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FSSAI

http://www.fssai.gov.in/

The Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI)
has been established under Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006 which consolidates various acts & orders that have hitherto handled food related issues in various Ministries and Departments. FSSAI has been created for laying down science based standards for articles of food and to regulate their manufacture, storage, distribution, sale and import to ensure availability of safe and wholesome food for human consumption. 

Highlights of the Food Safety and Standard Act, 2006 
 Various central Acts like Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954 , Fruit Products Order , 1955, Meat Food Products Order , 1973,
Vegetable Oil Products (Control) Order, 1947,Edible Oils Packaging (Regulation)Order 1988, Solvent Extracted Oil, De- Oiled Meal and Edible Flour (Control) Order, 1967, Milk and Milk Products Order, 1992 etc will be repealed after commencement of FSS Act, 2006.

The Act also aims to establish a single reference point for all matters relating to food safety and standards, by moving from multi- level, multi- departmental control to a single line of command. To this effect, the Act establishes an independent statutory Authority – the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India with head office at Delhi. Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) and the State Food Safety Authorities shall enforce various provisions of the Act.
 
Establishment of the Authority
 
Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India is the Administrative Ministry for the implementation of FSSAI. The Chairperson and Chief Executive Officer of Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) have already been appointed by Government of India. The Chairperson is in the rank of Secretary to Government of India.
 
FSSAI has been mandated by the FSS Act, 2006 for performing the following functions:
• Framing of Regulations to lay down the Standards and guidelines in relation to articles of food and specifying appropriate system of enforcing various standards thus notified.
• Laying down mechanisms and guidelines for accreditation of certification bodies engaged in certification of food safety management system for food businesses.
• Laying down procedure and guidelines for accreditation of laboratories and notification of the accredited laboratories.
• To provide scientific advice and technical support to Central Government and State Governments in the matters of framing the policy and rules in areas which have a direct or indirect bearing of food safety and nutrition.
• Collect and collate data regarding food consumption, incidence and prevalence of biological risk, contaminants in food, residues of various,contaminants in foods products, identification of emerging risks and introduction of rapid alert system.
• Creating an information network across the country so that the public, consumers, Panchayats etc receive rapid, reliable and objective information about food safety and issues of concern.
• Provide training programmes for persons who are involved or intend to get involved in food businesses.
• Contribute to the development of international technical standards for food, sanitary and phyto-sanitary standards.
• Promote general awareness about food safety and food standards.















DECODING “FOOD SAFETY AND STANDARDS ACT”


 

You may be aware that the above Act has been implemented on 5th
August, 2011 throughout India. Thus w.e.f. from 5th.August 2011, all earlier food laws / acts such as PFA, FPO, Agmark, M & MPO, EO, VAO, Milk Supplements Order & Feeding Bottle Order are scrapped, null and void.
The enactment of Food Safety & Standards Act and establishment of the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) is a landmark development which will have a pervasive impact on all segments of the Indian Hospitality Industry. It becomes obligatory on all food business operators to acquire license under this Act either before the expiry of their existing license or by 5th August, 2012, whichever is earlier. The processing of license takes 60 days.
Download Form B from the link: http://www.fssai.gov.in/Portals/0/Pdf/Application%20for%20Registration%20&%20Renewal.pdf
For hotels less than 3 Star, the license fee is Rs.2000/-p.a.
For hotels above 3 Star, the fee is Rs.5000/- p.a.
It is recommended that hotels apply for a 5 year license.
By 12th.August 2012, all Food Business Operators must have license or should have applied for the license.







STEP WISE LICENSE PROCESS

 

1)   Register your company as a FBO (Food Business Operator) 
Go to the link: http://www.fssai.gov.in/Default.aspx
Select: - FLRS (Food Licensing and Registration System) on the left hand menu under the Heading FSSAI ONLINE.
Sign up for Self Care portal:http://foodlicensing.fssai.gov.in/UserRegistration.aspx
After successful signing up, you shall receive a mail in the email mentioned during the sign up process.
Log in with the registered username and password on the link:http://foodlicensing.fssai.gov.in/UserLogin/Login.aspx
Select License/Registration from the link:http://foodlicensing.fssai.gov.in/SLS/FBO/FBOHome.aspx
Then select: Apply for License registration under the title License/Registration.
Select “STATE”
Tick on relevant “KIND OF BUSINESS”
In case of any clarifications, please click on the Help Desk link after logging in to http://foodlicensing.fssai.gov.in/UserLogin/Login.aspx
Alternatively, you can write a email to: complaintfssai@gmail.com
Or send queries by post to:
DIRECTOR ENFORCEMENT,FDA Bhawan near Bal Bhavan, Kotla Road, New Delhi - 110002 India.

2)   Pay Challan & get UID No.
UID No. is PRN.
3)   After payment of challan, within 14 days a designated officer calls up for doubts.
4)   Within 30 days, an inspection happens and the inspection report comes within 30 days.
5)   License has to be received within 60 days. If there is no communication from FSSAI within 60 days, it is assumed that the license is granted.
LICENSE IS FOR THE ENTIRE PREMISES & NOT FOR INDIVIDUAL OUTLET.
It is recommended that hotels apply for a 5 year license.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE OLD LAWS & THIS ONE?
OLD LAW NEW LAW
It was a Product Based Law It is a Process Based Law
Focused on Adulteration Focuses on sub standard and unsafe food products.
There was no adjudication possible Compounding of offences and adjudication possible.
Permitted colors were allowed to be used within limits. No food colors allowed in any food, exceptions though are Indian sweets, Bakery products, Confectionaries, Ice creams, packed juices and Dal Bhujiya.


 


 












 REASONS FOR FOOD SPOILAGE
This law deals with Food, Water & Personal Hygiene.

1)   Temperature
2)   Personal Hygiene
3)   Improper Cooking
4)   Improper Storage
5)   Time
6)   Humidity
7)   Bad process
8)   Bad Raw Material
9)   Bad Water Quality
10) Foreign Matter
11) Lack of Waste Disposal
12) Chemical Residue
13)  Pests
14) Cross Contamination
15)  Illness or Injury to Staff
16) Improper Additives or Essences.
17)  Bad Drainage
18) Use of non food grade equipment
19) Bad packing material
20) Droppings of birds or rodents.
21)  Improper sanitation.


Thus, if you control and take proper care of the above pointers, the food served in your premises is ought to be safe for human consumption.










RECORDS & DOCUMENTS TO BE MAINTAINED BY FBO                                                 (Food Business Operator) 

 

1)   Receiving time table
2)   MFP Inspection Procedure
3)   Vegetable Washing Schedule
4)   Approved Vendor List
5)   Perishable Specification Manual
6)   Legal Verification Matrix (Agency – Renewal Date – Status)
7)   Supplier Audit Checklist (Audit two suppliers a month)
8)   Material Rejection Record
9)   PCD (Pest Control Devices) Map
10)  Rodent Bait Diagram
11)  Store Discard Policy
12)   FIFO (First In First Out) or FEFO (First Expired First Out)
13)  Slow Moving & Non Moving Food Materials
14)   Physical Inspection record of raw materials
15)  Copy of Import Clearances.
16) MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet) of Pest Chemicals
17)  Pest Chemicals Dilution Chart
18)   Water Treatment Plan & Diagram
19)    Sewage Treatment Plan & Diagram
20)  Grease Trap Cleaning Procedure
21)    Kitchen Uniform Washing Procedure
22)   Color Coding of Dusters
23)  Waste Disposal Plan
24)    Exhaust Hood Cleaning Procedure
25)   Dish Wash Temperature Record
26)  Pot Wash Temperature Record
27)   Cooking Temperature Record
28)   Hot Buffet Temperature Record
29)   Cold Buffet Temperature Record
30)   Re-Heating Temperature Record
31)  Walk in Cooler Temperature Record
32)  Walk in Freezer Temperature Record
33)  Micro Biology Report of Food
(6 samples per quarter is the guideline)
34) Chemical and Micro Biology Report of Water
35) TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) Ph Chlorine Monitoring Record of Swimming Pool
36)  Buffet Reject Food Handling Procedure
37)  ODC (Outdoor Catering) Vehicle Inspection Record
38)  Hand Swab Reports
(1/5th of food handlers per month is the guideline)
39) Food Handler’s Medical Certificate
40)  Illness and Injury Reporting System
41)  Used Oil Handling Procedure
42)   AHU (Air Handling Unit) and FCU (Fan Coil Unit) Cleaning Procedure
43)   Legionella Testing Report of AC Water
44)   OHT (Over Head Tank) Cleaning Procedure
45)   Food Safety Compliant Handling Mechanism
46)  Pest Control Schedule of Receiving, Stores, Kitchen & Restaurants.
47)       Sanitation Schedule of Receiving, Stores, Kitchen & Restaurants.


