From BibleHub
"Matthew 27:52. Τῶν κεκοιμημένων ἁγίων, of the saints that had slept) The name saints belongs equally to the living and the dead; yea, in the mention of the dead, the determining clause is added, “who had slept.” And these saints are reckoned such, not by human, but Divine Canon. Of the Saints, who had died either a long while before the birth of Christ, or not much after (see Gnomon on John 11:25), from all tribes no doubt. The ancients appear to have considered Job to have been one of these; for, at the end of his book, the LXX. and Theodotion add γέγραπται δὲ αὐτὸν πάλιν ἀναστήσεσθαι μεθʼ ὧν ὁ κύριος ἀνίστησιν, but it is written that he shall rise again with those whom the Lord raises." Thus, as I suggested, from Adam and Eve, to the time of Holy Messiah. Matthew wrote it as a fact, attested to by saints living in those ancient times. The belief system that they had was all from eye-witness testimony, as recorded.

Additionally, the Book of Mormon is the keystone of LDS faith or religious belief. It is presented, in personal and LDS history of Joseph Smith, Jr., as anciently created plates written upon and also conveyed by a former mortal man named Moroni; and, that said Moroni, appeared to Joseph Smith, Jr. as a clothed, resurrected being; and, as such, his DNA cannot be properly evaluated. Since Moroni's death occurred circa 421 A.D., it falls within medieval genealogies; that other former kin were also resurrected.

Book of Mormon and DNA Studies
. . .
[At the present time, scientific consensus holds that the vast majority of Native Americans belong to sub-branches of the Y-chromosome haplogroups C and Q14 and the mitochondrial DNA haplogroups A, B, C, D, and X, all of which are predominantly East Asian.]  Now, we just find out that "Laser technology reveals cities concealed under the earth which would have made up the world’s largest empire in 12th century" were in Cambodia, [a country located in the southern portion of the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.] Implies Pacific trading.

The Guardian reported in an exclusive on Friday, concerning Revealed: Cambodia's vast medieval cities hidden beneath the jungle; dated Friday, June 10, 2016.
. . .
Laser technology reveals cities concealed under the earth which would have made up the world’s largest empire in 12th century
. . .
discoveries that promise to upend key assumptions about south-east Asia’s history
. . .
“This urban and rural landscape, linked by road and canal networks, now seems to have constituted the largest empire on earth in the 12th century,” Sharrock said.
. . .
Using the lidar at Longvek and Oudong in combination with conventional archaeology we will reveal the dark age as equally rich, complex and diverse.”

Now, has The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, had the opportunity to apply this same technology to the jungle regions of North and South America? Certainly, it would help clarify, hopefully, once and for all, Book of Mormon geography claims.

[Near Eastern DNA should be easily identifiable among modern native groups], unless, as suggested from the religious teachings of the Book of Mormon, all the Saints of former days in the Americas were actually resurrected, indirectly inferred by the following statement: [Fourth Nephi covers the nearly 200 years of unity and harmony following Jesus Christ’s visit to the Americas. The people “were all converted unto the Lord” (4 Nephi 1:2), resulting in a society that people of all ages have dreamed of. Elder Jeffrey R. Holland of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles observed that following Christ’s visit, “His majestic teachings and ennobling spirit led to the happiest of all times, a time in which ‘there were no contentions and disputations among them, and every man did deal justly one with another. And they had all things common among them; therefore there were not rich and poor, bond and free, but they were all made free, and partakers of the heavenly gift’ [4 Nephi 1:2–3]. That blessed circumstance was, I suppose, achieved on only one other occasion of which we know—the city of Enoch, where ‘they were of one heart and one mind, and dwelt in righteousness; and there was no poor among them’ [Moses 7:18]” (in Conference Report, Apr. 1996, 40; or Ensign, May 1996, 30).} And of course, LDS religious belief validates that the whole City of Enoch was translated.

There is vast difference between expressing a religion from a missionary standpoint to "convert" individuals, versus necessary studies of religious values and systems, to determine what effect a particular religion has on the preservation of records and genealogies, and accuracy within record systems. World Will Get More Religious by 2050; re: Live Science, April 3, 2015.
. . .[People who don't believe in any gods as well as agnostics and those not associated with a particular religion will become a smaller slice of the world's population. Though this unaffiliated group will increase in numbers from 1.1 billion to 1.2 billion, it will account for a lower percentage of the population (16 versus 13 percent) in 2050.

That won't be the case in the United States, however, where agnostics, atheists and other unaffiliated individuals will increase from 16 percent to 26 percent of the population by 2050, Pew found. Christians in the United States are predicted to decline from 2010's 78 percent to 66 percent by the middle of the 21st century. By that same date, Muslims (2.1 percent of population) are expected to outnumber Jews (1.4 percent) in the United States.] . . .

I like viewing things from a historical perspective, to prove a record factual, rather than to present things in a contentious manner. For example, there is a heated secular versus religious viewpoint, as well as within the LDS community, as to the exact location of the Hill Cumorah. [In this hill, a Book of Mormon figure, Mormon, deposited a number of metal plates containing the record of his nation of Nephites, just prior to their final battle with the Lamanites in which at least 230,000 people were killed.] This is a very low estimate, as more than likely, at least another 230,000 Lamanites were also terminated, in the process of the Nephites self defense for their own lives and families. So, the secular scientists say not so, there are no remains or artifacts, and some LDS professional experts, protect themselves in a secular manner, by saying, Well, we really don't know where this hill is located, yet. Yet, reading the record itself, we find the answer to all the missing remains and artifacts. ". . . the Lamanites . . . feed the women upon the flesh of their husbands, and the children upon the flesh of their fathers . . .] The Nephites, on the other hand, [murder them (Lamanites) in a most cruel manner, torturing their bodies even unto death; and after they have done this, they devour their flesh like unto wild beasts, because of the hardness of their hearts; and they do it for a token of bravery.] From my clearly historical standpoint, IF there had been remains left around the New York location of the Hill Cumorah, and a multitude of artifacts; indeed, it would have DISPROVED the inner contents of the book itself; since, the last battle of all would have been followed by a massive cannibalistic eating frenzy, as well as a complete, total pillaging of all personal and all military equipment and possessions left at the site, over time. Why else would the Lamanite Kings have allowed a gathering of all Nephites together in one single military setting? Answer: Because it was the easiest way for the Lamanites to acquire all of the Nephite treasures, and then eat them up as well, before they has a chance to decompose.

