Ignorance, False Promises and Pseudoscience.
Is This Profit Promotion of DNA Fiction by Senior Genealogists?
The Promise & Perils of Sharing DNA
"Even before the launch of Obama’s Precision Medicine Initiative Cohort Program, millions of Americans had already had their DNA tested for insights into health, longevity, paternity, ancestry and more. It has become a lucrative field, and represents the fastest growing segment of the $830 million DNA lab industry, according to a March report from IBISWorld." . . . "Indeed, although researchers and commercial companies say they anonymize genomic information before sharing it, many acknowledge that future privacy is a false promise when it comes to genes." See also: White House Advisory Council Report Is Critical of Forensics Used in Criminal Trials. . . [The report said legal standards in cases involving scientific evidence should be “based upon scientific validity.” It added that “neither experience, nor judgment, nor good professional practices (such as certification programs and accreditation programs, standardized protocols, proficiency testing, and code of ethics) can substitute for actual evidence of foundational validity and reliability.”] . . . [In a separate report, the Innocence Project and the FBI partnered release a joint study that ultimately “found flaws in the testimony an astonishing 95 percent of the time.” Moreover, the Post notes, “DNA testing has revealed that bite-mark evidence underpinning convictions was simply incorrect. More generally, faulty forensic evidence has been found in roughly half of all cases in which post-conviction DNA testing has led to exoneration.”]. . . http://undark.org/article/dna-ancestry-sharing-privacy-23andme/http://www.wsj.com/articles/white-house-advisory-council-releases-report-critical-of-forensics-used-in-criminal-trials-1474394743http://www.digitaltrends.com/cool-tech/forensic-evidence-flaws/
In 2013, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints suggested "New Technology Makes Family History Easier, Even Fun", noting "An interesting development in family history research is the use of DNA testing to discover one’s ethnicity." Yet, evolution's hovel is built with fictive DNA straw. Fictive genetic non proofs, which are nothing more than pseudo-scientific estimates, have serious potential for doing irreparable harm to genealogy professionalism, as well as devastate the financial stability of mankind, by limiting insurability; may seriously compromise Latter-day Saints (Mormons) economically, and discriminate against worldwide ethnic populations for generations to come. https://www.lds.org/church/news/new-technology-makes-family-history-easier-even-fun?lang=enghttp://www.academic-genealogy.com/medicalhealthgenealogygenetics.htm#Geneticsgenealogyhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insurabilityhttps://mitpress.mit.edu/books/genetics-and-life-insurance
DNA testing cannot determine ancestry, including Elizabeth Warren’s.
You’re not 28 percent Finnish, either.http://www.slate.com/articles/technology/future_tense/2016/06/dna_testing_cannot_determine_ancestry_including_elizabeth_warren_s.html
What is law today is not necessarily law tomorrow. The most current report; dated 07 SEP 2016, is from The U.S. Commission on Civil Rights; independent, bipartisan agency established by Congress in 1957.
This report examined the balance struck by federal courts, foremost among them the U.S. Supreme Court, in adjudicating claims for religious exemptions from otherwise applicable nondiscrimination law.http://www.usccr.gov/pubs/Peaceful-Coexistence-09-07-16.PDF
. . . 2. Religious exemptions to the protections of civil rights based upon classifications such as race, color, national origin, sex, disability status, sexual orientation, and gender identity, when they are permissible, significantly infringe upon these civil rights.
. . .
1. Overly-broad religious exemptions unduly burden nondiscrimination laws and policies. Federal and state courts, lawmakers, and policy-makers at every level must tailor religious exceptions to civil liberties and civil rights protections as narrowly as applicable law requires. In light of these assertions, it is helpful to review concerns about process related to sovereignty: Genetic "Markers"- Not a Valid Test of Native Identityhttp://www.ipcb.org/publications/briefing_papers/files/identity.html
"The concept of genetic testing to prove Native American ancestry is one that is discussed more frequently in recent times, but there are many problems with the idea. Perhaps foremost of these problems is that to make a genetic test the arbiter of whether someone is Native American or not is to give up tribal sovereign ability to determine membership and relations. But even taken on their own scientific terms, the tests cannot do much to identify who is and who is not Native American. This is because they yield many false negatives and false positives (they readily misidentify non-Native people as Native, and misidentify Native people as non-Native), and the positive results they do yield at best are only probabilities, not certainties. If these were medical diagnostic tests, they would never be approved or adopted."
So, simply put, probabilities are not conclusive scientific facts; it is flawed use. Nevertheless, I see, using America as an evaluation platform, severe dangers to the very fabric of our enlightened society. If the religious foundations of the U.S. Constitution are taken away by generic "civil rights". then the current rising generations, will follow in the classic Roman pattern, and society as we know it will cease, with marriage and family ties defined as old fashioned and obsolete. Then, groups based on historical and genealogical identities will become refuse, or garbage, in political discourse; in particular, such groups we now know as the DAR, SAR, Federation of Family History Societies, lineage societies as a whole, genealogists, family historians, generational historians, FamilySearch (its vision, beliefs and collections), soc.genealogy.medieval; etc. Also, I can see political logic to genetically divest U.S. national contractual obligations to, say, American Indian Tribal Authorities, as being non essential, when compared to new blocks of voting groups, such as immigrant populations, tied to Federal welfare systems. If however, the American Indians are divested from their inalienable reservation land rights, and confiscation is attempted to take over casino revenues; then, I see also "the remnant of Jacob shall be among the Gentiles in the midst of many people as a lion among the beasts of the forest, as a young lion among the flocks of sheep: who, if he go through, both treadeth down, and teareth in pieces, and none can deliver."https://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org/Micah-5-8/
Additionally, from a Book of Mormon perspective, there are warnings.https://www.lds.org/scriptures/bofm/3-ne/21?lang=eng
12 And my people who are a remnant of Jacob shall be among the Gentiles, yea, in the midst of them as a lion among the beasts of the forest, as a young lion among the flocks of sheep, who, if he go through both treadeth down and teareth in pieces, and none can deliver. 13 Their hand shall be lifted up upon their adversaries, and all their enemies shall be cut off. 14 Yea, wo be unto the Gentiles except they repent; for it shall come to pass in that day, saith the Father, that I will cut off thy horses out of the midst of thee, and I will destroy thy chariots; 15 And I will cut off the cities of thy land, and throw down all thy strongholds; 16 And I will cut off witchcrafts out of thy land, and thou shalt have no more soothsayers; 17 Thy graven images I will also cut off, and thy standing images out of the midst of thee, and thou shalt no more worship the works of thy hands; 18 And I will pluck up thy groves out of the midst of thee; so will I destroy thy cities.