                It is rightly said by an anonymous author that:

     Safety is as simple as ABC - Always Be Careful. 
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What is HACCP?
HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) is an internationally accepted technique for preventing microbiological, chemical and physical contamination along the food supply chain. HACCP is a management system in which food safety is addressed through the analysis and control of biological, chemical, and physical hazards from raw material production, procurement and handling, to manufacturing, distribution and consumption of the finished product
The HACCP technique does this by identifying the risks, establishing critical control points, setting critical limits, and ensuring control measures are validated, verified and monitored before implementation.
The effective implementation of HACCP will enhance the ability of companies to: protect and enhance brands and private labels, promote consumer confidence and conform to regulatory and market requirements.
How does it work?
The first step is to make a commitment. The next step is to learn about the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system which allows you to develop and implement your own quality system. HACCP is the premier tool used by the world's food industry to manage risks to food safety and quality.
HACCP does this by identifying the risks and ensuring control ensures are validated, verified and monitored before implementation.
Implementation and certification requires people with recognized quality, HACCP system development and training skills. NCHC has certified trainers and auditors to assist companies implementing HACCP systems.
The effective implementation of HACCP will enhance the ability of companies to: protect and enhance brands and private labels, promote consumer confidence and conform to regulatory and market requirements.




DEFINITIONS
CCP Decision Tree:
A sequence of questions to assist in determining whether a control point is a CCP.
Control:
(a) To manage the conditions of an operation to maintain compliance with established criteria.
(b) The state where correct procedures are being followed and criteria are being met.
Control Measure:
Any action or activity that can be used to prevent, eliminate or reduce a significant hazard.
Control Point:
Any step at which biological, chemical, or physical factors can be controlled.
Corrective Action:
Procedures followed when a deviation occurs.
Criterion:
A requirement on which a judgement or decision can be based.
Critical Control Point:
A step at which control can be applied and is essential to prevent or eliminate a food safety hazard or reduce it to an acceptable level.
Critical Limit:
A maximum and/or minimum value to which a biological, chemical or physical parameter must be controlled at a CCP to prevent, eliminate or reduce to an acceptable level the occurrence of a food safety hazard.
Deviation:
Failure to meet a critical limit.
HACCP:
A systematic approach to the identification, evaluation, and control of food safety hazards.
HACCP Plan:
The written document which is based upon the principles of HACCP and which delineates the procedures to be followed.
HACCP System:
The result of the implementation of the HACCP Plan.
HACCP Team:
The group of people who are responsible for developing, implementing and maintaining the HACCP system.
Hazard:
A biological, chemical, or physical agent that is reasonably likely to cause illness or injury in the absence of its control.
Hazard Analysis:
The process of collecting and evaluating information on hazards associated with the food under consideration to decide which are significant and must be addressed in the HACCP plan.
Monitor:
To conduct a planned sequence of observations or measurements to assess whether a CCP is under control and to produce an accurate record for future use in verification.
Prerequisite Programs:
Procedures, including Good Manufacturing Practices, that address operational conditions providing the foundation for the HACCP system.
Severity:
The seriousness of the effect(s) of a hazard.
Step:
A point, procedure, operation or stage in the food system from primary production to final consumption.
Validation:
That element of verification focused on collecting and evaluating scientific and technical information to determine if the HACCP plan, when properly implemented, will effectively control the hazards.
Verification:
Those activities, other than monitoring, that determine the validity of the HACCP plan and that the system is operating according to the plan.

HACCP PRINCIPLES
HACCP is a systematic approach to the identification, evaluation, and control of food safety hazards based on the following seven principles:
Principle 1: Conduct a hazard analysis.
Principle 2: Determine the critical control points (CCPs).
Principle 3: Establish critical limits.
Principle 4: Establish monitoring procedures.
Principle 5: Establish corrective actions.
Principle 6: Establish verification procedures.
Principle 7: Establish record-keeping and documentation procedures.











GUIDELINES FOR APPLICATION OF HACCP PRINCIPLES
Introduction
HACCP is a management system in which food safety is addressed through the analysis and control of biological, chemical, and physical hazards from raw material production, procurement and handling, to manufacturing, distribution and consumption of the finished product. For successful implementation of a HACCP plan, management must be strongly committed to the HACCP concept. A firm commitment to HACCP by top management provides company employees with a sense of the importance of producing safe food.
HACCP is designed for use in all segments of the food industry from growing, harvesting, processing, manufacturing, distributing, and merchandising to preparing food for consumption. Prerequisite programs such as current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs) are an essential foundation for the development and implementation of successful HACCP plans. Food safety systems based on the HACCP principles have been successfully applied in food processing plants, retail food stores, and food service operations. The seven principles of HACCP have been universally accepted by government agencies, trade associations and the food industry around the world.
The following guidelines will facilitate the development and implementation of effective HACCP plans. While the specific application of HACCP to manufacturing facilities is emphasized here, these guidelines should be applied as appropriate to each segment of the food industry under consideration.
Prerequisite Programs
The production of safe food products requires that the HACCP system be built upon a solid foundation of prerequisite programs. Examples of common prerequisite programs are listed in Appendix A. Each segment of the food industry must provide the conditions necessary to protect food while it is under their control. This has traditionally been accomplished through the application of cGMPs. These conditions and practices are now considered to be prerequisite to the development and implementation of effective HACCP plans. Prerequisite programs provide the basic environmental and operating conditions that are necessary for the production of safe, wholesome food. Many of the conditions and practices are specified in federal, state and local regulations and guidelines (e.g., cGMPs and Food Code). The Codex Alimentarius General Principles of Food Hygiene describe the basic conditions and practices expected for foods intended for international trade. In addition to the requirements specified in regulations, industry often adopts policies and procedures that are specific to their operations. Many of these are proprietary. While prerequisite programs may impact upon the safety of a food, they also are concerned with ensuring that foods are wholesome and suitable for consumption (Appendix A). HACCP plans are narrower in scope, being limited to ensuring food is safe to consume.
The existence and effectiveness of prerequisite programs should be assessed during the design and implementation of each HACCP plan. All prerequisite programs should be documented and regularly audited. Prerequisite programs are established and managed separately from the HACCP plan. Certain aspects, however, of a prerequisite program may be incorporated into a HACCP plan. For example, many establishments have preventive maintenance procedures for processing equipment to avoid unexpected equipment failure and loss of production. During the development of a HACCP plan, the HACCP team may decide that the routine maintenance and calibration of an oven should be included in the plan as an activity of verification. This would further ensure that all the food in the oven is cooked to the minimum internal temperature that is necessary for food safety.
Education and Training: The success of a HACCP system depends on educating and training management and employees in the importance of their role in producing safe foods. This should also include information the control of foodborne hazards related to all stages of the food chain. It is important to recognize that employees must first understand what HACCP is and then learn the skills necessary to make it function properly. Specific training activities should include working instructions and procedures that outline the tasks of employees monitoring each CCP.Management must provide adequate time for thorough education and training. Personnel must be given the materials and equipment necessary to perform these tasks. Effective training is an important prerequisite to successful implementation of a HACCP plan.
Developing a HACCP Plan: The format of HACCP plans will vary. In many cases the plans will be product and process specific. However, some plans may use a unit operations approach. Generic HACCP plans can serve as useful guides in the development of process and product HACCP plans; however, it is essential that the unique conditions within each facility be considered during the development of all components of the HACCP plan.In the development of a HACCP plan, five preliminary tasks need to be accomplished before the application of the HACCP principles to a specific product and process. The five preliminary tasks are given in Figure 1.
Figure 1. Preliminary Tasks in the Development of the HACCP Plan
 Assemble the HACCP Team

Describe the Food and its Distribution

Describe the Intended Use and Consumers of the Food

Develop a Flow Diagram Which Describes the Process

Verify the Flow Diagram
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SANDWICHES
A sandwich may be many different things to different people – it can be a delicious bit of nonsense, that makes you ask for more! It can be prim and proper and just a bit stodgy – or staunch and hearty – or it might just be an empty promise!!!!
It is difficult to actually pin point when the sandwich actually appeared as a form of food presentation. We do know that the concept of wrapping bread around a filling for portability is ancient. It parallels the invention of bread. The sandwich involves bread in one way or the other. There is a universal chain of food items worldwide which all have a connection of a filling enclosed in a starchy casing. In China there is the Spring roll or the Egg roll; in Italy there is the Calzone; in Mexico, the Burrito; in Spain, the Empanada, Greece has the Pita and we have the Vada Pao !!!!.
Field workers in France have long had the custom of eating meat enclosed in two slices of bread. In southern France, it is customary to provide those setting out on a long journey with slices of cooked meat, sandwiched between two slices of bread. The Pain–Bagnat of Nice is a definite example of a sandwich that has been around for centuries.
The term SANDWICH came into being about 200 years ago. There lived a notorious gambler in the court of George III His name was John Montague, the Fourth Earl of Sandwich (1718-1792). The Earls gambling affliction was such, that he would enter into 24 hours marathons at the gaming tables. Any eating that had to be done had to be quick and not to detract from the task at hand. The Earl’s butler, who knew his master’s intensity, would place pieces of bread with cheese or meat for his sustenance. The rest is …..Well, not just history…..but the history of the Sandwich. Today, it is difficult to imagine a full-scale food service operation without the sandwich being a part of it.