Cannibalism does affect available DNA sample size; etc.; re: comic DNA fantasy.

CONCLUSION. There is more scientific reliability in weather forecasting, than various comic DNA fantasy projections. Why then, is comic DNA fantasy so really stupid? Because, it is like saying, if I transpose a computer back in time, 4.5 billion years in the past, it will transmogrify over time, that is, surprisingly, magically, strangely, and grotesquely, into Boolean algebra. In other words, if all animal creatures and human biological specimens, had instincts, feelings, and emotions, which were all originally formed only with the simple understandings of yes-no reactions, then all computers, past, present, and future, originated genetically, from a 0 and a 1, But, a computer's machine language, or the concepts of Boolean algebra, in which the values of the variables are the truth values true and false, usually denoted 1 and 0 respectively, does not limit the transmission of concepts or information provided by more simple computer language interfaces. There are many languages used in computers and many diagrams presented showing how they developed and cross comparisons of why they were developed and for which use they are best suited. Thus complexity, or intelligence in man or animals, etc., (for those who have any understanding of astronomy), exists universally, and is found, within the time frame of modern research, among all galactic formations. And, for those who have studied ancient astronomical observations; same findings: intelligence, or complexity beyond or above basic inanimate objects, things, or numbers, independently self exists.

Which brings up a parallel item of interest specifically related to medieval genealogical resources. DNA May Reveal Origins of Medieval Manuscripts
By Andrea Thompson | February 10, 2009
. . .
Stinson's plan, which he recently presented at the annual meeting of the Bibliographical Society of America in New York, is to take DNA samples from manuscripts with known dates and establish a reference base to which samples of texts of unknown origin can be compared. He hopes to do this by pinning down the specific herds of animals each piece of parchment came from and comparing pieces for potential family relationships.

If it works, it could make tracing the lineage of ancient books much easier.
. . .

Current: Mitochondrial DNA analysis of medieval sheep (Ovis aries) in central Italy reveals the predominance of haplogroup B already in the Middle Ages.

It is denialism to suggest to anyone, at this stage of DNA research, (that said information is practical, usable evidence, when every individual examined piece of evidence provided is incomplete and underrepresented); and, logically, it cannot be made to conform, without force of reputation, into other documented written resources, to obtain a solid, comparative conclusion. Do not be misled.

All man made materials are limited by a physical time differential that does not exceed the depth of the periods of time under consideration.
The fact that all evaluations are made by physical properties that are subject to the laws of physics, makes each evaluation resource limited
by the measuring device itself, which is subject to radioactive decay.
Age calculating all instruments and placing them within their sphere as to time, relative to radioactive decay, means that they are each restricted to
a measuring capacity, related to their own decay process. No material instrument exists that spans back to the time of the origins of the Universe, except for the physical, resurrected body of Jesus Christ.
Therefore, the beginnings of time cannot be evaluated by mortal man, except by direct revelation from God; and, any sequence of events proposed cannot be valid by itself, unless it undertakes the comprehension of the immediate whole of the known and unknown Universe. This is a very real impossibility within the framework of the finite, uninspired, mortal human mind; for, it is noted homo sapiens indeed are also subject to death, as well as other related human imperfections.
The RootsTech 2013 conference in Salt Lake City highlighted current technologies that will help family historians as well as make family history work more appealing to young people.
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Currently compiled selected references from thousands of online guides, providing key reference resources worldwide, concerning every aspect of learning related to scholarly family history and related genealogy circles of interest. Primary emphasis has been from surveyed links, from the top 400 universities in rankings, in the whole world; thereafter, descending and providing additional references for research quality and expertise, down to K-12 interest levels. Digital Resources are also provided from these remotely accessible scholarly guides. Outdated resources are periodically purged from the base system, yet always current, by inclusion of new additions as they arrive online.

SIGNED: Thomas Milton Tinney Sr
The Melvyl® System for the University of California, with more than 100 libraries, provides indexing to millions of items in their holdings, digital collections and online searchable databases. This is a significant resource for worldwide genealogy and family history research.
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How would you suggest dealing with the attitude in the statement that 'Members need to find a name within 30 minutes or they will lose interest'?"
ANSWER: We Cannot Be Saved without Our Dead

Combine this statement of Apostle Nelson, "we cannot be saved", with the statement of Nephi that "I will go and do the things which the Lord hath commanded, for I know that the Lord giveth no commandments unto the children of men, save he shall prepare a way for them that they may accomplish the thing which he commandeth them."

Thus, there is no EXCUSE, from the current President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Thomas S. Monson, on down to the least member. Here there is no QUESTION. No current or former member of the Church, living or dead, including martyr Joseph Smith, Jr., and all subsequent worthy, honorable members, are "saved". They cannot be. We cannot be, unless and until we have the faith of Jesus Christ and receive more revelations to inform us of the data concerning all of our deceased ancestry, so that we can seal them all up by the holy spirit of promise, to our first parents, Adam and Eve, for Adam first obtained and still holds all the Keys of the First Presidency. But, no Elders of the Church, including our own apostles, has now, as fathers in their own homes, "keys"; indeed, as Fathers, none holds the keys independently over the fullness of the dispensation of the fullness of times, as Patriarchs. So we are all in a state of anxiety and uncertainty over our own lives, our wives and children, and our ancient fathers' families anxiously await and grieve with hope and expectation for their linked exaltation with us, their saviors upon Mount Zion!