[Western United States might take note of their own drought conditions,]http://droughtmonitor.unl.edu/
19 And it shall come to pass that all lyings, and deceivings, and envyings, and strifes, and priestcrafts, and whoredoms, shall be done away.
Also, 21 And I will execute vengeance and fury upon them, even as upon the heathen, such as they have not heard.
I ask: Will this come from currently planned nuclear strikes from Asia?http://rationalwiki.org/wiki/Nuclear_war
Is this a serious public relations mistake, for an organization, noted for being the source of all truth, to promote hope in fictional data sets? After all is said and done, "All true faith must be based upon correct knowledge or it cannot produce the desired results." Today, this is now updated in FamilySearch, the genealogy arm of the LDS Church, in subset "Hiring a DNA Testing Company", listed under Hiring a Professional Researcher.https://www.lds.org/scriptures/bd/faithhttps://familysearch.org/wiki/en/Hiring_a_DNA_Testing_Companyhttp://www.ucl.ac.uk/mace-lab/debunking/companieshttp://www.ipcb.org/publications/briefing_papers/files/identity.html
Evaluate one such company and its claims, that: "Once you've taken your test, we'll search our network of AncestryDNA members and identify your cousins—the people who share your DNA." And, AncestryDNA promotes itself as "The World's Largest Consumer DNA Database". Their site includes A Comprehensive Map of AncestryDNA Ethnicity Regions; currently listing 26 areas.www.ancestry.com/DNA
Well, from a Biblical standpoint, this is indeed true. We are all related as descending posterity of the prophet Noah, whose cousin relatives and ancestry, consisting of all mankind living prior to the flood, were then DNA hourglass [not bottleneck] squeezed into the one small family unit that survived. [" . . . Even if we use rates appropriate for the present world (x = 1 and C = 1.5), over 3 billion people could easily have been on the earth at the time of Noah."]. Ignorance: Any laundry list of people used on the earth, contains names and surnames, that are all related to each other, as a "cousin-hood". This is not established genealogical proof. And contrary to marketing of higher "fit" expectations, over time, increasing DNA sample bases will make more complex, not refine, the ability to truly genealogically validate each person's identity, if the statistical downward disparity in the volume of all other unrecorded supporting factors does become globally marginalized. Mankind is then only a DNA number, like 666; having no godlike characteristics or feelings; being only a materialistic entity.http://www.academic-genealogy.com/ancientandmoderngenealogies.htm#012http://www.ldolphin.org/popul.htmlhttps://www.google.com/search?q=hourglass&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi6upetr_rMAhVE72MKHb4TBC0QsAQIKA&biw=1600&bih=727
Distortion of genealogical properties when the sample is very large
. . .
"We will soon enter an era in which it will become routine to analyze samples with hundreds of thousands if not millions of individuals. For these large sample sizes, the standard coalescent will no longer serve as an adequate model for evolution. The DTWF model is mathematically cumbersome to work with, which was one of the original motivations for adopting the coalescent for modern population genetics analyses. However, for these very large sample sizes, we will need to develop new mathematically and computationally tractable stochastic processes that better approximate realistic models of human population evolution, and under which we can efficiently compute genealogical quantities like we have been able to under the coalescent."http://www.pnas.org/content/111/6/2385.long
Fundamental limits on the accuracy of demographic inference based on the sample frequency spectrum
. . .
. . .
"Numerous empirical studies in population genetics have used a summary statistic called the sample frequency spectrum (SFS), which summarizes the information in a sample of DNA sequences. Despite their popularity, the accuracy of inference methods based on the SFS is difficult to characterize theoretically, and it is currently unknown how the estimation accuracy improves as more sites in the genome are used. Here, we establish information theoretic limits on the accuracy of all estimators that use the SFS to infer population size histories. We study the rate of convergence to the true answer as the amount of data increases, and obtain the surprising result that it is exponentially worse than known convergence rates for many classical estimation problems in statistics."http://www.pnas.org/content/112/25/7677
As I stated heretofore, promises, promises, promises, as larger databases become available, reveal more complexity in the systems proposed analysis, and for which "we will need to develop new mathematically and computationally tractable stochastic processes that better approximate realistic models of human population evolution".
DNA is not the problem. As of 2015 and 2016 era papers, full public admission is made that models used in the past are going to be readjusted to "efficiently compute genealogical quantities". All this is bad news to the family history community. They have been led to believe that as the size of their genetic sample base increases, via $$$ transfers to various sampling companies, they will have further stunning improvements in pedigree accuracy. NOT SO! And so the cat is out of the bag, finally, finally! The scientific community needs the genealogy community to give it the parameters it needs to figure out future approximate estimates on what its independently (so called) derived assumptions and mathematical calculations are based. Dollars $$$ will thus continuously flow from "widows pockets", genealogists and family historians, since with every new future adjustment, past assessments will all be ancient history. This is an ideal economic and business model; a fabulous way to keep coffers full.