PARTS OF A SANDWICH
The four parts of a sandwich can be listed as:
- Bread - Filling
- Spread - Garnish
I Bread
Various types of bread can be used to make sandwiches
a. The Pullman loaf or the sandwich bread is the most popular. This may be white or brown
b. Rolls – including hard and soft rolls, burger rolls, hot dog rolls, croissants and Vienna rolls are all popular.
c. French bread and baguettes for foot longs and submarine sandwiches
d. Bread made of various flours such as rye, whole wheat, maize, multigrain
e. Unleavened bread like pita
f. Flavored bread like cinnamon bread, raisin bread, fruit and nut bread.
II Spread
The main function of the spread is to hold the filling and the bread together. It also forms a protective layer on the bread and prevents it from getting soggy from the moisture in the filling. Moreover, it adds to the taste of the sandwich and in case of children, contributes to the nutritive value
Plain and compound butter like anchovy, herb, parsley butter
Mayonnaise and its derivatives
Low fat spreads like margarine
Cheese spreads and cheese paste
A combination of the above.
III Filling
Could be a variety of limitless items. The filling gives the sandwich its name.
Fillings could include meat, poultry, fish, eggs, cheese, vegetables. Salami, cooked roast chicken, ox tongue, sliced cucumber and tomato are all popular fillings.
The filling could be a single item, or a combination of several. Ham and cheese, Cucumber and chutney, Bacon and tomato. It is important that the combinations are complementary to each other.
IV Garnish
To enhance the appearance and the presentation of the sandwich, it is necessary to create eye appeal. The garnish is not absolutely essential and can be avoided in an informal setting. The sandwich may be a simple unadorned bit of bread with a filling or a masterpiece fit for a king. Various garnishes will include a stuffed olive, a pickled onion, capers, gherkins or parsley. The garnish should be delicate and dainty and not cumbersome and ugly.
The sandwich is no doubt the favorite lunch time food. For a typical customer, one who is in a rush, one who is hungry, the sandwich is the ideal food. It is quickly made and served, convenient to eat, easily adaptable to many variations. It can satisfy almost any palate and nutritional requirement. Properly made, it can be a very wholesome meal. Sandwich has long been the domain of the pantry department, along with salads and other cold snacks. Preparing sandwiches to order is one of the fundamental skills required in modern food production techniques.

TYPES OF SANDWICHES
1 Conventional, Closed or Lunchbox Sandwich
These consist of two slices of bread with any filling such as meat, fish, poultry, eggs and vegetables. They may be served whole or cut into neat triangles, with or without the crust removed. White or whole meal bread can be used or any other similar bread. They are served in bars, cafes, coffee-shops and snack counters. They are the ideal item for the lunchbox that school children and office-goers carry. The filling is usually heavy and hearty, as the objective is to provide a wholesome and nutritious meal. Or, it could be light and fancy ….the perfect food for the weight watcher.

2. Tea Sandwiches
These are similar to the above but are cut into smaller triangles or in fingers. They are served at afternoon tea, usually with a very light filling. The crust is normally removed so that they look prim and proper like the high society ladies who usually eat them!!!! They will be suitably garnished for service.
3. The Buffet Sandwich
These are similar to the conventional sandwich but are cut into fancy shapes like hearts, diamonds, and ovals, with sandwich cutters. Obviously, there will be a lot of wastage and can only be used when cost permits.
4. Continental or French Sandwiches
Consists of crusty French baguettes slit horizontally, well buttered with a savory filling. It can be garnished with lettuce, slices of cucumber and tomatoes. It can be served whole or cut into pieces so that they can be lifted easily. If left whole, they are referred to as foot longs. In America, they are called submarine sandwiches.


5. Double Decker / Triple Decker and Club Sandwiches
These are extremely popular these days. If you top an ordinary sandwich with another filling and close that with a third slice of bread you get a double - decker (two fillings, three slices of bread). Similarly, a triple - decker will have three fillings and four slices of bread. A club sandwich will have multiple fillings and multiple slices, all piled up one over the other. The fillings must be substantial and complement each other. There must be a balance in the fillings. The bread in a club sandwich may be toasted or grilled but in a double decker or a triple decker, plain bread may be used as well. These sandwiches are cut diagonally into half for service so that they can be eaten easily.

6. Open Sandwiches
Are technically not sandwiches, as a sandwich needs two slices of bread. But for convenience, they are classified as sandwiches. If the top slice of a sandwich is missing….what do you call it?….half a sandwich?? A garnished piece of bread? Until a better name is found, we can call it an open sandwich. Open sandwiches are slices of buttered bread on top of which is arranged a variety of toppings. The bread is then trimmed and garnished. They may even be cut into fancy shapes. The bread may be white or brown, toasted or plain. They should not be confused with canapés, which have a variety of different bases. Please remember that sandwiches are not made only to please the eye and look pretty on the platter. They must please the eye….yes, but they must also satisfy the palate.
7. Fancy Sandwiches
Ribbon sandwiches
Checker Board sandwich
Pinwheel Sandwich
Rolled sandwich
Mosaic sandwich
These are a variety of fancy sandwiches which look good when put on exhibition and display. They add a new dimension to a cold buffet presentation.

8. Hot Sandwiches
These are hot snacks but are really a hot sandwich. These include:
- Book Maker (England) *
- Strammer Max (Germany) *
- Lindstrom (Sweeden) *
- Croque Monsieur/Madame (France) *

GENERAL RULES FOR SANDWICH MAKING
1. Soften the butter before spreading.
2. Smooth fillings like fish paste and cream cheese spread easiest at room temperature.
3. Use a palette knife for easy spreading
4. Ideally, the bread should be 12 to 18 hours old. This ensures easy slicing.
5. Butter both slices of the bread being used for the sandwich. It helps to hold the sandwich together
6. Use sliced bread….it is neater and more convenient.
7. If cutting the bread yourself, arrange the bread slices in the order they have been cut.
8. Use sufficient filling. The label should not be the only means of identification of the sandwich.
9.Wrap prepared sandwiches in cling film or in a moist duster in separate batches for easy identification.

History of Sandwiches
The first recorded sandwich was made by the famous Rabbi, Hillel the Elder, who lived during the 1st century B.C. A poor man, but a great scholar, he began the Passover custom of sandwiching a mixture of chopped nuts, apples, spices, and wine between two matzohs to eat with bitter herbs. This sandwich is the foundation of the Seder and is named after him. But matzoh, being unleavened bread, is not absorptive of sauces and juices as today's sandwich has become.
Before the Renaissance and the invention of the fork, any object that moved between plate and mouth, lifting cooked food and its sauce without spills was a necessary utensil. From the Dark Ages to the Renaissance, bread was an integral part of a table setting. Thick slices of bread, called trenchers, were set on wooden plates (also called trenchers) to soak up the sauces accompanying pieces of meat. The word comes from the French verb trenchier or trancher, which means to cut. Each trencher was eaten at each meal, and a new one made for the subsequent meal by simply cutting off new a slice from the loaf. If the meal was formal and elaborate, trenchers might be changed more than once during the meal. The advent of the fork, however, dictated that using fingers to lift food was bad manners. The trencher became passé.
John Montagu (1718-1792), the Fourth Earl of Sandwich, revived the concept of bread as utensil giving us the name we use today. Montagu was First Lord of the Admiralty and patron to Capt. James Cook who explored New Zealand, Australia, Hawaii, and Polynesia. Capt. Cook named the Hawaiian Islands after him, calling them the Sandwich Islands. Legend holds that Montagu was addicted to gambling, so addicted that he gambled for hours at a time at a restaurant, refusing to get up for meals. To believe this legend, we can only imagine that he was so intent on scooping up winnings that he could not listen to the growls in his stomach demanding food. Supposedly, he ordered his valet to bring him meat tucked between two pieces of bread. His fellow gamblers, no doubt looking for a lucky charm, began to order "the same as Sandwich!" The original sandwich would have been nothing more than a piece of salt beef between two slices of toasted bread. Whatever the truth of the legend, the name sandwich is inscribed for all time.
In her book, English Bread and Yeast Cookery, Elizabeth David tells us that while France and Italy remained true to the freeform bread, the British were quick to adapt to making a fine loaf of white bread in tins. This ensured uniformity and slices that were evenly cut. In addition, bread made in a tin is less crusty and offers more dough to absorb juices or spreads and hold ingredients together. The British loved their sarnies, the nickname given to sandwiches. Another slang word for sandwich, one that predates sarnie, is 'butty' as in jam butty, chip butty, ham butty etc., and that was a contraction of 'bread and butter'. That came from northern regions, possibly Yorkshire.
In 1840, the sandwich was introduced to America by Elizabeth Leslie (1787-1858). In her "Directions for Cookery", she offers a recipe for ham sandwiches that she deemed them worthy to be a main dish. In the 1900's, with the industrial revolution underway, bakeries began to sell pre-sliced bread. The American public jumped at the ease of making a sandwich. The sandwich as institution was born. Human beings, being adventurous, have developed the sandwich into both a quick and easy meal, and an art form. How long would it take for us to reconfigure the possibilities: we toast the bread or serve it plain; we pile high the sandwich with the maximum ingredients, or keep it simple with one or two.