Briefly, all humanity has genealogy of "American Origins"; we being the actual descendants of Adam and Eve. Of course, it was not called American when they possessed this goodly land. DNA global sample sets validate what Biblical genealogies have suggested: descent from different geographical origins and settlements. Biblical flood may be presented as "icy glacial era"; nevertheless, as so recorded, the rain and the waters from "the fountains of the deep" would have preserved plant life, that would have been destroyed by ocean salt and chemicals. And, earth was not divided until after this time; as Pangaea or Pangea supercontinent; it was the home of all our ancestors until just a few thousand years ago, when the current physical Middle East came into being. Faith in the pure knowledge found in the scriptures, as given by the Lord and Master, Jesus Christ, deletes any delusional reasoning superiority of mortal man over that of One infinite God.
Elder Nelson teaches that we cannot be saved without our dead (D&C 128:17-18).
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Black Holes Theory Colliding
with the Genealogy of Intelligence

Here is the Genealogy of Intelligence: Intelligence, or the light of truth, was not created or made, neither indeed can be. The glory of God is intelligence, or, in other words, light and truth. And truth is knowledge of things as they are, and as they were, and as they are to come. [D&C 93] This is the light of Christ. Which light proceedeth forth from the presence of God to fill the immensity of space— The light which is in all things, which giveth life to all things, which is the law by which all things are governed, even the power of God who sitteth upon his throne, who is in the bosom of eternity, who is in the midst of all things. [D&C 88]

Here then is the collision of black holes theory with the genealogy of Intelligence. Since it has been declared by God Himself, that the light of Christ is the governing power, and that it governs in all of the whole universe, it is a contradiction in pure logic to define the nature of black holes, as bottomless gravitational pits from which not even light can escape; (noted by Einstein, being the most negative and foreboding part of his general theory of relativity). Why? Because it clearly makes the Intelligence of God, by which all is ruled, subject to the natural elements He controls.

The King Follet Discourse, an address delivered by Joseph Smith, Jr., President of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, on April 7, 1844, mentions that "In the beginning, the head of the gods called a council of the gods; and they came together and concocted a plan to create the world and people it." . . ."God had materials to organize the world out of chaos—chaotic matter, which is element, and in which dwells all the glory. Element had an existence from the time he had. The pure principles of element are principles which can never be destroyed; they may be organized and re-organized, but not destroyed. They had no beginning, and can have no end." And, "The mind or the intelligence which man possesses is co-equal with God himself." . . . "Intelligence is eternal and exists upon a self-existent principle. It is a spirit from age to age, and there is no creation about it." Nevertheless, in the field of paleontology, attempts are made to decipher the evolution of life before organisms were large enough to leave body fossils; to discover the evolutionary history of life, way back to when paleontologists theorize Earth would have been first capable of supporting life.

The light of Christ dwelt in earth's chaotic matter, its constituent elements, and it is from those elements that an Earth was formed. Evolution is totally illogical. For, it is a known fact that there have been former species on the earth that no longer are alive; some currently that are now in the process of becoming extinct. Yet, each and every strange and weird life form, that has ever lived on this earth, propagated after its own kind, according to the will of God; shown factually today, across all varieties of life objects.
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Pure Genealogy in The Body of Christ
Family Genealogy & History Book of Life

Book of Mormon - Ether 3:25 And when the Lord had said these words, he showed unto the brother of Jared all the inhabitants of the earth which had been, and also all that would be; and he withheld them not from his sight, even unto the ends of the earth.

Why not use the pattern provided, used in First Corinthians, King James Version (KJV)? Paul the Apostle and Sosthenes our brother wrote it to the church of God which is at Corinth. . . . 12 For as the body is one, and hath many members, and all the members of that one body, being many, are one body: so also is Christ. . . . 14 For the body is not one member, but many. 15 If the foot shall say, Because I am not the hand, I am not of the body; is it therefore not of the body? 16 And if the ear shall say, Because I am not the eye, I am not of the body; is it therefore not of the body? 17 If the whole body were an eye, where were the hearing? If the whole were hearing, where were the smelling? 18 But now hath God set the members every one of them in the body, as it hath pleased him. 19 And if they were all one member, where were the body? 20 But now are they many members, yet but one body. 21 And the eye cannot say unto the hand, I have no need of thee: nor again the head to the feet, I have no need of you. 22 Nay, much more those members of the body, which seem to be more feeble, are necessary: 23 And those members of the body, which we think to be less honourable, upon these we bestow more abundant honour; and our uncomely parts have more abundant comeliness. 24 For our comely parts have no need: but God hath tempered the body together, having given more abundant honour to that part which lacked. 25 That there should be no schism in the body; but that the members should have the same care one for another. 26 And whether one member suffer, all the members suffer with it; or one member be honoured, all the members rejoice with it. 27 Now ye are the body of Christ, and members in particular. 28 And God hath set some in the church, first apostles, secondarily prophets, thirdly teachers, after that miracles, then gifts of healings, helps, governments, diversities of tongues. 29 Are all apostles? are all prophets? are all teachers? are all workers of miracles? 30 Have all the gifts of healing? do all speak with tongues? do all interpret? 31 But covet earnestly the best gifts: and yet shew I unto you a more excellent way.

Now, having said all that, I state clearly that pure genealogy is the framework of descending bones in the patriarchal family of Christ, He being our Head. Family History, with all of its members, components and functions, is indeed the "flesh" on the genealogical bones in the patriarchal body of Christ.  The Family Genealogy and History Book of Life kept in Heaven and on earth.

Consider the process of growth of any infant, a child of God. Nothing is fitly framed and kept solid and secure, unless and until the bones are developed, upon which all organs and parts are bound together and nourished (bone marrow); otherwise, crippling and deformed side effects. Since building strong bones is part of a healthy lifestyle, (which includes avoiding smoking and alcohol, which are risk factors for developing osteoporosis), we should live the Word of Wisdom, keep the spirit of Elijah, and establish through our pedigree bones the virtuous, undefiled body of Christ. Else, all of our efforts and exertions, no matter how well intended, will be for naught, be overthrown, and destroyed.