Furthermore, "Genealogical Discontinuities among Etruscan, Medieval, and Contemporary Tuscans", accepted June 10, 2009, concludes by stating what is not "a safe general assumption": "Only a handful of populations of preclassical Europe have been studied genetically, all of them only for mtDNA, and hence generalizations on their relationships with their current counterparts appear premature. Therefore, it is not clear yet whether these data may eventually force us to reconsider the results of studies inferring demographic history under the assumption that genetic diversity in current populations is a good proxy for the (unknown) diversity in past populations of the same region. At this stage, one can only emphasize that cases of both genetic continuity and discontinuity have been observed. Therefore, the notion that the modern inhabitants of a region are descended from its ancient residents does not seem a robust general assumption, but rather a hypothesis that whenever possible should be tested empirically using ancient DNA."http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/26/9/2157.full
"This study shows that genealogical links can be detected between people who inhabited Tuscany at different time periods, but so far not between the Bronze Age and more recent inhabitants of the region." Additionally, "Analyses of mtDNA diversity in the British Isles (Töpf et al. 2007), and Iceland (Helgason et al. 2009), also showed sharp differences between historical and current populations. In addition, a large fraction (up to 80%, depending on the region considered) of the Dutch surnames were displaced from the areas in which their frequency was highest three centuries ago (Manni et al. 2005)."
GENETICS & GENEALOGY: Genetic Genealogy:
Genealogical DNA test - List of Genetic Genealogy Topicshttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetic_genealogyhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genealogical_DNA_testhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_genetic_genealogy_topics
My problem with injecting DNA into genealogy research comes from changing scientific "truths" over time. The Synaptic Scoop, 18 Jun 2013, discusses "neurogenesis". Significantly, [The more 14C that is in the atmosphere, the more it is integrated into our own body’s DNA when new cells are created.] Researchers found that [Atmospheric detonation of atomic bombs from 1955-1963 shot worldwide 14C levels through the roof.] This can be compared with solar activity. carbon dating – The Synaptic Scoop (archived)https://web.archive.org/web/20131005222206/http://synapticscoop.com/tag/carbon-dating/
[From constant stream of particles in the form of solar wind to the unpredictable bombardment from solar flares and coronal mass ejections, Earth often feels the effects of its stellar companions.]
Space Weather: Sunspots, Solar Flares & Coronal Mass Ejectionshttp://www.space.com/11506-space-weather-sunspots-solar-flares-coronal-mass-ejections.html
[When the twisted field lines cross and reconnect, energy explodes outward with a force exceeding that of millions of hydrogen bombs.]
Anatomy of Sun Storms & Solar Flares (Infographic)http://www.space.com/12047-solar-flares-sun-storms-space-weather-infographic.html
From a historical standpoint, on Sept. 1, 1859, the Carrington Event was
[the largest geomagnetic storm ever recorded.] [Just before dawn the next day, skies all over planet Earth erupted in red, green, and purple auroras so brilliant that newspapers could be read as easily as in daylight. Indeed, stunning auroras pulsated even at near tropical latitudes over Cuba, the Bahamas, Jamaica,
El Salvador, and Hawaii.] A Super Solar Flare - NASA Sciencehttps://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2008/06may_carringtonflare/
Additionally, scientists do not understand the how and why of a tropic environment for the North Pole region. [Researchers are not sure what caused the sudden boost of carbon dioxide that set the greenhouse effect on broil. Possible culprits could be huge releases of methane from the ocean, gigantic continent-sized burning of trees, or lots of volcanic eruptions.]
Study: North Pole Once Was Tropical - CBS Fox Newshttp://www.cbsnews.com/news/study-north-pole-once-was-tropical/
[Analysis of two ancient trees found a surge in carbon-14 -- a carbon isotope that derives from cosmic radiation -- which occurred just in AD 774 and AD 775, the team report in the journal Nature on Sunday.] . . .
In Tree Rings, Japanese Scientists Find 8th-Century Mysteryhttp://phys.org/news/2012-06-tree-japanese-scientists-8th-century-mystery.html#nRlv
Nevertheless, the fact remains (that due to the changes in solar radiation and intensity on different earth areas over time); using DNA as a biological constant over time that can be used to identify human ancestry, is technically and scientifically incorrect; forever outside the scope of being a primary source tool for competent genealogical or family history research, especially prior to written records. Solar Flare Unleashes Violent Plasma 'Rainstorm' (Video)http://www.space.com/33675-solar-flare-unleashes-plasma-rain-video.html
Major X-Class Solar Flares Unleashed by Sun (Photos) | Space.comhttp://www.space.com/21114-solar-flares-sun-photos-x-class-2013.html
[The story begins, in a sense, in classrooms around the world, where students are taught that the rate of decay of a specific radioactive material is a constant. This concept is relied upon, for example, when anthropologists use carbon-14 to date ancient artifacts . . .Their findings strengthened the argument that the strange swings in decay rates were caused by neutrinos from the sun. The swings seemed to be in synch with the Earth's elliptical orbit, with the decay rates oscillating as the Earth came closer to the sun (where it would be exposed to more neutrinos) and then moving away.]