Types of Sandwiches
______________________________________
______________________________________
Beef On Weck Sandwich or Beef On Wick
This is a unique staple of Buffalo, New York’s bars and taverns. Few, if any, restaurants outside of the Buffalo area serve this sandwich or even know what it is. It is a roast beef sandwich on a salty kummelweck roll which is a Kaiser roll, seeded with caraway and topped with an abundance of chunky salt . Kummelweck is simply shortened to “weck.” The sandwich is usually served with horseradish, kosher dill pickle slices, and French Fries on the side. We asked Tony Matteliano (my sicilian mama and papa) who lives in the Buffalo area about the Beef on Weck. He wrote us: "The few places I have traveled to outside of Western New York , do not seem to have this sandwich. I have traveled and asked about roast Beef on Kimmelweck ( another spelling), but no one seemed to know what I was talking about. They knew what roast beef was, but not the kummelweck roll! Yes 'Beef on Weck' is truly the King of sandwiches. No doubt, no lie, absolute truth. Thanks for asking, now I am drooling."

Bierock
This is a specialty from Kansas with roots in the German and Russian. A yeasted pocket bread would be stuffed with beef, sauerkraut, onion and seasonings. It is similar to the Runza (scroll down).
Club Sandwich
This is a sandwich with cooked chicken breast and bacon, lettuce and tomato. They are layered between two, possibly three slices of toasted bread with mayonnaise. This was quite fashionable in New York, and was a favorite with the Duke and Duchess of Windsor.
From the Berghoff Cafe Cookbook:
"There are at least three histories of the original club house sandwich, which consisted of cooked chicken breast, bacon, sliced tomatoes, and crisp lettuce layered between two-or three-slices of bread. One version is that in 1894, the club sandwich was created in the kitchen of the Saratoga Club-House, Saratoga Springs, New York. A second version is that it was created by an anonymous very hungry man who came home late and, while making himself some toast, searched the pantry-he found bacon, cold chicken, tomato, lettuce, and mayonnaise-and put these leftovers between his toast. Yet a third version suggests it was a two-decker sandwich that originated aboard double-decker club cars traveling between New York and Chicago in the 1930s and '40s. And the late James Beard added his two cents, declaring that the two-decker original club house sandwich was one of the great sandwiches of all times-but that a three-decker was a horror." Carlyn Berghoff


Cuban Sandwich
Toasted Cuban sandwiches are Miami's favorite snack. The best places to buy them are from street corner-snack bars called loncherias. The sandwiches have a submarine-style layering of ham, roast pork, cheese, and pickle between a sliced length of Cuban bread. Cuban sandwich shops make these sandwiches using a sandwich iron similar to a panini press.
Dagwood Sandwich
This sandwich is named after the popular comic strip character of the 1930's, Dagwood Bumstead. Rather inept in any domestic duty, Dagwood was only able to pile leftovers between bread. Yes, go ahead and clean the fridge and call it a Dagwood, but remember to pile high enough to make it impossible to eat.
Falafel

Falafel is the national street food of Israel and the whole middle east. It is served in a pita, dressed with tahini sauce and smothered in a variety of add-ons. One may find chopped salad, pickled vegetables, even the fiery Yemenite condiment called zhug. Every Falafel stand has its own style. Some people love it topped with sauerkraut , wedges of tomato and tahini. Hot pepper may also be sprinkled on top.

Finger Sandwiches for Tea
The origin of the mid-afternoon tea is credited to Anna, the Duchess of Bedford, who conquered the weak feeling at four in the afternoon by having tea and breadstuffs. In time she invited friends and the tea party was born. 1840 is the given date for this historic moment, and by 1880, the country was following the Duchess' lead, and tea shops were in vogue.
There are a few caveats for tea sandwiches or finger sandwiches: choose thinly sliced, sandwich bread of a tight grain; use a thin layer of butter to seal the bread from the moist ingredients; cut away all crusts.

French Dip
Invented in Los Angeles by Philippe Mathieu, the owner of a shop called "Philippe the Original," the "French Dipped Sandwich" is the specialty of the house and is made with either roast beef, roast pork, leg of lamb, turkey or ham served on a light French roll dipped into au jus sauce, made from the the pan drippings of roast beef.
Gyro
The gyro is a Greek specialty. A proper Greek gyro is made with meat cut off a big cylinder of well-seasoned lamb or lamb and beef. (This meat is on a slowly rotating vertical spit the name gyro, implying the circular spinning motion of a gyroscope). Gyro is probably the most often mispronounced food name. Even its fans usually do not get the pronounced correctly - whether it is mispronounced as "jee-rohs," "jai-rohs," "gee-rohs," The correct Greek pronunciation is “yee-rohs.”

Hoagie
The hoagie comes from Philadelphia and has developed several legends as to its origins, but the word 'hoagie" seems to have derived from 'hoggie' (an apt term for anyone downing this supersize sandwich). A site member advises us that "The term "Hoagie" refers to the men who worked on Hog Island. Hog Island was famous for shipbuilding. The shipbuilders liked their sandwiches big, and local shopkeepers accommodated by creating a Sandwich which would satisfy their appetites. A correctly made Philadelphia Hoagie has some of the soft interior of the bread removed, to accommodate more ingredients.
It is related to the Poor Boy, the Hero and the Submarine. In other parts of the country it is called a Zep or Zeppelin.They are all made on full loaves of crusty French bread filled with various cold cuts and many different trimmings.

Horseshoe
This is a specialty in Springfield, Illinois, and is a thick sandwich with two or three slices of bread encasing fried ham steak or 2 large hamburgers. It is served with thick French fries, and a special sauce. A 'Pony Shoe' uses one slice of very thick bread.
Hot Brown Sandwich
The Hot Brown is an open-faced sandwich made from turkey, bacon, pimientos, and Mornay sauce. The sandwich is place under the broiler to melt the cheese. Chef Fred K. Schmidt at the Brown Hotel in Louisville, Kentucky, created The Hot Brown sandwich in 1926. In the 1920s, the Brown Hotel drew over 1,200 guests each evening for its dinner dance. The band played steadily, the dancers grew hungry. At midnight, when the band took its break, the crowd headed for the restaurant to eat. Chef Schmidt delighted his guests (and prepared them for more dancing) by creating the Hot Brown. Today the Hot Brown sandwich is still a Louisville favorite and still the signature dish of the Camberley Brown Hotel.

The Hot Dog
Though the hot dog is a classic invention of its own, it must be included here as it conforms to Webster's definition. Controversy surrounds the origin of the hot dog. Who really created the first hot dog? Although the city of Frankfurt, Germany lays claim to being the origin of the first frankfurter in 1852, some argue that Johann Georghehner, a butcher from Coburg, Germany created the first frankfurter as early as the 1600s.Several legends surround the American hot dog. Some claim that the first stall selling hot dogs was in Coney Island in 1916, others shout, no, the St. Louis World Fair of 1904 was the starting point, while yet others claim it was first sold by a food concessionaire named Harry Stevens at New York's Polo Grounds, the home of the New York Giants, in the early 1900s. Whatever the truth of its origins, the hot dog is forever allied with the American baseball game.
The name appears to be credited to the cartoonist TA (Tad) Dorga who drew the oddly presented sausage as dachshunds in buns, and called them hot dogs because he couldn't spell frankfurter. Another variant says that around 1894-95, students at Yale University began to refer to the wagons selling hot sausages in buns as dog wagons. One such wagon was nicknamed "The Kennel Club." It was only a short step from this campus use of dog to hot dog, and this fateful move was made in a story in the issue of the Yale Record for 19 October 1895, which ended, "They contentedly munched hot dogs during the whole service." Fittingly, July is National Hot Dog Month. Statistics say that the average American eats 60 hot dogs a year. This is a specialty from Cincinnati and is often called a 'Coney.' The history is somewhat vague, but a Macedonian immigrant, Tom Athanas Kiradjieff gets the credit for this, also. En route to Cincinnati, he passed through the Coney Island area of New York. Later when he decided to cover one of his hot dogs on a bun with mustard, Cincinnati Chili, and onions, and top it all off with a lot of finely grated Cheddar Cheese, he named it a 'Coney Island' and the name sticks to this day. 'Coneys', as the locals call them, are now made with a hot dog that is a bit smaller and shorter than a regular wiener, to allow more room for the chili and other goodies that go thereon.

Monte Cristo
The Monte Cristo Sandwich has creative variations from one restaurant to another. The basic sandwich is made of two slices of white bread with ham, turkey, or chicken, and a slice of cheese. It is then dipped in beaten egg and fried in butter. A classic Monte Cristo sandwich should come with a side of jelly to dip it in. The original grilled cheese sandwich, this consisted of Gruyere cheese and lean ham between two slices of crustless bread, fried in clarified butter. It was originally served in 1910 in a Paris cafe. This sandwich is still a popular snack or casual meal throughout France and Switzerland in most bars and cafes.
Muffuletta
The muffuletta is a specialty of the French Quarter of New Orleans. It could be called olive salad on bread. Despite the name 'French' this is a gift of the Italian immigrants who settled in New Orleans. To be authentic, it should be served on a round 10-inch roll, at room temperature. It is frequently called simply a 'Muff.'
Old, but New - Panini, Crostini & Bruschetta
Italians have always eaten bread with everything. In the history of Italian food the concept of a sandwich was, most likely, peasant fare. Having gifted the world with 'open-face' inventions, such as pizza or foccaccia, the flavored and dressed toast known as bruschetta, we would demand nothing more of the Italians. But panini are there, crunchy breads holding warm meats and cheeses. Though the Italians may, indeed, prefer panini plain, they are quite popular grilled in a panini press. Bruschetta is really garlic bread, though it has become a form of open-face sandwich. It is rubbed with fruity extra virgin olive oil then grilled. Garlic is rubbed lightly over the hot bread after grilling, then drizzled with olive oil. Today we dress it and pile it high with ingredients of our own choice. Crostini are small, thin slices of toasted French or Italian bread topped with a few simple ingredients and served as an appetizer.
Pita
Pita, the ingenious pocket bread, is of Middle Eastern origin, and is today popular in Israel, Greece, Lebanon, and many Arab countries. This ingenious bread is a pouch as well as an absorptive dough. It both carries food and soaks up juices and flavorings. It has been added to diets worldwide as a lunchtime staple.