Joseph Smith, Jr.; March 10, 1844;
History of the Church, 6:249-254
. . . Now for Elijah. The spirit, power, and calling of Elijah is, that ye have power to hold the key of the revelation, ordinances, oracles, powers and endowments of the fullness of the Melchizedek Priesthood and of the kingdom of God on the earth; and to receive, obtain, and perform all the ordinances belonging to the kingdom of God, even unto the turning of the hearts of the fathers unto the children, and the hearts of the children unto the fathers, even those who are in heaven. . . . I wish you to understand this subject, for it is important; and if you will receive it, this is the spirit of Elijah, that we redeem our dead, and connect ourselves with our fathers which are in heaven, and seal up our dead to come forth in the first resurrection; and here we want the power of Elijah to seal those who dwell on earth to those who dwell in heaven. This is the power of Elijah and the keys of the kingdom of Jehovah.
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What's New in Genealogy & Family History Resources? UPDATED

We are pleased to announce the global 2016 upgrade and update for: What's New in Genealogy & Family History Resources?  All Facebook links have been supplemented with regular link sites, when necessary; thus providing a world wide current listing of all country national libraries and archives, as well as historical dictionaries, or other pertinent research databases, family history / genealogy research groups, or area interests.

VERTICAL (top to bottom of page) link connections are supplemented by key sub regional HORIZONTAL connections (direct side by side page linkage), at: (1) ANCESTOR ROOTS INFORMATION: A To Z COUNTRY WEBLIOGRAPHY INDEX [Global Documents Database]
[noun, plural webliographies. 1. a list of electronic documents, websites, or other resources available on the World Wide Web, especially those relating to a particular (scholarly) subject]; i.e., this is a generational historian's internally annotated (through embedded links) webliography.

This site also provides direct country return links to Facebook data.


A complete VERTICAL link resource is provided at:
OneSource Comprehensive Directory Index
Alphabetical Index: A to Z for the Family Genealogy and History Internet Education Directory ---- Wiki, with instructions for use of Country - Nation Area Index: A to Z - Ancestor Roots Information. Also includes Research Wiki Directory Title and All Pages Index inclusive.

Finally, a daily updated total site search is located at: Search This Site
FreeFind Search resource frequently UPDATED; (daily) index contains complete word list of whole site; freely available.

Family Genealogy and History Internet Education Directory ---- Wiki
MOST COMPREHENSIVE ONLINE LIST of PROFESSIONAL GENEALOGY and FAMILY HISTORY RESEARCH SITES - WIKI on the INTERNET Today. Think: All data sets are available at the touch of the computer keyboard.
Family History and Genealogy Community News, Information, Current Issues, and Events: conferences, transactions, personal activities, research, publications, social interactions; such as (Facebook®), and contacts with supporting institutions and public leaders.
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"Family History" & Genealogy Worldwide
current collection updated through YEAR 2017.

[Titles listed alphabetically by year -
Future Years In Progress Back To A.D. 400]

YEARS In Progress - YEAR by YEAR:
2017 - 2016 - 2015 - 2014 - 2013 - 2012 - 2011 - 2010 - 2009 - 2008 - 2007 - 2006 - 2005 - 2004 - 2003 - 2002 - 2001 - 2000 - 1999 - 1998 - 1997 - 1996
1995 To 1991
1990 To 1986
1985 To 1976
1975 To 1951
1950 To 1901
1900 To 1751
1750 To 400

Subset in:
Library science information for professional reference librarians and volunteers assisting genealogists, family historians and local research specialists.
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Equation of Life: Creativity for Genealogists

"The great thing for us to know is to comprehend what God did institute before the foundation of the world." Evolutionary DNA creeds limit thought processes.

Where do DNA samples come from?

DNA in the blood, coming from bone marrow, cannot be used to prove or disprove LDS ancestral genealogies, because of the following statement:
“This first Comforter or Holy Ghost has no other effect than pure intelligence. It is more powerful in expanding the mind, enlightening the understanding, and storing the intellect with present knowledge, of a man who is of the literal seed of Abraham, than one that is a Gentile, though it may not have half as much visible effect upon the body; for as the Holy Ghost falls upon one of the literal seed of Abraham, it is calm and serene; and his whole soul and body are only exercised by the pure spirit of intelligence; while the effect of the Holy Ghost upon a Gentile, is to purge out the old blood, and make him actually of the seed of Abraham. That man that has none of the blood of Abraham (naturally) must have a new creation by the Holy Ghost. In such a case, there may be more of a powerful effect upon the body, and visible to the eye, than upon an Israelite, while the Israelite at first might be far before the Gentile in pure intelligence." (Smith, Teachings, 149–50).

“mainstream scientific theories of evolutionary biology, old-earth geology and paleontology are openly taught at BYU and BYU-Idaho (Brigham Young University).”From: Bailey, D.H., History of the LDS Church’s view on the age of the earth and evolution, March 2010.

Intelligence however, is defined as "Light and Truth".

In the context of the E-mc2-equation, therefore, both energy and mass are co-eternal and co-equal with Ahman God. There has always been mass combined with its constituent energy level, or (intelligence).

The earth is only a few thousands of years old. It is a matter of profound disbelief in reality to negate a designed Creation, for "Adam is the primal parent of our race.", and assisted his brother, Jesus Christ, or Son Ahman, in the formation of this earth, both spiritually and temporally. Adam was assisted in a grand council with all of the spirit children of God, our Father, coming to this earth, to accomplish this task. Besides Joseph Smith, Jr., Enoch, Noah, Abraham, Moses, John the Baptist, Peter, James, John, residing in heaven, there were others, such as Newton, Galileo, Einstein; all of the other intellectual giants in science, technology, education, etc Logically, statistics are important, to prove facts. There are billions of children of God on the earth today; there have been many billions of children born on this earth in past ages; and in the Millennium, other billions of children of God will be born, nourished, and exalted, before this earth's glorious celestial conclusion and exaltation, with residency for family unit mansions.