The Strange Case of Solar Flares and Radioactive Elements (archived)http://news.stanford.edu/news/2010/august/sun-082310.htmlhttps://web.archive.org/web/20131107014316/http://news.stanford.edu/news/2010/august/sun-082310.html
[IceCube is a particle detector at the South Pole that records the interactions of a nearly massless sub-atomic particle called the neutrino. . . . IceCube studies the neutrinos themselves; their energies far exceed those produced by accelerator beams.] From: IceCube Neutrino Observatory. Scientific American Magazine January 13, 2014 issue: Superpowerful X-ray Laser Boils Atoms in Molecules, Nanosystems and Solids and Explodes Proteins, All in the Name of Science. [. . . the laser boils away the atoms' electrons from the inside out. . . . the inner shell takes the brunt of the radiation . . . The two electrons in that shell shoot off, leaving empty space in their wake; the atom is hollow. Within a few femtoseconds (quadrillionths of a second), other electrons get sucked in to replace the lost ones, and the cycle of core-hole formation and vacancy filling continues until no electrons are left. This process occurs for molecules as well as solid matter.]http://icecube.wisc.edu/http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/superpowerful-x-ray-laser-boils-atoms-in-molecules-nanosystems-and-solids-and-explodes-proteins/
[Accordingly, (14)C may prove to be a source of genetic alteration that is impossible to avoid due to the universal presence of radiocarbon in the environment.] Carbon-14 decay . . . [Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014] - PubMed - NCBI [Naturally occurring radioactivity muddles DNA - Natural radioactivity within DNA can alter chemical compounds, providing a new pathway for genetic mutations.] Welcome to The Visible Embryohttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24121105http://www.visembryo.com/story2015.html
I think DNA research applications for genealogical research are directly related and equivalent to fingerprinting. [Even identical twins (who share their DNA) do not have identical fingerprints.] It is all a matter of assigning a degree of confidence. [Since the early 20th century, fingerprint detection and analysis has been one of the most common and important forms of crime scene forensic investigation. More crimes have been solved with fingerprint evidence than for any other reason.] Dermatoglyphics is the science by which we can [determine whether these impressions could have come from the same individual. The flexibility of friction ridge skin means that no two finger or palm prints are ever exactly alike in every detail; even two impressions recorded immediately after each other from the same hand may be slightly different.] So if we want an ancestry background check, we should gather all the family fingerprints and put them all together and compare them, both for the father's side and the mother's side. Then, with the same degree of confidence of determining DNA "matches", we should be able to directly trace back all our ancestry. Yes, No, Maybe? Biometric [identification utilizing a physical attribute that is unique to every human] includes [iris recognition, the use of dental records in forensic dentistry, the tongue and DNA profiling, also known as genetic fingerprinting.] The problem I have with all of this is the logic behind the big story, because I am told that DNA is the "engine" that creates all of this unique identification in every human being. That, however, says to me, that over generations of time, every person, father, son, mother daughter, brother, sister, relative, each had a former DNA "engine" creator that produced another individual that in and of itself, starts off life with its own altered DNA "record" (it must be so to produce individuality); this then produces other altered DNA "records" in its posterity. So, the issue is not with the continuous replication process which is so nicely discussed exactingly in family history DNA related venues, it is with the very fact that everyone who is a human being is individually genetically altered. And unless you can trace genealogy created patterns in fingerprints, iris recognition, or some other form of biometric identification, you certainly cannot with confidence, trace back with any degree of certainty, unique DNA profiling, which ever so minutely changes from one person to another, over all generations of time. This is of course my own personal opinion on the matter, fortified by my own experience of seeing enthusiastic DNA potential "matches" that are in professional research, directly contradicted by written record sources.http://www.academic-genealogy.com/medicalhealthgenealogygenetics.htm#Geneticsgenealogy
(1) DNA testing cannot be used currently to discover one’s ethnicity.
(2) Ethnicity Regions are only at present, pseudoscience conjecture.
(3) Effective family history research requires primary document data.
Cannabis use linked to gene mutation;
dated 24 May 2016
"Scientists from The University of Western Australia have identified how using cannabis can alter a person's DNA structure, causing mutations which can expose them to serious illnesses, and be passed on to their children and several future generations."http://medicalxpress.com/news/2016-05-cannabis-linked-gene-mutation.html
"In the study published in the journal Mutation Research – Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis, researchers assert they've been able to show for the first time how marijuana can be linked to serious illnesses and the implications for future generations, the International Business Times in Australia reports."http://www.newsmax.com/Newsfront/pot-marijuana-changes-dna/2016/05/24/id/730531/
From Drug Enforcement Administration
Museum & Visitors Center - Cannabis, Coca, & Poppy:
Nature’s Addictive Plants
The oldest known written record on cannabis use comes from the Chinese Emperor Shen Nung in 2727 B.C. Ancient Greeks and Romans were also familiar with cannabis, while in the Middle East, use spread throughout the Islamic empire to North Africa. In 1545 cannabis spread to the western hemisphere where Spaniards imported it to Chile for its use as fiber.https://www.deamuseum.org/ccp/cannabis/history.htmlhttps://books.google.com/books?id=NjC-eTffFeQC&pg=PR3&lpg=PR3&dq=Medicine+in+China,+A+History+of+Pharmaceutics&source=bl&ots=S5OTqXaa_9&sig=wcGIE7XSe1eDuX2nYfYYVp8l9ac&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjRyeHVq5bNAhXJLmMKHRw-DbI4ChDoAQg4MAc#v=onepage&q=Medicine%20in%20China%2C%20A%20History%20of%20Pharmaceutics&f=false
Cannabis is . . . the most commonly used illegal drug both in the world and the United States.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cannabis_(drug)
CONCLUSION: Drug use causing additional unnatural cell mutations over time in various population groups, effectively destroys using DNA generational analysis, as a tool in professional genealogical research applications, past, present or future. "The scientists, from the University of West Australia, conducted an extensive review of scientific literature. They discovered that THC - the active chemical compound in cannabis - interferes with the segregation of chromosomes during cell division"http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/marijuana-thc-alters-dna-potentially-leading-mutations-that-can-be-passed-children-1561910https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chromosome_segregation
Thomas A. Kunkel wrote back on Feb 26 2004, concerning DNA Replication Fidelity. He wrote: "interest in the fidelity of DNA copying mechanisms remains high because the balance between correct and incorrect DNA synthesis is relevant to a great deal of biology. High fidelity DNA synthesis is beneficial for maintaining genetic information over many generations and for avoiding mutations that can initiate and promote human diseases such as cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Low fidelity DNA synthesis is beneficial for the evolution of species, for generating diversity leading to increased survival of viruses and microbes when subjected to changing environments, and for the development of a normal immune system." . . . "To perform these tasks, cells harbor multiple DNA polymerases (2, 3), many of which have only been discovered in the past 5 years and whose cellular functions are not fully understood. These polymerases differ in many features including their fidelity. This diversity and the sequence complexity of genomes provide the potential to vary DNA synthesis error rates over a wider range than was appreciated a few years ago. . . ."http://www.jbc.org/content/279/17/16895.full
One, two, four, eight – lessons from dividing cells
January 6, 2016 by Wei Theng Poh
. . .
"By probing the mechanism(s) that leads to cells extinguishing checkpoint signaling in the presence of the DNA damage, we hope to gain a fundamental understanding of an event that possibly confers survival advantages to cancer cells types. And that would be half the battle in thinking about how to treat this disease."http://phys.org/news/2016-01-lessons-cells.html
Scientists propose an algorithm to study DNA faster and more accurately
January 18, 2016
. . .