Philadelphia Cream Cheese Steak
contributed by Craig Tiano
The Philadelphia Cheese Steak is a long-roll sandwich filled with chopped pieces of fried chip steak smothered in melted cheese. It's fame easily surpasses the Cubano and 'Beef on Wick' sandwiches you've included. I've seen it on menus in the Caribbean, Italy, and Scotland!
This sandwich has well documented legends. The story goes that the original cheese steak was made by a hot dog vendor (Pat Olivieri) who got tired of having hot dogs for lunch. One of his regulars smelled the steak and onions and asked if he could have some, too. That's the legend. Today, the descendents of Pat operate Pat's in the heart of South Philadelphia. The original Philly steak didn't have cheese. That came later. Pat's serves what they call the "original", made with chip steak and cheese whiz on a crusty italian roll. If you want onions, you have to order "wit" (as in "Cheese steak wit"). Across the street is the rival Geno's. Geno's makes their Cheese steak with american cheese, unless you ask for provolone. They do NOT use cheese whiz. If you want onions, you ask for a "Cheese steak with onions". If you ask for a "Cheese steak wit", they'll politely correct your pronunciation of the word "with". At both, you can ask for it "scooped", which means they'll pull out virtually all of the soft interior of the roll. I, personally, don't like it that way. When you scoop, you usually end up with ketchup/pizza sauce and grease making the roll so soft that it requires you to eat it very quickly for fear that it'll fall apart. With the size of an average cheese steak being easily 1/2 pound+ of meat plus a roll and cheese, it's not something to scarf down! I, personally, prefer the Pizza Steak, a variety of cheese steak which includes provolone cheese cooked with the steak, the steak/cheese put into the roll, pizza sauce poured in, and then topped with mozzarella and put under the broiler until the mozzarella bubbles and the roll gets a bit crispier.
Poor Boy (or Po' Boy)
The Po' Boy or Poor Boy emanates from New Orleans. The fillings vary, ranging from fried oysters, shrimp, fish, soft-shelled crabs, crawfish, roast beef and gravy, roast pork, meatballs, smoked sausage and more. They are always made with French bread. It is related to the Hoagie, the Hero and the Submarine. They are all made on full loaves of crusty French bread filled with various cold cuts and many different trimmings.
Reuben Sandwich
The Reuben Sandwich is a grilled sandwich made with corned beef, Swiss cheese, sauerkraut, and Russian dressing on rye bread. There are two claims to the Reuben. The Midwestern claim states that it was created by Reuben Kolakofsky (1874-1960), a wholesale grocer in Omaha, Nebraska and co-owner of Central Market in Omaha sometime between 1920 and 1935. Like the Earl of Sandwich at his gaming tables, Kolakofsky belonged to a weekly poker group for whom he fixed this sandwich. One of the players, Charles Schimmel, was owner of the Blackstone Hotel in Omaha, and he put the Reuben on his menu.
But Reuben's was a landmark Manhattan delicatessen, first established around 1908. Arnold Reuben's daughter claims that a Reuben Special sandwich was created in 1914 for Annette Seelos, Charlie Chaplin's leading lady.


Runza
This is a specialty from Nebraska, similar to the bierock mentioned above. It also has its roots in the German and Russian, and is a yeasted pocket bread stuffed with beef, sauerkraut, onion and seasonings.
Schnitters and Sangers, hopefully with Fritz (from Australia)
In parts of South Australia,a sandwich is called a schnitter, while in other places it is called a sanger. Sangers can be sandwiches in one state and sausages in another. But hopefully, they will be served with Fritz. We asked Margaret Walker (margaret's kitchen down under) about Fritz: "We have a meat here called Fritz. In other states of Australia it is called Devon or simply Sausage. It is beloved by children Australia wide. My greatest treat was to go into the local Butcher Shop, and be offered a slice of fritz to eat whilst mother was waiting to be served. The butcher took out his steel and sharpened his knife, then took the long orange stick of smoked fritz from the refrigerator and cut a thick slice. I felt so thrilled when I had that thick slice in my hand and could enjoy the taste and texture of really fresh fritz. Fritz and Tomato Sauce is a favorite of all South Australian school children for a lunchbox sandwich.

Shawarma
Similar to a gyro, the traditional Middle Eastern shawarma sandwich is made with marinated pieces of meat which have been pressed, stacked onto a rotisserie and cooked slowly. The cooked meat is then shaved off and made into a sandwich with yogurt, tomatoes and lettuce.
Sloppy Joe
H.K. Heinz in Pittsburgh says their research at the Carnegie Library suggests that the Sloppy Joe began in a Sioux City, Iowa, cafe as a "loose meat sandwich" in 1930, the creation of a cook named Joe..." Since ground meat, stretched as best as possible, was a staple throughout the depression, we will credit the creation of the sloppy joe to the general spirit of all people who use their imagination to make food taste good without cost.

Submarine
The sub is a king-sized sandwich on an Italian loaf of bread approximately 12 inches long and 3 inches wide. It is filled with ham, salami, cheese, lettuce, tomatoes, onions, and usually flavored with garlic powder and oregano. It is thought that the original concept of these sandwiches came from the Italians who immigrated to New York in the late 1800s and brought with them their favorite Italian Sandwich recipes. It is related to the Poor Boy, the Hero and the Hoagie. They are all made on full loaves of crusty French bread filled with various cold cuts and many different trimmings.

Sandwiches to Live in, not to eat
The Town of Sandwich is a seaside community of about 22,000 residents located in the northwest corner of Cape Cod in Barnstable County, Massachusetts. Incorporated in 1639, Sandwich is the oldest town on Cape Cod and one of the oldest towns in the United States, settled by =European immigrants nearly 150 years before the American Revolution.
Another Sandwich town is in England. The family of the Earls of Sandwich has no real connection to the town itself, only the title. The 1st Earl, Edward Montague, originally intended to take the title of the Earl of Portsmouth - this may have been changed as a compliment to the town of Sandwich, because the fleet he was commanding in 1660 was lying off Sandwich, before it sailed to bring back Charles II to England.
The name Sandwich is Saxon in origin and means, 'Sandy Place' or 'Place on the Sand'. The first recorded mention of the town was around 640 AD but it is older than that.
Close to Sandwich there is a small village called Ham (from the word hamlet - meaning small village).
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mathew stephenson's profile photoHarish M.S's profile photo
 