A thousand years is an exceedingly long time on earth, even though in heaven, it is only one day to God, to perform the labors inherent in the creation of this earth. Mormon writings reveal that this earth was a continuation of many similarly organized worlds inhabited by His many spirit children. A perfect architectural plan existed. Thus, the simple assertion that this earth is many millions of years old is delusional fantasy, at best, considering the order and rule of heaven. To evaluate all the power and capacity of the multi-billions of children who have lived upon earth, past, present, or who will in the future, placed in a united capacity to establish a planet, is immense, profound, and incomprehensible to a finite mind. Nevertheless, combined together for six thousand years, in efforts to promote their own eternal exaltation; it overwhelms the godless imaginations of men who see no destiny except in cemetery tombs.

Mormonism is not rooted in a core atheistic, materialistic worldview.

P.S. Our Father in Heaven expects obedience, honor and labor from His sons and daughters coming to earth. David Gaub McCullough has stated that: "History is who we are and why we are the way we are." "David McCullough has twice received the Pulitzer Prize, for Truman and John Adams, and twice received the National Book Award, for The Path Between the Seas and Mornings on Horseback. His other acclaimed books include The Greater Journey, 1776, Brave Companions, The Johnstown Flood, The Great Bridge, and The Wright Brothers. He is the recipient of numerous honors and awards, including the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the nation’s highest civilian award."

Since all on this earth have medieval ancestry; yet, indeed, that all civilized and uncivilized populations on the earth today, have medieval ancestry, that it should be a given that we act in history as our dead medieval ancestors did. We have modern toys and tools; but, the procedures are nevertheless the very same. Medieval royal ancestors wanted power, and some humans grasped for authority by the lineage of Woden, some by Biblical ties, some by neat connections to the rich and famous, or military hero lineages; etc. Today, all "science", is "hero" worship of the day, and "ideas" from the honored of the earth, have made pedigree research and record evaluations twisted, insomuch that DNA nihilistic evolutionary "sop" is the rage of those seeking an ancestry prestige. Ultimately, this is based on fear, or the mental anxiety of annihilation, or total destruction and extinction. In Physics, it is that of pair annihilation, or the process in which a particle (star | galaxy)/ (black holes) and antiparticle (star | galaxy)/(black holes} unite (collide - merge), annihilating each other, and produce one or more photons (bursts of star formations - individual star supernovas)/ (Universe collapse). This fear, based on materialism, is a place fantasy in the mind, where people become object things, valued by money, and all self worth disappears without a trace. This morbid, irrational fear that permeates modernistic, godless scientific literature, is overcome by the charity of Jesus Christ, through the example provided in His life on earth, His ignoble death and His resurrection.

Doctrine and Covenants 77:6–7 contains the only literal, LDS canonized statement specifically identifying the age of the earth. This passage in scripture, is not open to private, figurative interpretation, or hypothetical speculation, as Joseph Smith, Jr., spoke plain American English, to his people.
Equation in German-born physicist Albert Einstein ’s theory of special relativity that shows that the increased relativistic mass (m) of a body comes from the energy of motion...
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But Jesus said, Suffer little children to come unto me, and forbid
them not, for of such is the kingdom of heaven.

I think there is some correlation between names and numbers
and the Spirit of Elijah and the mothers of Zion in the Church.
A mother takes approximately nine (9) long months to create
a human being that becomes a statistical name with blessing.
During that time, by tremendous sacrifice, sweat, tears, and
her very life blood, she turns the heart of her husband to this
yet unborn child, by simple things, like showing a little hand,
or foot sticking out of the surface of an enlarged tummy. Later,
that same mother teaches this individual important child, all
the beginning lessons of life, including his or her own name,
about daddy and mommy and their names, their relatives, etc.

Every child of God, which we all are, has an eight year start,
in which we are free of the need for baptism, via Jesus Christ.
Then, being baptized, we are to become again as a little child,
in the similitude of Jesus Christ. So, it seems to me, statistics
are not all inclusive as they ought to be, and genealogy, as well
as family history, are part and parcel of the love fully expressed
within the realm of Motherhood; i.e., the Spirit of Elijah. It should
be remembered that Elijah, as President of the Church in his day,
was sent by Jehovah to a widow, who remembered her own sin,
yet implored the Prophet to save the love of her life, her only son.
What happened to this son who had a prophet of God return him
to life? Did he start a Journal Record when he was a young boy?
Did his mother teach him on her knee about the God of Israel?
What about all the other names and blessings in the Bible? Were
there priesthood leaders that had the power and Temples to do all
their own work and that of their fathers, sons, brothers, sisters,
wives, daughters and relatives? We all descend from Adam and Eve.
We are all genealogy that is descending; all is descendant research.

. . . "But Jesus said, Suffer little children to come unto me, and forbid
them not, for of such is the kingdom of heaven. And he laid hands
on them, and departed thence." (JST, Matt. 19:13–15) So, if we
follow the Jesus example, shouldn't Mormon missionaries throughout the world, go into every family, nation, kindred, tongue and people, offering blessings and names to little children, with the permission of parents and legal authorities, and adding as single entries, potentially, billions of present and future names to Church rolls? Would this not spearhead a tremendous reduction in the current rate of world illiteracy? Would this not elevate the Relief Society in charity? Would this not help lift the traditional curse of darkness on humanity?

In fact, in the end, are we really trying to get people to do their family genealogy and history, or is it that we are trying to remove from their lives the circumstances that blur their childhood feelings and emotions, which when restored, extend positively out into all social relationships? All then being sealed by the Holy Spirit of Promise!
See this page in the original 1992 publication. Author: Flake, Lawrence R. The Holy Spirit of Promise is one of many descriptive name-titles of the Holy Ghost and refers to a specific function of the Holy Ghost. In John 14:16,the Savior, who had been a comforter to his disciples, assured them ...
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Reconstructing the Early Biography of Jesus Christ

It has always been my interest, since early childhood, to have access to the personal history of the Messiah, prior to his baptism by John the Baptist. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, has an abstract of related interest, concerning "Algorithmic handwriting analysis of Judah’s military correspondence sheds light on composition of biblical texts". [Ancient inscriptions provide important evidence of the proliferation of literacy. . . . inscriptions found in the desert fortress of Arad, . . . indicates a high degree of literacy in the Judahite administrative apparatus . . . ]

In like manner, John the Baptist was a son of Zachariah, priest in the temple of Jerusalem, of the course of Abijah. His mother was Elizabeth, a daughter of Aaron; John thus a descendant of Aaron on both his father's and mother's side. Zachariah, of necessity was educated; proficient in reading and writing. By family tradition, Aaron and his successor high priest male heirs had possession of the Urim and Thummim, Aaronide priests teaching divine laws (Torah) to the general Israelite population. This high degree of literacy is shown by Apollos, a known convert of John the Baptist.