"Bioinformatics is a very topical subject; every new sequenced genome raises so many additional questions that scientists simply do not have time to answer them all."http://phys.org/news/2016-01-scientists-algorithm-dna-faster-accurately.html
It is intentionally and willfully misleading for any company to suggest, in public notices, as if they have all the answers; that current genetics can provide to unsuspecting new or advanced genealogy researchers, connective genetic data sets to written record sources. The power of positive prediction of similar results over time, is subject to cellular functions not yet fully understood, as noted in the more current publications; and, which cells, from research undertaken and reviewed, in the recent past, have been found to be sensitive, re: DNA, to harmful drugs ingestion. Genetic data conclusions, at present, are like a beautiful 4th of July celebration, one great find after another lights the headlines sky, each having its 15 seconds of glory, then flowing down as burnt embers as a new theory and postulations follow the wake; ever learning, approximately, but not finding ultimate truth.
DNA Testing: A Plus (+) or Minus (-) For Genealogy?
Mathematics Indicates That It Just Does Not Add Up.https://www.facebook.com/permalink.php?story_fbid=10153907038371424&id=261975771423
What is genetic ancestry testing?
Noted by the U.S. Library of Medicine.https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/primer/testing/ancestrytesting
. . .
The American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) developed a position paper on ancestry testing, with their final testing statement, dated 13 Nov 2008.
. . .
"Perhaps the most important aspect of reporting confidence in ancestry determinations is to accurately convey the level of uncertainty in the interpretations and to convey the real meaning of that uncertainty." . . . "Population genetic inference is ultimately a statistical exercise, and rarely can definitive conclusions about ancestry be made beyond the assessment of whether putative close relatives are or are not related." . . .http://www.ashg.org/pdf/ASHGAncestryTestingStatement_FINAL.pdf
"It is well known that horoscopes use vague statements which recipients think are more tailored than they really are (referred to as the ‘Forer effect’). Genetic ancestry tests do a similar thing, and many exaggerate far beyond the available evidence about human origins. You cannot look at DNA and read it like a book or a map of a journey. For the most part these tests cannot tell you the things they claim to – they are little more than genetic astrology."http://www.senseaboutscience.org/data/files/resources/119/Sense-About-Genetic-Ancestry-Testing.pdf
As to putative close relatives. there is "The risk of false inclusion of a relative in parentage testing – an in silico population study", from U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institute of Health. "Aim - To investigate the potential of false inclusion of a close genetic relative in paternity testing by using computer generated families." . . . "Conclusions - The results highlight the risk of false inclusion in parentage testing. These data provide a valuable reference when incorporating either a mutation in the father’s DNA type or if a close relative is included as being the father; particularly when there are varying numbers of non-matching loci." Interestingly, "The chance of a false inclusion and exclusion is greater when testing one putative parent and an offspring (a duo scenario) than when there is an additional confirmed parent (a trio scenario)." So, even at this basic level, using "10 000 computer-simulated families over three generations [that] were generated based on genotypes using 15 short tandem repeat loci." . . . "The results highlight the risk of false inclusion in parentage testing." Therefore, notable senior genealogists should figure, or calculate, how this negatively plays out with confidence levels, using the more limited DNA testing that actually can be done (using even known paper or compiled professionally documented pedigrees), over time.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3692333/
There appears to be an adjustment in statistical probabilities for DNA based relationships, with any given individual, to any given or proposed pedigree that they might be associated with, depending upon placement from one's direct line or cousin sources, as father, son, brother, uncle, nephew, etc. This implies that there are no concrete standards that can be established over time to specify real individual identities. Thus, DNA proof is mercurial, and being of human origins, also subject to unknown moral value systems and actions, which then further complicates validating assumptions; additionally made more subjective by each new value system accepted and promulgated in every future living generation. Examples: Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings:
A Brief Accounthttps://www.monticello.org/site/plantation-and-slavery/thomas-jefferson-and-sally-hemings-brief-account
Accountant wins legal claim to baronetcy in 'cuckoo in the nest' case that could challenge the British class systemhttp://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2016/06/20/accountant-wins-legal-claim-to-baronetcy-in-unusual-cuckoo-in-th/
Received: 12 Jan 2015
Accepted: 5 Oct 2015
Published online: 14 Dec 2015
Ethnic and Racial Studies
Volume 39, Issue 2, 2016
The Impact of Diasporas: Markers of Identity
. . .
In the blood:
the myth and reality of genetic markers of identity
". . . statistical methods are nonetheless claimed to be able to predict successfully the population of origin of a DNA sample. Such methods are employed in commercial genetic ancestry tests, and particular genetic signatures, often in the male-specific Y-chromosome or maternally-inherited mitochondrial DNA, have become widely identified with particular ancestral or existing groups, such as Vikings, Jews, or Zulus. . . . We describe the conflict between population genetics and individual-based genetics and the pitfalls of over-simplistic genetic interpretations, arguing that although the tests themselves are reliable, the interpretations are unreliable and strongly influenced by cultural and other social forces."http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01419870.2016.1105990?journalCode=rers20
Forensic DNA evidence is not infallible
28 October 2015 Clarified: 05 November 2015
As DNA analysis techniques become more sensitive, we must be careful to reassess the probabilities of error, argues Cynthia M. Cale.
"Earlier this month, the Texas Forensic Science Commission raised concerns about the accuracy of the statistical interpretation of DNA evidence, and it is now checking whether convictions going back more than a decade are safe." Note in particular: "The term 'touch DNA' conveys to a courtroom that biological material found on an object is the result of direct contact. In fact, forensic scientists have no way of knowing whether the DNA was left behind through such primary, direct transfer. It could also have been deposited by secondary transfer, through an intermediary. (If I shake your hand then I could pass some of your skin cells onto something that I touch next.)" How, then can anyone convey with any degree of honesty, that any test outside of the "sanitary" laboratory, can be used with any "X" degree of reputable assurance? Especially, if samples are submitted to a receiving laboratory, with intent to skew objectivity? And, consider further, any ancestral families and their remains, or known artifacts, how they could have been "touched" by various means; "kissed" or "hugged" or had other body parts replaced, and I could go on and on; are they not to a high degree of uncertainty, constantly diluted over time and weathering, by various elements intruding, etc.?http://www.nature.com/news/forensic-dna-evidence-is-not-infallible-1.18654
Examples: Solving the Mystery of an Ancient Epidemic - Sep 15, 2015 - The Atlantic
. . .