Dear chef i want the notes for 1.   Styles OF COOKERY- Oriental/ Asian/ European/ Continental/ Pan American
2.   History and Development of Modern Cuisine- Classical and Contemporary.
Kindly send me the notes of this if you have. waiting for ur reply chef.
Regards,
stephen
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GARNISHES AND THEIR HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE
1. AFRICAINE
In the African style, as practiced by French chefs. dishes
that bear this title must convey the style of foods consumed
in the vast continent of North, West, Central and East
Africa, and the Union of South Africa. It was however
indiscriminately applied by the French chefs to dishes during
the reign of Napoleon III when Meyerbeer’s opera L’Africaine
enjoyed great popularity .The principal ingredients used as
garnish, giving dishes the right to bear this title are:-
chicken, mushroom, tomatoes, eggplant,
Curried and spiced foods; dishes garnished with savoury rice
or flavoured with garlic or pimento and groundnuts. Coconut
and pistachio nuts find their way in the sweet course.
2. AILERONS
Wing tips of chicken. Foods garnished with small wings of
poultry or fins of fish of certain types of fish.
Eg .Consommé ‘Ailerons’
Chicken consommé garnished with stuffed chicken wings and
cooked rice.
3. AIOLI
A Provencal olive oil cum garlic sauce. In Provençe the
Aioli is the name of the dish itself whether it be fish,
Vegetables or snails when served with this cold sauce.
Sauce: Garlic flavoured mayonnaise sauce with hard boiled
eggs added sprinkled with cayenne.
4. ALASKA
Formerly called Russian America, it is a territory of the United
States of America.
i) Sole Alaska – poached whole sole in white wine, half
coated with a pink shrimp sauce and the other half with
white wine sauce (made with fish liquor) garnished with poached
oysters and noisette potatoes.
ii) Baked Alaska is Americas favourite dessert .It is frozen
vanilla ice cream placed on a sponge cake base covered
quickly with Meringue and baked in a hot oven to brown the
meringue immediately
iii) Cantaloupe Alaska –cut cantaloupes into 2, fill with
ice cream, topped with meringue and browned.
5. ALEXANDRA
Was the consort (the queen) of Edward VII, a king of Great
Britain and Ireland in whose honour many dishes were named.
Indicates inclusion of asparagus tips.
i) Consommé Alexandra. Chicken consommé thickened with
tapioca, garnished with shredded chicken, lettuce and
asparagus tips.
ii) Chicken Sauté Alexandra: - Cook the
chicken breasts in butter, mask with thin soubise sauce
reduced with cream, and garnish with asparagus tips.
6. ALLEMANDE
In the German style, dishes garnished with sauerkraut or
pickled pork or smoked sausages.
i) Consommé: Allemande: Beef Consommé flavored with juniper berries thickened with tapioca flour garnished with julienne of
red cabbage and slices of smoked sausages.
ii) Salad: Allemande: slices of apple, new potatoes, beetroot, mixed with smoked herrings fillets and gherkins sprinkled with chopped parsley and vinaigrette dressing.
7. AMBASSADRICE
Literally means the wife of the Ambassador.
i) Sole: Crayfish encased in rolled fillets of sole,
poached and served with sauce Normande.
ii) Pudding: a rich custard flavored with kirsch with a layer of strawberries,
served with strained strawberry jam flavored with kirsch.
8. AMERICAINE
In the American style as practiced by the French chefs.
A garnish for fish :slices of lobster tail and truffles.
Sauce: Tomato sauce enriched with cream, blended with pounded
Coral butter and tail meat. Reduce with rich fish stock.
Bombe: Ice cream bombe mould, lined with strawberry ice cream
flavored with grenadine, alternated with pistachio ice cream
Salad: Sliced potatoes, tomatoes, celery, rings of onions and
sliced hard boiled eggs with a French dressing.
9. ANDALOUSE
In the Andalusian style. A Spanish province.
Chicken Consommé: garnished with diced tomatoes, cucumber and cooked vermicelli.
A cold sauce: Mayonnaise + tomato puree mixed
with brunoise of capsicum.
10. ANGLAISE
In the English style as prepared by the French chefs. It indicates a “plainly/simply prepared” dish.
Garniture for Chicken: mixed vegetable (carrots, french beans, turnips,
potatoes, cauliflower) cooked in salted water
Côtelette de veau: Grilled breaded cutlets garnished with
par boiled potatoes fried in butter.
11. ANNA
The first name of Anna Amelia, Duchess of Saxony, born 24th
October 1739, chiefly applied to a certain manner of cooking
potatoes invented by Chef Dugleré who was Chef at Café D’
anglaise in Paris, in pre - war days.
Potatoes: peeled, sliced thinly, arranged in a shallow mould
With melted butter and seasoning. Baked in the oven to golden yellow color.
12. ARGENTUIL
Name of a district in France, famous for its asparagus.
Potage: Asparagus soup thickened with rice and garnished with
asparagus points.
Chicken: large flat fillet, poached and coated with supreme
sauce to which asparagus puree has been added .
13. AU BLEU
Meats/Fish cooked fresh and simply,
Truite au bleu: Trout brought to the kitchen alive and stunned and gutted just before cooking in water and white wine. Flavored with herbs and vinegar served with parsley potatoes, hollandaise sauce or melted butter.
14. AURORE
Dawn - Break of day. The Roman Goddess of Dawn - Aurore.
Consommé of veal stock with tomato puree added, garnished
with diced chicken.
Sauce: Bechamel sauce flavored with tarragon and lightly
colored with tomato puree or lobster butter in case of fish.
Oeufs: Julienne of hard boiled eggs in allemande sauce with grated
Cheese and browned under the salamander
Fruits: Cold dessert, made from fruits in season on strawberry
ice cream with a Zabaione (sabayon) sauce flavored with Curacco.
15. BABA
Turkish for father. It is generally acknowledged that the
invention of the cake Baba au rhum belongs to the King
Stanislaus of Russia. The king used to read the tales of a
100 nights and has named this after his favourite hero - Alibaba.
Baba au Rhum: A light yeast dough batter, sweetened and
enriched with butter and eggs. While still hot, it is dipped in
hot sugar syrup, strongly flavoured with rum, whipped cream
is piped on top of the cake.
Baba au kirsch as above using kirsch instead of rum.
16. BATAILLE
Brittle, fight, battle array or Batailey – a chateau of the
Bordeaux region
Potatoes: cut in ½” square and deep fried in fat.
17. BATTENBURG
The name of a family of German counts which died out about 1314.
The title was revived in 1851.
Batterburg cake: A lattice pattern of pink, yellow and chocolate
Genoise cake encased in rich almond paste.
18. BAVOROISE
A Bavarian cream, Bavarian style.
Example of Bavarian creams: Flavoured custard using double the volume of ceam (in relation to milk)
Sauce: Rich hollandaise sauce flavored with cray fish puree and paprika.
19. BAYONNAISE
The city in Spain was famous for its ham and pork and products.
It is said mayonnaise was first spelled bayonnaise, and Spain claims
mayonnaise as one of her culinary creations.
Canapé: a circle of rye toast heaped with minced ham.
Poulet sauté: young chicken fried with chopped ham,
stewed in brown sauce and served with boiled rice.
20. BEARNAISE
From the province of Bearn in the French Pyrenees.
Sauce: Bearnaise is named by the chef of Henry IV
at St. Germain who first introduced this sauce .Yolks of eggs
warmed in double boiler, with chopped shallots and herbs, with butter
added piece by piece until the sauce is as thick as mayonnaise,
lemon juice and cayenne pepper added.
Chauteaubriand: Double fillet of beef, brushed with olive oil,
broiled, garnished, with watercress and served with sauce bearnaise.
21. BECHAMEL
Marquis de Bechamel, a courtier in the service of the king
Louis XIV said to have invented Bechamel sauce.
Lobster: diced and mixed with béchamel returned to shell and baked.
Sauce: Rich creamy white sauce made of flour and butter roux and milk, seasoned with salt, pepper, mace and bay leaf.
Artichokes: boiled artichokes served with béchamel sauce.
22. BELLE HELENE
Presumably named for the opera, ‘Belle Helene’ by Offenbach
and produced 1864.
Tournedos de boeuf: small fillets of, grilled and garnished with
straw potatoes, watercress and artichoke bottoms filled with
sauce bearnaise
Desserts: fresh fruits like pears, peaches stewed in vanilla
flavored sugar syrup. When cold placed on ice cream and
covered with rich glossy chocolate sauce garnished with
whipped cream and nuts.
23. BEL PAESE
A rich creamy cheese of Italian origin having a mild flavor,
weighing 2-3lbs each.
24. BERCY
It is a suburb and market of Paris
Potage: Puree of spring turnips thickened with cream and egg yolk.
Sauce: Thin, meat glaze with chopped shallots reduced in white wine and enriched with fresh butter, lemon juice and chopped parsley
Sole: Rolled fillets of fish, cooked under cover in butter with chopped shallots, mushroom liquor, white wine and chopped parsley masked with bercy sauce.
25. BIGARDE
A bitter Seville orange from Spain.
Canard sauvage: wild duck served with orange salad and sauce bigarde.
Sauce: Gravy from duck, reduced with fine shreds of orange and flavoured with orange juice and little red currant jelly.
26. BOLOGNAISE
In the style of Bologna, a city in Italy famous for its
Bolognaise sausages.
Spaghetti: cooked in salted water, strained combined with
diced/minced beef tossed in butter with minced onions
moistened with veal stock, flavored with garlic and tomato.
27. BONNE FEMME
(Good Woman) - Housewife style.
Potage; Thick white bean and chicken soup with julienne of
vegetables (leeks, sorrel, carrots and turnips)
Sauce: creamy white sauce made with finely chopped mushrooms
and shallots, blended with butter, seasoned and thickened with
cream and egg yolk and flavored with white wine.
Sole: Poached fillets of sole, cooked with chopped shallots,
mushroom, parsley, fish stock and white wine. Masked with fish veloute and browned.
Poulet sauté: young chicken sautéed with rich gravy reduced with
white wine, garnished with diced bacon and button onions.
28. BORDELAISE (a la)
In the style of the city of Bordeaux.
Sauce: Rich brown sauce, reduced with red wine and chopped
shallots, tarragon, and parsley.
29. BOUDIN NOIR
Traditional grilled, blood sausage for the festivities
on Christmas Eve in Germany (Alsace).
30. BOUILLI A BAISSE
A Provencal word indicates to boil and then stop.
Bouillabaise - A Mediterranean fish stew of several kinds of
fish cut in to small pieces and tossed in oil with chopped herbs
and onions moistened with white wine seasoned with saffron,
tomatoes and garlic,garnished with chopped parsley. Very
popular with fishermen on the water front in Marseillaise who
prepare this for a late breakfast with the leftovers of morning sale
31. BOUILLON (Stock)
Broth, principally of beef