I have read the book: Jesus the Christ by James E. Talmage, to gather further insights from the writings of a modern apostle of the Lord Jesus Christ.
However, what is most compelling to me, is the life of John the Baptist, and his eyewitness testimony.

“This is he of whom I said, After me cometh a man which is preferred before me: for he was before me. And I knew him not: but that he should be made manifest to Israel, therefore am I come baptizing with water.” Also, “And John bare record, saying, I saw the Spirit descending from heaven like a dove, and it abode upon him. And I knew him not: but he that sent me to baptize with water, the same said unto me, Upon whom thou shalt see the Spirit descending, and remaining on him, the same is he which baptizeth with the Holy Ghost. And I saw, and bare record that this is the Son of God.” From a purely genealogical research standpoint, what is astonishing to me, in evaluating the record, is the fact that the God of this world, even Jehovah, could live upon the earth among the general population of his Jewish brethren, thirty years, and still be totally unrecognized. Even though John the Baptist forbade the Christ, saying, "I have need to be baptized of thee, and comest thou to me?" Yet, he did not know He was the Messiah in fact, until after manifestations of the spirit, during His baptism.

From what little direct evidence that survives, only Elizabeth, the mother of John the Baptist, the angels that testified at His birth to the shepherds, who then saw the Babe in the manger, righteous Simeon and Anna, in the Temple at Jerusalem when He was circumcised, the wise men that visited the young child, and His own mother, truly knew of His real identity.  Zacharias, husband of Elizabeth, was slain between the temple and the altar, publicly exterminating this family testimony; Mary kept the secret in her heart (Joseph was commanded to marry her); the wise men departed out of the land (warned to save their lives [Then Herod, when he saw that he was mocked of the wise men, was exceeding wroth, and sent forth, and slew all the children that were in Bethlehem, and in all the coasts thereof, from two years old and under, according to the time which he had diligently inquired of the wise men.]); Simeon and Anna were advanced in years, and naturally would have died shortly after they saw the Christ; and, the shepherds did not live where Jesus actually was raised, He having been born where His alleged parents were taxed, because of their parental heritage (Bethlehem is about 6 miles south of the city of Jerusalem and Nazareth is about 65 miles north of Jerusalem). Thus, we are only told the fact that: " And the child grew, and waxed strong in spirit, filled with wisdom: and the grace of God was upon him." However, this says a lot.

When Jesus Christ was twelve years of age, Joseph and Mary "found him in the temple, sitting in the midst of the doctors, both hearing them, and asking them questions. And all that heard him were astonished at his understanding and answers." That Jesus Christ could read, is validated by the fact that He ". . . taught in their synagogues, being glorified of all." In "Nazareth, where he had been brought up: and, as his custom was, he went into the synagogue on the sabbath day, and stood up for to read." . . . "And he closed the book, and he gave it again to the minister, and sat down. And the eyes of all them that were in the synagogue were fastened on him." . . . "And all bare him witness, and wondered at the gracious words which proceeded out of his mouth. And they said, Is not this Joseph's son?"

Why did they wonder?  Because, according to JST Matthew 3:24-26: 24 And it came to pass that Jesus grew up with his brethren, and waxed strong, and waited upon the Lord for the time of his ministry to come. 25 And he served under his father, and he spake not as other men, neither could he be taught; for he needed not that any man should teach him. 26 And after many years, the hour of his ministry drew nigh. "In the cities the carpenters would be Greeks, and skilled workmen; the carpenter of a provincial village could only have held a very humble position, and secured a very moderate competence." So the conundrum for the Jews, the confusing and difficult problem or question, was the impossibility of Jesus being the Messiah, when He never had been taught by any of their religious leaders, nor did He receive a formal education, providing credentials from their elite institutions.

Continuing, the Merits of Jesus Christ at baptism, and shortly thereafter, provide significant clues as to the lifestyle of The Lord, prior to that time, when they are extrapolated backwards to His earlier years. The most significant achievement was declared from heaven: "And lo a voice from heaven, saying, This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased." Thus, as He was perfect, all things that Jesus asked for, He received, and nothing was withheld from His sight, as He had direct access, according to His own desire and will, to full Universal knowledge. This is self evident from the statement of John the Baptist, when he noted the Savior "is he which baptizeth with the Holy Ghost.", (a functional capacity arising out of being ordained a High Priest after the Holy Order of Melchizedek, and a greater authority than the Priesthood of Aaron held by John the Baptist). Indeed, "Messiah is above the spirit and power of Elijah, for He made the world, and was that spiritual rock unto Moses in the wilderness."

All that being said. the attributes and characteristics of Jesus Christ, from conception to His death on the cross, are easily determined, due to the fact that He was God incarnate. He had the actual knowledge that the course of life which He was pursuing, was according to His Father's will. At age twelve (12), He commented to Joseph and Mary: "And he said unto them, How is it that ye sought me? wist ye not that I must be about my Father's business?" From this very fact, we can obtain the correct idea of His character, perfections and attributes. "First, That he was God before the world was created, and the same God that he was, after it was created."  "And it came to pass, that, when Elisabeth heard the salutation of Mary, the babe leaped in her womb; and Elisabeth was filled with the Holy Ghost: And she spake out with a loud voice, and said, Blessed art thou among women, and blessed is the fruit of thy womb. And whence is this to me, that the mother of my Lord should come to me? For, lo, as soon as the voice of thy salutation sounded in mine ears, the babe leaped in my womb for joy."