[The authors also suggested another possibility: that the DNA found in the teeth wasn’t from the Plague of Athens pathogen at all. “While we cannot exclude the possibility that the Athens sequence is a previously unidentified infectious agent,” they concluded, “it is quite reasonable to assume that the sequence is actually that of a modern, free-living soil bacterium, a possibility that could have been explored by extracting DNA from surrounding soil samples as additional negative controls.”]http://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2015/09/disease-plague-of-athens-ebola/403561/
Yersinia pestis and the Plague of Justinian
541–543 AD: a genomic analysis
. . . Interpretation
We conclude that the Y pestis lineages that caused the Plague of Justinian and the Black Death 800 years later were independent emergences from rodents into human beings. These results show that rodent species worldwide represent important reservoirs for the repeated emergence of diverse lineages of Y pestis into human populations.http://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/article/PIIS1473-3099(13)70323-2/fulltext
Non-Identafible Pedigrees and a Bayesian Solution dated 26 Feb 2016
. . .
"Some methods aim to correct or test for relationships or to reconstruct the pedigree, or family tree. We show that these methods cannot resolve ties for correct relationships due to identifiability of the pedigree likelihood which is the probability of inheriting the data under the pedigree model. This means that no likelihood-based method can produce a correct pedigree inference with high probability. This lack of reliability is critical both for health and forensics applications. . . . This means that errors in pedigree prediction have dramatic effects on downstream analysis."
. . .
"Half-Cousins and Full-Cousins Relationships. To the best of our knowledge Donnelly  was the first to remark that pairs of pedigrees either of the half-cousin or of the full-cousin type and having equal numbers of edges are non-identifiable" . . . "Fig. 2. Half-cousins and grand-half-avuncular relationships are non-identifiable even when there is a third individual of interest." . . . "These examples mean that the likelihood alone is not a practical tool for testing relationships, for inferring pedigrees, or for correcting pedigrees that have relationship errors since the pedigrees under consideration might be non-identifiable."
In suggesting a potential solution, mention is made that: "As yet, all these details are an open problem."https://arxiv.org/pdf/1602.08183.pdf
"Isaac Newton’s discoveries were so numerous and varied that many consider him to be the father of modern science." . . . "Newton was knighted in 1705 and upon his death in 1727 was the first scientist given the honor of burial in Westminster Abbey."http://www.who2.com/bio/sir-isaac-newton/
Newton's study of biblical chronology did not make him less credible. Newton and Leibniz both invented calculus, which includes "limits, functions, derivatives, integrals, and infinite series." Unfortunately, there is no way to invent a genetic genealogy mapping calculus, that can consistently and accurately close the uncertainty gaps between DNA sample inference points and professionally established pedigree node points. It is all a matter of biased conjecture. As far as medieval records go, followers of John Wycliffe "undertook the first complete English translations of the Christian scriptures in the 14th century." I, however, use the KJV, though I know of some who consider the German a better translation. From a professional genealogical research specialist standpoint, I can state I have read the said Bible from cover to cover, verbally, out-loud, a study undertaken from childhood, which expanded later into all world religious beliefs in various library settings in the United States. Reading out-loud all names in the pedigrees, and in comparison with the textual thrust of ideas presented therein, led me to the conclusion, (with a study of family behaviors and historical events, plus parallel artifacts discovered), that it was indeed historical, and in particular, a handed down record. Biblical text is a family centric written ancestry; not contrived, postulated, and not comic DNA fantasy.
Basic philosophical differences: [The proposal that one type of organism could descend from another type goes back to some of the first pre-Socratic Greek philosophers, such as Anaximander and Empedocles.] . . .
[Simple organisms have therefore been the dominant form of life on Earth throughout its history and continue to be the main form of life up to the present day, with complex life only appearing more diverse because it is more noticeable.] However, experimental evolution, extrapolated in real time, does suggest that in infinite time and space, there would have developed life forms that would have become so complex as to evolve over time to the point that they could overcome death and live forever in all types of environments. In fact, that is essentially part of the objectives in current cancer research, to determine what turns off, on, or redirects the positive signals in healthy cells. Date: April 14, 2016 Source: Institute of Cancer Research Summary: Cancer cells use a mutant gene to coerce neighboring healthy tissue into helping with the disease's growth and spread, a major new study reports. Healthy cells are persuaded to release unique growth signals which cancer cells can use to multiply but cannot secrete themselves, researchers found. This is like a genetic rerun of [Dracula's attempt to move from Transylvania to England so that he may find new blood and spread the undead curse, and of the battle between Dracula and a small group of men and women led by Professor Abraham Van Helsing.]https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/04/160414144213.htm
From a Philosophy standpoint: [In several of Plato's dialogues, Socrates promulgates the idea that knowledge is a matter of recollection, and not of learning, observation, or study.] Baird, Forrest E.; Kaufmann, Walter, eds. (2008). Philosophic Classics: From Plato to Derrida (Fifth ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-158591-6. The Mormon faith does not cause me to fear anything. The Mormons are not Zion, they have not created Zion, some try to live Zion, but it is not a done deal. The love of God and the Merits of Jesus Christ are the only things that sustain me, and I fear and tremble daily before Them, because of my own known imperfections, but not any man. Nevertheless, the ideas of Socrates are found in the Remarks by President Brigham Young, made in the Tabernacle, in Great Salt Lake City, March 16, 1862 . . . [It is often remarked that we do not understand things alike, but I am of the opinion that the inhabitants of the earth understand in the spirit, or, in other words, in the intelligent portion of their organisms, nearer alike than they have power to communicate. We believe we are entitled to the gift of the Holy Ghost in extent according to the discretion and wisdom of God and our faithfulness; which gift brings all things to our remembrance, past, present, and to come, that are necessary for us to know, and as far as our minds are prepared to receive the knowledge of God revealed by that all-wise Agent. The Holy Ghost is God's minister, and is delegated to visit the sons and daughters of men. All intelligent beings pertaining to this earth are instructed from the same source.] Reported By: G. D. Watt. I have had, in my younger years, the opportunity to read completely through every volume of the Journal of Discourses; it is compelling.http://scriptures.byu.edu/jod/jodhtml.php?vol=09&disc=48
DNA does not support evolution. Conjectures offer no support at all, because the sample sizes and availability for them, over time do not exist. From a Christian standpoint, many saints' bodies from Adam on down, have already been resurrected; from a secular standpoint, mass movements, like the Syrian migrations of today, Chinatowns and pockets of ethnic groups, do not make geographic maps realistic. It is all sad, sad, comic DNA fantasy. I have been reading over time, thousands of professional and popular articles on the subject, Googled worldwide, etc.