32. BOUQUETIERE (A LA)
In the manner of flower girls, usually a garnish consisting
Of small fine vegetables dressed in small heaps around the meat
33. BOURBON
Name of a family of French Rulers.
Consomme: Chicken consommé thickened with tapioca garnished
with truffles cut into fancy shapes (hearts, diamonds, crescent etc)
and finely chopped chervil.
34. BOURGUIGNONNE
Burgundy style: As a rule dishes in the preparation of which
burgundy wine is added
Sauce Espagnole: Sauce flavored with finely minced shallots,
Thyme, parsley, tarragon and mace. Burgundy wine is usually
added.
Garniture for joint (roasts) – Button mushrooms and onions
tossed in butter with small dices of lean bacon and burgundy wine.
35. BRESSANE
Style of Bresse the French Provencal District famous for its fattened chicken. Poulardes des Bresse.
Crème: cream of pumpkin soup, garnished with mezzanelli
(italian pasta) and enriched with cream.
36. BRILLAT- SAVARIN
Noted French gastronome and author of French works, chiefly
famous for his book “La Physiologie du Gout” (the physiology
of taste). The well known light, spongy yeast cake made in
ring form is named after him.
37. BRUNOISE
Brunoy a district in France celebrated for its spring vegetables finely
Diced cooked root vegetables for a consommé garnish.
Consommé: a rich beef consommé garnished with small diced carrots, Leeks, onion, turnip and celery, all browned in a little butter cooked in consommé.
38. CARDINAL
The highest dignitary in the Roman Catholic Church, after the pope.
As a cardinal wears a distinctive scarlet dress and a scarlet cap, the kitchen term stands for any dish of that color .Usually lobster coral plays an important part in fish dishes.
Consommé: Chicken consommé flavored with tomato puree garnished with finely cut julienne of vegetable strips of truffles and lobster dumplings.
Lobster: Cubed lobster mixture mixed with Sauce Americaine and filled in lobster shells, sprinkled with cheese and breadcrumbs and browned in the oven.
Sauce: rich, white fish sauce blended with pounded lobster coral to give it a correct colour, flavored with essence of anchovies and with tarragon.
Garniture for fish: diced lobster, truffle, shrimps or prawn and cardinal sauce.
Dessert: Strawberries, peaches or pears poached in syrup and dressed on strawberry or raspberry ice cream with raspberry or strawberry sauce and sprinkled with sliced roasted almonds and little pistachio nuts.
39. CAREME
Antoine Careme (1784-1833) Chef to King George IV and later the Austrian emperor Francis II and the Russian Czar, Alexander I and author of many culinary works. Many dishes are named after this most famous chef.
40. CARMEN
a) Carmen Sylva was the nom de plume of Elizabeth, Queen of Romania, born 29th December 1843.
b) Star role in the opera of the same name by Bizet which was first produced in Paris at the Opera Comedie on 3rd March 1875
Consommé-- clear beef consommé well colored with tomato puree garnished with star shapes of pimento, boiled rice and chervil.
41. CHARLOTTE
Charlotte mould (tall, straight sided mould) lined with over lapping wafer biscuits
and filled with strawberry or raspberry cream, mixed with a little gelatin and cream.
42. CELESTINE
The Celestines were recognized as a branch of the Benedictines. Celestine being a monk so named after Pope Celesten. Several dishes bear this name and are of an exquisite character. St. Celestine is commemorated on 6th April each year.
Consommé .Clear broth garnished with shredded pancakes and chopped herbs.
43. CHANTILLY
City and district of France, famous for its rich cream and fine green peas.
Sauce: (a) Hot, rich béchamel sauce blended with lightly whipped cream.
(b)Cold mayonnaise sauce blend with whipped cream flavored with lemon juice.
44. CHARCUTIERE
In the manner of Pork butcher’s style.
Sauce: Demi glaze mixed with chopped shallots, julienne of gherkins reduced with white wine, lemon juice, sugar and with parsley and mustard to finish.
45. CHARTREUSE
The convent, known as La Grande Chartreuse near Grenoble, France, former seat of the Carthusian monks. These monks who were strict vegetarians invented a vegetable composition (liqueur) usually made and cooked in moulds in a very elaborate way. When the monks were driven from France, they settled in Spain. From then, all manner of dishes were given this title including Chartreuse of meat, game, and poultry. Strictly speaking all dishes bearing the name Chartreuse should have a vegetable liqueur It is a sweet liqueur made in Voirens in France, until the monks were turned out and now made in Spain .The secret of the recipe is closely guarded .
Colours: Yellow and Green.
46. CHASSEUR
A Chaser, a hunter, hunter’s style from the famous chasseurs of Light Infantry or cavalry regiments who hunted for their food in the forest or on mountain heights.
Consommé: a rich clear game soup garnished with game quenelles made from as many varieties of game as possible.
Sauce: Minced shallots and mushrooms sautéed and reduced with white wine and demi glaze, chopped parsley.
Poulet sauté : chicken sauté and finished in a casserole in the oven with tomatoes, brown chicken sauce, sliced mushrooms, chopped shallots and sprinkled with chopped parsley.
47. CHATEAU
Castle, feudal fortress, stronghold; also wine growing establishments with vineyards.
Chateau potatoes are quartered potatoes with all sharp corners rounded off and cooked for a few minutes in butter in a sauce pan and then roasted in an oven used extensively to garnish roast meats.
48. CHATEAUBRIAND
Vicomte Francois Auguste Chateaubriand was born at St. Malo on 14.9.1763 died 4thjuly 1848. French author and a great gourmet. The favorite dish of a double fillet steak or the head of the tenderloin, is named after him. Chef Montmireil (chef to Vicomte de Chateaubriand) formed a pocket in a thick tenderloin steak to stuff it with chopped shallots and bone marrow. English cooks would sandwich their rump steaks with sliced shallots .The double fillet of beef is now served in so many different ways. The original Chateubriand as invented by Chef Montmireil was slit and filled with chopped shallots tossed in a pan with bone marrow to which was added meat glaze chopped chives, seasoned with cayenne and salt.
Sauce: Rich brown sauce made with well reduced stock to half glaze enriched with butter and flavored with lemon juice, red currant jelly, cayenne pepper and chopped parsley.
49. CHAUD –FROID
It is considered that the prototype of chaud-froid was first introduced by the Marquis de Chaufroix, who called for the cold bird to be brought back to the table in its congealed sauce and approved of it in that state.
Sauce (white): This is a masking sauce made with well reduced veloute blended with sufficient dissolved gelatin or aspic to set the sauce when cold.
Sauce (brown) well reduced brown meat or game sauce treated as above .Also available in red (tomato), green (spinach).
50. CHIFFONADE
Chiffon means rag .Literally vegetables in rags –long shreds of vegetables.
Leafy vegetables such as cress, lettuce and spinach
Consommé-clarified soup, garnished with finely shredded lettuce leaves spring onion heads and other such vegetables, seasoned with mint leaves and tarragon.
51. CLAREMONT
Consommé –clear beef consommé garnished with fried onion rings and custard royale.
52. COCK-A-LEEKIE
Large quantities of this famous Scottish soup were consumed at the Burns centenary festival at the Crystal Palace, Sydenham in 1859. It is hard to trace the origin of this soup .Some say it originated from the days of cock fighting, the defeated cock being thrown in the pot,with leeks to give added flavor .This soup was then handed around with parts of the bird, to the spectators. .Another version is that in olden times when the cock had passed its youth, the last purpose it served was the feast of “ The Cock A Leekie”. However it was and still is a grand dish .This soup is also claimed to be from Wales whose emblem is the leek.
53. COLBERT
Two famous dishes Sole a la Colbert and Consommé a la Colbert are in constant demand .The sole is named after Charles Colbert De Croissy, famous French diplomat while the delicious soup is named after Jean Baptiste Colbert, a statesman of France in the reign of Louis XIV. The consommé is distinguished by being garnished with poached eggs while the sole is noted for its stuffing of Maitre d’ hotel butter being placed inside before being sent to the table.
Colbert butter: Maitre d’hotel butter mixed with a little meat glaze and chopped tarragon/parsley.
Colbert sauce: Rich thin brown sauce and finely chopped herbs and lemon juice.
Consommé: Clear beef soup garnished with lightly poached egg.
Sole: Whole sole carefully opened along centre and backbone removed .Egg washed, crumbed and fried, stuff space with Colbert butter.
54. CHORON
Alexander Etienne Choron, born at Caen, France on 21st October 1771, died in Paris 29th June 1834.
A French composer whose name is often confused with Chorin or Chiron.
Sauce Choron: Bearnaise sauce blended with a good concentrate of tomato puree.
55. CONDE
1) Name of some twenty villages in France.
2) Also an old French Family, Prince Louis de Conde.
Dessert fruits like apricots, pineapple, peaches or pears, poached in syrup, and dressed on a bed of creamed rice, coated with an appropriate fruit sauce and decorated with preserved cherries and angelica and served hot or cold .
56. CRECY
Was the site of an important battle fought by Napoleon.
City and district of France, use of carrots
Puree: of young carrots thickened with barley.
Consommé: rich beef consommé garnished with julienne of carrots.
57. CIDER
Juice of Apple both fermented and unfermented. The flavor and general quality of all types of cider depends on fruit and skin used in preparation. Hard cider is that which has been fermented until the sugars have changed to alcohol. It is a fermented drink with an apple base; it is refreshing and less alcoholic than wine.
Special apples are used –sweet acid and tart . A good syrup is made with 1/3 sweet and 2/3 sour and acidic apples.
58. CLARET
The name of fine red wines from Bordeaux .The excellence of claret and the reason why it may rightly claim precedence over all other red wines is that it is harmonious and natural of all.
59. DAME BLANCHE
1. French white Bordeaux wine
2. “White Lady” - A comic Opera.
3. Dame is the English legal designation, of the wife or the widow of a baronet.
Only dishes white in color should bear this name.
Bombe - lined outside with vanilla ice cream and inside filled with almond paste garnished with whipped vanilla cream and spun sugar.
Consommé: chicken consommé garnished with diced chicken breast and almond flavored royale
Crème – chicken veloute garnished with sago and diced chicken breast.