Jesus was merciful, and gracious, slow to anger, abundant in goodness, and He was so from everlasting, and will be to everlasting. He changed not, from Jehovah, to Man, to Son Ahman, to the Lord of Lords, and King of Kings. There was no variableness with Him; being the same from everlasting to everlasting, being the same yesterday today and forever. His course was one eternal round, without variation. He was an infant, child, young adult, and Man of truth and did not lie. He was no respecter of persons; and all men, women, and children, that He associated with, that feared God and worked righteousness, were accepted of Him. He was and is the embodiment of Love. By the faith of others in Him, He worked and does continue to work miracles through truth, justice and mercy.

Jesus Christ was a virtuous and lovely baby, child, young man and adult male. He was exceedingly strong and powerful, more so than any other human being that has ever lived upon this earth. He, as an adult, fasted for forty (40) days without eating. Shortly thereafter, when he began preaching in His childhood synagogue, they were filled with wrath, and "rose up, and thrust him out of the city, and led him unto the brow of the hill whereon their city was built, that they might cast him down headlong. But he passing through the midst of them went his way." He was full of virtue, by which He influenced and blessed individuals and the multitudes. He acquired power over all elements, transcended the force of gravity, moved through space at will, raised the dead and healed the afflicted.

He magnified all of His Priesthood callings, was faithful in keeping all the Mosaic and all higher commandments, and lived by every word that did proceed from the mouth of God, His Eternal Father. He was blessed with the protecting administration of angels from preconception, until His death, and thereafter in heaven. The Holy Ghost was His constant companion. He knew the doctrine of the Priesthood, and when He spoke, He reproved with sharpness, but then showed forth afterwards an increase of love toward him or her, whom He had reproved. He was meek and lowly, and never found fault with any food, any drink, any house, any lodgings or gifts provided to Him willingly, from the heart. He loved to associate with little children, in whose lives dwelt and dwells the innocent spirit of celestial glory.
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DNA Testing: A Plus (+) or Minus (-) For Genealogy?
Mathematics Indicates That It Just Does Not Add Up.

Joshua S. Weitz has written numerous articles related to the subject areas of Biological Physics, Populations and Evolution. Physics and Society, Quantitative Methods. Of particular interest is "Let my people go (home) to Spain: a genealogical model of Jewish identities since 1492". His [findings highlight unexpected incongruities induced by genealogical dynamics between present-day and ancestral identities.]

Wired magazine reports on emerging technologies and how they affect our present culture. In the last 24 hours, they are reporting on a tipping point: open source software went nuclear this year.

Popular to the family genealogy and history community, is a prior Wired article concerning the universality of sephardic ethnicity as explained by mathematical genealogy; i.e., Joshua S. Wetz data. Placed in a universal set of any living person, [given occasional mating between individuals of different identities, then a small  number of generations is likely  required for individuals to have a subset of their ancestors with identities different than their own.]

Taking as an example, let us review the effects of plagues geographically.
Plague in the Ancient World: A Study from Thucydides to Justinian
[The Athenian plague (430-26 B.C.) originated in Ethiopia, and from there spread throughout Egypt and Greece.] . . .
[the Antonine plague, occurred during the reign of Marcus Aurelius (161-180 A.D.). It was brought back by soldiers returning from Seleucia, and before it abated, it had affected Asia Minor, Egypt, Greece, and Italy. ] . . .
[Another plague occurred during the reigns of Decius (249-251 A.D.) and Gallus (251-253 A.D.). This pestilence broke out in Egypt in 251, and from there infected the entire empire. Its mortality rate severely depleted the ranks of the army, and caused massive labor shortages. The plague was still raging in 270, when it caused the death of the emperor Claudius Gothicus (268-270).] . . .

The History of Plague – Part 1. The Three Great Pandemics . . .
[In epidemics plague is transmitted to humans by the bite of the Oriental or Indian rat flea and the human flea. . . . Plague is also transmissible person to person when in its pneumonic form.] From a DNA Testing standpoint, it is significant to note human interaction, by commerce and physical contacts.  [The three great plague pandemics had different geographic origins and paths of spread. {The major Plague epidemics occurred in 540 at Pelusium, Egypt, reached Constantinople in 542 and spread into Europe and Asia (the Plague of Justinian) in the following decade}. The Justinian Plague of 541 started in central Africa and spread to Egypt and the Mediterranean. {Around 1330 Plague affected the local residents of the Orient and following the elaborate trade routes, established in the previous two centuries, made its way west. By 1345, it was in the lower Volga; by 1346 Astrakhan, the Caucasus, and Azerbijian; by 1346 Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire; late autumn 1347 Alexandria, Egypt and southward along the Nile; India & what is now the middle east }. {14th century Europe, following the caravan routes, it was in the lower Volga River basin in 1345, the Caucasus and Crimea by 1346, Constantinople by 1347, Alexandria in the autumn of 1347, Cyprus and Sicily in that year, Italy by winter 1347, Marseilles by January of 1348, Paris in spring 1348, | Reports of another Genoese merchant ship carrying the disease to Marseilles came in January 1348. By that summer, the Plague reached Paris. It then spread east to Germany and north to England, reaching London in December 1348. During this time it came to be known by the names: the Great Dying, das Grosse Sterben, the Plague of Justinian, and Magna Mortalis. At that time, the population of England was estimated to be about four million, yet within a mere two and a half years about one third of them had died. | followed by Germany and the Low Countries in that year, Norway in May 1349, eastern Europe by 1350, and finally Russia in 1351, but smaller outbreaks continued for about 200 more years; Austria in 1711; the Balkans from 1770-1772.} The Black Death of 1347 originated in Asia and spread to the Crimea then Europe and Russia. {The last major pandemic ran from 1855-1896 worldwide, but mostly in China and India, wherein more than 12 million died.}  The third pandemic, that of 1894, originated in Yunnan, China, and spread to Hong Kong and India, then to the rest of the world] {Manchuria in 1910–1911 witnessed about 60,000 deaths due to pneumonic Plague with a repeat in 1920–1921; and a minor outbreak occurred as recently as the summer of 1994 in Surat, India closely following an earthquake in September 1993. . . . the government of India did not recognize the presence of the disease until several hundred thousand people had fled the region.}
{History of Epidemics and Plagues}

Additional disease outbreaks can be traced geographically, such as the 10 Worst Outbreaks in U.S. History;
also, A History of Epidemics in Britain

Origins of HIV and the AIDS Pandemic
[Originating in Cameroon and first recognized as a disease in 1981, the earliest documented case is believed to be in 1959 in the Congo. As of 2011 at least 60 million people had been infected by AIDS and 25 million had died. Today its impact varies widely across the world—while in 2008 an estimated 1.2 million Americans had HIV, Sub-Saharan Africa alone was home to 22.9 million cases, with one in five adults infected. About 35.3 million people were believed to have HIV in 2012.]