This is not sect centric; it was linguistically motivated, coming from item by Johann Albrecht Bengel (24 June 1687 – 2 November 1752); i.e., Bengelius, Greek-language scholar; re: Greek New Testament and related commentaries. [His fame was such that almost 200 years later, Hermann Hesse has the hero of The Glass Bead Game discuss Bengel's writings.]. . . [Hermann Karl Hesse . . . (2 July 1877 – 9 August 1962) was a German-born Swiss poet, novelist, and painter. His best-known works include Steppenwolf, Siddhartha, and The Glass Bead Game, each of which explores an individual's search for authenticity, self-knowledge and spirituality. In 1946, he received the Nobel Prize in Literature.]
Item: From BibleHubhttp://biblehub.com/commentaries/matthew/27-52.htm
"Matthew 27:52. Τῶν κεκοιμημένων ἁγίων, of the saints that had slept) The name saints belongs equally to the living and the dead; yea, in the mention of the dead, the determining clause is added, “who had slept.” And these saints are reckoned such, not by human, but Divine Canon. Of the Saints, who had died either a long while before the birth of Christ, or not much after (see Gnomon on John 11:25), from all tribes no doubt. The ancients appear to have considered Job to have been one of these; for, at the end of his book, the LXX. and Theodotion add γέγραπται δὲ αὐτὸν πάλιν ἀναστήσεσθαι μεθʼ ὧν ὁ κύριος ἀνίστησιν, but it is written that he shall rise again with those whom the Lord raises." Thus, as I suggested, from Adam and Eve, to the time of Holy Messiah. Matthew wrote it as a fact, attested to by saints living in those ancient times. The belief system that they had was all from eye-witness testimony, as recorded.
Additionally, the Book of Mormon is the keystone of LDS faith or religious belief. It is presented, in personal and LDS history of Joseph Smith, Jr., as anciently created plates written upon and also conveyed by a former mortal man named Moroni; and, that said Moroni, appeared to Joseph Smith, Jr. as a clothed, resurrected being; and, as such, his DNA cannot be properly evaluated. Since Moroni's death occurred circa 421 A.D., it falls within medieval genealogies; that other former kin were also resurrected.https://rsc.byu.edu/archived/book-mormon-fourth-nephi-through-moroni-zion-destruction/18-moroni-last-nephite-prophets
Book of Mormon and DNA Studies
. . .
[At the present time, scientific consensus holds that the vast majority of Native Americans belong to sub-branches of the Y-chromosome haplogroups C and Q14 and the mitochondrial DNA haplogroups A, B, C, D, and X, all of which are predominantly East Asian.] Now, we just find out that "Laser technology reveals cities concealed under the earth which would have made up the world’s largest empire in 12th century" were in Cambodia, [a country located in the southern portion of the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.] Implies Pacific trading.https://www.lds.org/topics/book-of-mormon-and-dna-studies?lang=eng
The Guardian reported in an exclusive on Friday, concerning Revealed: Cambodia's vast medieval cities hidden beneath the jungle; dated Friday, June 10, 2016.
. . .
Laser technology reveals cities concealed under the earth which would have made up the world’s largest empire in 12th century
. . .
discoveries that promise to upend key assumptions about south-east Asia’s history
. . .
“This urban and rural landscape, linked by road and canal networks, now seems to have constituted the largest empire on earth in the 12th century,” Sharrock said.
. . .
Using the lidar at Longvek and Oudong in combination with conventional archaeology we will reveal the dark age as equally rich, complex and diverse.”https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/jun/11/lost-city-medieval-discovered-hidden-beneath-cambodian-jungle
Now, has The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, had the opportunity to apply this same technology to the jungle regions of North and South America? Certainly, it would help clarify, hopefully, once and for all, Book of Mormon geography claims.
[Near Eastern DNA should be easily identifiable among modern native groups], unless, as suggested from the religious teachings of the Book of Mormon, all the Saints of former days in the Americas were actually resurrected, indirectly inferred by the following statement: [Fourth Nephi covers the nearly 200 years of unity and harmony following Jesus Christ’s visit to the Americas. The people “were all converted unto the Lord” (4 Nephi 1:2), resulting in a society that people of all ages have dreamed of. Elder Jeffrey R. Holland of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles observed that following Christ’s visit, “His majestic teachings and ennobling spirit led to the happiest of all times, a time in which ‘there were no contentions and disputations among them, and every man did deal justly one with another. And they had all things common among them; therefore there were not rich and poor, bond and free, but they were all made free, and partakers of the heavenly gift’ [4 Nephi 1:2–3]. That blessed circumstance was, I suppose, achieved on only one other occasion of which we know—the city of Enoch, where ‘they were of one heart and one mind, and dwelt in righteousness; and there was no poor among them’ [Moses 7:18]” (in Conference Report, Apr. 1996, 40; or Ensign, May 1996, 30).} And of course, LDS religious belief validates that the whole City of Enoch was translated.
There is vast difference between expressing a religion from a missionary standpoint to "convert" individuals, versus necessary studies of religious values and systems, to determine what effect a particular religion has on the preservation of records and genealogies, and accuracy within record systems. World Will Get More Religious by 2050; re: Live Science, April 3, 2015.
. . .[People who don't believe in any gods as well as agnostics and those not associated with a particular religion will become a smaller slice of the world's population. Though this unaffiliated group will increase in numbers from 1.1 billion to 1.2 billion, it will account for a lower percentage of the population (16 versus 13 percent) in 2050.
That won't be the case in the United States, however, where agnostics, atheists and other unaffiliated individuals will increase from 16 percent to 26 percent of the population by 2050, Pew found. Christians in the United States are predicted to decline from 2010's 78 percent to 66 percent by the middle of the 21st century. By that same date, Muslims (2.1 percent of population) are expected to outnumber Jews (1.4 percent) in the United States.] . . .http://www.livescience.com/50370-worlds-religious-population-will-grow.html
I like viewing things from a historical perspective, to prove a record factual, rather than to present things in a contentious manner. For example, there is a heated secular versus religious viewpoint, as well as within the LDS community, as to the exact location of the Hill Cumorah. [In this hill, a Book of Mormon figure, Mormon, deposited a number of metal plates containing the record of his nation of Nephites, just prior to their final battle with the Lamanites in which at least 230,000 people were killed.] This is a very low estimate, as more than likely, at least another 230,000 Lamanites were also terminated, in the process of the Nephites self defense for their own lives and families. So, the secular scientists say not so, there are no remains or artifacts, and some LDS professional experts, protect themselves in a secular manner, by saying, Well, we really don't know where this hill is located, yet. Yet, reading the record itself, we find the answer to all the missing remains and artifacts. ". . . the Lamanites . . . feed the women upon the flesh of their husbands, and the children upon the flesh of their fathers . . .] The Nephites, on the other hand, [murder them (Lamanites) in a most cruel manner, torturing their bodies even unto death; and after they have done this, they devour their flesh like unto wild beasts, because of the hardness of their hearts; and they do it for a token of bravery.] From my clearly historical standpoint, IF there had been remains left around the New York location of the Hill Cumorah, and a multitude of artifacts; indeed, it would have DISPROVED the inner contents of the book itself; since, the last battle of all would have been followed by a massive cannibalistic eating frenzy, as well as a complete, total pillaging of all personal and all military equipment and possessions left at the site, over time. Why else would the Lamanite Kings have allowed a gathering of all Nephites together in one single military setting? Answer: Because it was the easiest way for the Lamanites to acquire all of the Nephite treasures, and then eat them up as well, before they has a chance to decompose.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cumorah
Cannibalism does affect available DNA sample size; etc.; re: comic DNA fantasy.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_incidents_of_cannibalism#Middle_Ages
CONCLUSION. There is more scientific reliability in weather forecasting, than various comic DNA fantasy projections. Why then, is comic DNA fantasy so really stupid? Because, it is like saying, if I transpose a computer back in time, 4.5 billion years in the past, it will transmogrify over time, that is, surprisingly, magically, strangely, and grotesquely, into Boolean algebra. In other words, if all animal creatures and human biological specimens, had instincts, feelings, and emotions, which were all originally formed only with the simple understandings of yes-no reactions, then all computers, past, present, and future, originated genetically, from a 0 and a 1, But, a computer's machine language, or the concepts of Boolean algebra, in which the values of the variables are the truth values true and false, usually denoted 1 and 0 respectively, does not limit the transmission of concepts or information provided by more simple computer language interfaces. There are many languages used in computers and many diagrams presented showing how they developed and cross comparisons of why they were developed and for which use they are best suited. Thus complexity, or intelligence in man or animals, etc., (for those who have any understanding of astronomy), exists universally, and is found, within the time frame of modern research, among all galactic formations. And, for those who have studied ancient astronomical observations; same findings: intelligence, or complexity beyond or above basic inanimate objects, things, or numbers, independently self exists.http://www.academic-genealogy.com/science.htm#physicalhttp://www.academic-genealogy.com/ancientandmoderngenealogies.htm
Which brings up a parallel item of interest specifically related to medieval genealogical resources. DNA May Reveal Origins of Medieval Manuscripts
By Andrea Thompson | February 10, 2009
. . .
Stinson's plan, which he recently presented at the annual meeting of the Bibliographical Society of America in New York, is to take DNA samples from manuscripts with known dates and establish a reference base to which samples of texts of unknown origin can be compared. He hopes to do this by pinning down the specific herds of animals each piece of parchment came from and comparing pieces for potential family relationships.
If it works, it could make tracing the lineage of ancient books much easier.
. . .http://www.livescience.com/3300-dna-reveal-origins-medieval-manuscripts.html
Current: Mitochondrial DNA analysis of medieval sheep (Ovis aries) in central Italy reveals the predominance of haplogroup B already in the Middle Ages.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25917303
It is denialism to suggest to anyone, at this stage of DNA research, (that said information is practical, usable evidence, when every individual examined piece of evidence provided is incomplete and underrepresented); and, logically, it cannot be made to conform, without force of reputation, into other documented written resources, to obtain a solid, comparative conclusion. Do not be misled.
All man made materials are limited by a physical time differential that does not exceed the depth of the periods of time under consideration.
The fact that all evaluations are made by physical properties that are subject to the laws of physics, makes each evaluation resource limited
by the measuring device itself, which is subject to radioactive decay.
Age calculating all instruments and placing them within their sphere as to time, relative to radioactive decay, means that they are each restricted to
a measuring capacity, related to their own decay process. No material instrument exists that spans back to the time of the origins of the Universe, except for the physical, resurrected body of Jesus Christ.
Therefore, the beginnings of time cannot be evaluated by mortal man, except by direct revelation from God; and, any sequence of events proposed cannot be valid by itself, unless it undertakes the comprehension of the immediate whole of the known and unknown Universe. This is a very real impossibility within the framework of the finite, uninspired, mortal human mind; for, it is noted homo sapiens indeed are also subject to death, as well as other related human imperfections.http://www.academic-genealogy.com/science.htm#THEOLOGY_and_SCIENCE