Native populations, thousands of miles away from sources of  the origin of infections died, validating extensive, worldwide contacts of humans, one with another, due to migrations, via trade routes, or from military contacts from armies in distant lands. Thus, from this factual information alone, obvious opportunities for physical associations among disparate family groups did arise, allowing for the [given occasional mating between individuals of different identities, then a small  number of generations is likely required for individuals to have a subset of their ancestors with identities different than their own.] It Just Does Not Add Up, that using DNA Testing, can arbitrarily, without having any real scientific validity, recreate hypothetically, isolated geographic ethnic origins, when they DO NOT represent the reality of facts of social contacts in ancient to modern history. However, for future generations, DNA Testing holds out great promise in maintaining international family and societal relationships, for future descendants, involved with world travel, residency changes, and multi-national record keeping. DNA Testing can become especially important, as a key method for administratively monitoring sudden migration changes, caused by global warfare dislocation, nation-to nation commerce, & Megacities growth. [Most Populated Cities of the World]

Handbook of geographical and historical pathology 1
Acute infective diseases
Handbook of geographical and historical pathology 2
Chronic infective, toxic, parasitic, septic and constitutional diseases
Handbook of geographical and historical pathology. 3,
Diseases of organs and parts

The Cambridge World History of Human Disease
Goodreads: The Cambridge World History of Human Disease
The Cambridge Historical Dictionary of Disease
[This Dictionary contains contributions from over 100 medical and social scientists from all over the globe, making it a truly interdisciplinary history of medicine and human disease.]

International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG)

Ignorance, False Promises and Pseudoscience. Is This
Profit Promotion of DNA Fiction by Senior Genealogists?
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The Internet as a New and Perma-lasting
Book of Remembrance: Let's Face It. Let's Archive It.
Redefining Definitions - Definitions.

Wikipedia has redefined the use of "family history" on the Internet, when on 25 June 2013, it assimilated together, the Wikipedia articles: Genealogy and Family History, into just one article: Genealogy. What has gone unnoticed, at the same time, due to advances in technology, is the massive increase of individuals creating family history in real time, in the name of and through accounts in Facebook and other social media outlets. This disconnect is caused by the artificially created barriers used in family genealogy and history programs, to eviscerate bonding connections, online, between ancestry developed online in family trees, and those connections to more immediate, living family posterity, in the name of "privacy". This is actually totally bogus, as [The growing ubiquity of cell phones, especially the rise of smartphones, has made social networking just a finger tap away.]  [What people seem to want is not simply control over their privacy settings; they want control over their online reputations. But the idea that any of us can control our reputations is, of course, an unrealistic fantasy. The truth is we can’t possibly control what others say or know or think about us in a world of Facebook and Google, nor can we realistically demand that others give us the deference and respect to which we think we’re entitled. On the Internet, it turns out, we’re not entitled to demand any particular respect at all, and if others don’t have the empathy necessary to forgive our missteps, or the attention spans necessary to judge us in context, there’s nothing we can do about it.]

PewResearchCenter Social Networking Fact Sheet found that: [Social networking sites are increasingly used to keep up with close social ties] and that in particular, [Facebook revives “dormant” relationships]. Current total world population is now less than the over 7 billion global active mobile subscriptions. Social media sites are replacing the traditional newspapers, used in the past as a public forum for family related notices.

Paid newspapers are now in decline, and social media sites are becoming a key replacement, as a vital research resource, for present and future family genealogy and history. Social media mechanisms allow people to obtain information they want about relatives, through direct contact with one another, rather than using "cold start" Internet search boxes, and their ever changing "find" computer algorithms. Peer-to-peer authority replaces mass media general content data record sources, when reliance is given to personal contact data, from in-touch family and friends.

It is imperative therefore, for family units in the world, to keep accurate and complete family genealogy and history records, as well as teach reading and writing skills to all of their extended posterity. Preservation of records is very critical in mainlining an ongoing positive state of loving family cohesiveness;
to provide a caring social and spiritual continuity over time. The current social media ecosystem can pass-along content from social networks to more permanent archives. One way is the Internet Archive WayBack Machine with its Save Page Now feature. This allows a family to [Capture a web page as it appears now for use as a trusted citation in the future.] This will [archive a page instantly and get back a permanent URL for that page in the Wayback Machine. This free service allows anyone — . . . . {including newbies to professional family genealogists and generational historians} — to create a stable URL to cite, share or bookmark any information they want to still have access to in the future.]

Technology redefines definitions, when Family History is noted to be a significant part of social media sites. In particular, Facebook, with over 1.55 billion monthly active users, is determined now as "family friendly", because 83% of parents are friends with their teenager on Facebook. Facebook: Family History In Real Time. And then there is of course, Google, Twitter, Wikipedia, YouTube, and stringent Marquis Who's Who in America, etc. For example, as a collateral professional research tool, Wikipedia has now, far exceeded a Family History Library data set, located in Salt Lake City, Utah, by allowing easy access to comprehensive, online data sources for geographic localities, containing the pertinent past and present Geo-political connections, such as city, county, state and nation state historical interconnections, with all of their surrounding regions.
How many people are there in the world? World population has reached 7 billion. World population live counter with data sheets, graphs, maps, and census data regarding the current, historical, and future world population figures, estimates, growth rates, densities and demographics
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