60. DAUBE
Ancient term for a Provencal dish of braised meat or poultry.
A ‘pot roast’ or a meat stews, braised en daube, that is, in a stew pot, more or less hermetically sealed.
The old way was to seal the edges of lid of the pot with stiff dough of flour and water which when baked was discarded.
Daubiere: A special saucepan in which meat en daube is cooked.
61. DAUPHINE
The part of France which comprised the duchy of the kings eldest son when France was a kingdom, especially under the Valois and Bourbon Families.
Consommé: Chicken consommé with a garnish of asparagus tips, tarragon leaves and royale cut in fancy shapes.
Potatoes: Duchesse potatoes mixture mixed choux paste, shaped in walnut size balls and deep fried.
62. DAUPHINOISE
Foods sprinkled with grated Swiss cheese and butter and baked brown.
63. DIABLE, A LA
Devil – devilled, a slightly spiced dish, sharp highly seasoned and accompanied with sauce diable
Diablotins: Small Dumplings, strongly spiced mixture with grated cheese, broiled / browned under grill. Used as an appetizer or soup garnish.
Sauce: Chopped shallots sauté, reduce in vinegar, plus demi glaze, red wine, Worcestershire sauce and cayenne pepper.
64. DIANA
Roman goddess of the moon and of hunting, identified with bows and arrows and crescents. Any game preparation garnished with crescent shaped croutons.
65. DIEPPOISE
In the style of Dieppe, a coastal city of northern France, seafood style.
Crème: Rich fish veloute, garnished with shrimp tails, mussels, sliced mushrooms finished with cream.
Garnish: Shrimp tails, mussels and mushrooms rich fish veloute sauce.
66. FORESTIERE
Poulet sauté Forestiere: chicken jointed and sautéed in butter, add sliced mushrooms, diced shallots and swill the pan with white wine and well reduced meat glaze; coat with the sauce and garnish with rolls of grilled bacon and parmentier potatoes.
67. A LA FRANCAISE
French style – term applied to a number of French dishes cooked and prepared in a simple manner and chiefly denotes a style of the district in which the chef or cook originally lived.
a) Sole a la Francaise: whole or filleted sole dipped in milk and flour, fried and served with tomato and anchovy sauce.
b) Cotelettes d’agneau a la francaise- breaded lamb cutlets, fried in butter garnished with mixed garden vegetables and sauce Madeira.
68. FRANCE
The art of French Hospitality was introduced in France by Catherine de Medici during the early 16th century .This art was soon developed by the French cooks whose imaginative and creative ability brought some improvements upon the Italians heavier way of preparing dishes. Most of the French dishes bore the name of some saint, some mythical God or some Italian event or celebrity and these show marked evidence of having been created in some other country other than France. Gradually even actresses, actors, singers and poets have all been honored by great French chefs. Dame Nelly Melba has her name perpetuated for all times by that still popular dish - Peach Melba.
69. GARIBALDI
1. Famous Italian patriot born in Nice, 4th July 1807, died at Capeira , 2nd June 1882
2. Guisieppe Garibaldi an Italian general of world war I, born in Melbourne , 29th July 1879. Grandson of the Italian patriot.
Consomme Garibaldi – chicken consommé thickened with cooked spaghetti and garnished with chives cut julienne style. Serve grated cheese separately.
Sauce Garibaldi- A rich brown sauce flavored with garlic, curry, capers, mustard and anchovy paste - served with fish or meat.
70. GENOISE
Pertaining to the Italian city of Genoa. In the style of Genoa as practiced by the French cooks. It was the name of a sauce served only with fish coated in court bouillon. In confectionery, cakes made from a genoise mixture are called “Genoise Sponge”
71. GREEK
Greek pertaining to the Greek style as practiced by the fish cooks, dishes a la grecque should be of Greek origin in the method of preparation but in practice this is seldom the case though it sometimes happens that a dish called a la grecque on a restaurant menu is of Greek origin. More often the name is given to dishes of French origin
Potage a la Grecque – puree of peas cooked in mutton broth garnished with vegetables cut julienne style.
72. GERMANY
Many favorite foods are of German origin specially Frankfurters and Hamburgers .The Germans are fond of cooking many foods sweet and sour; a combination of fruit, sugar, and spices. Lemon and raisins often give the desired sweet and sour flavor .
German cooks are meticulous and often follow their own methods in preparing and cooking traditional dishes of their country .To Germany, we owe a way of treating vegetables (especially cabbage) which makes them palatable and tasty.
73. GLOUCESTER
1. Name of a long line of Earls and Dukes dating back to 1121.It would be correct to feature dishes so named on the birthday of the present duke.
2.A port city and country town - Gloucestershire, England .
Sauce Gloucester: mayonnaise sauce mixed with sour cream, chopped tarragon and flavored with chilly vinegar, mustard .
Gloucester Royal Pie- This was a pie made in olden times of Lampreys.
These pies were richly decorated with gilded ornaments and often with banners bearing the Gloucester court of arms .
74. GRIMALDI
1. Giovanni Francesco, Italian architect painter and engraver, born at Bolgna, 18th September 1606.
2. Joseph Grimaldi, noted actor born 18th December 1779
Consomme Grimaldi- clear beef broth flavoured with tomato and garnished with celeriac cut julienne style.
Sole Grimaldi - rolled or folded fillets, poached and dressed in a casserole on a bed of cooked spaghetti coated with Nantua sauce and topped with sliced truffle.
75. HAGGIS
Haggis can be regarded as the national dish of Scotland. When this dish is served at certain large banquets in Scotland, it is accompanied by an escort of pipers while paying homage to their national poet, Robert Burns. The Scots have Haggis served and presented with due pomp and ceremony .It is carried in to the room by a servant who is proceeded by a piper and it is customary to drink whisky, whilst eating .The dish consist of thymus gland stuffed with a mixture of stuffed offal and oats, and then baked .
76. HAMBURGER
In the early part of the 18th century France obtained its best beef from the Triesian plains via Hamburg, a sea port of Germany. The animals were driven in herds over the roads of Europe. The delicious hamburger steaks have now become world famous.
Hamburger Steaks: Finely minced beef steak seasoned with salt , pepper, nutmeg, mixed with raw egg, shaped like a noisette, floured and fried in butter, garnished with fried onion and fried egg placed on top.
77. HOLLANDAISE, A LA
In the style of the Netherlands, as practiced by the French cooks, Dutch style.
Dutch cookery is closely related to that of Belgium. Being a country of rich pasture land, there is an abundance of high quality dairy products specially cheese, which represents one of the countries largest exports. Holland is a country equally devoted to stock farming and fishing, so the Dutch table features a wide variety of characteristics and salted and smoked fish. Herring is the staple food of the Dutch people.
78. HONGROISE
Hungarian, in the Hungarian style as practiced by the French cooks.
Dishes prepared a la Hongroise are cooked in a cream sauce seasoned with paprika.
1. Entrecote a la Hongroise --- Beef steak cooked in butter, cooked with hongroise sauce ( veloute blended with sour cream and white wine flavoured well with paprika ) and garnish of bacon.
2.
79. INDIENNE A LA
Indian style as practiced by the French cooks
Croquettes a l’indienne: lobster and rice, seasoned with curry powder shaped into croquettes then fried and served with curry sauce.
Potage a l’indienne—Mulligatawny soup with addition of coconut milk and cooked rice.
80. ITALIENNE
Italian style as practiced by the French cooks. A name given to dishes made of meat, poultry, fish and vegetables .All these dishes contain finely chopped mushrooms .The name l’italienne is also given to method of preparing macaroni or other pastas .
Italian cuisine is one of the oldest in Europe .It is derived from Greek Gourmet tradition, these being derived in their turn from oriental cuisine .Choose any ordinary Italian dish and it is a replica of one that was once enjoyed by gourmands reclining on their balconies in ancient Rome.
Italian Polenta is same as the pulse that the Romans prepared en route, when they set out to conquer the world .They toasted grains of wheat, crushed them and made a gruel from the result. The only difference is the polenta is now made from coarse maize flour.
Italian cuisine is considered the mother of all European cuisines.
81. JARDINIERE
Garden gardeners style with a variety of vegetables , name given to a garnish made of fresh vegetables –carrots and turnips (shaped with a plain or fluted ball scoop, cut with a hollow tubular cutter or diced ) green peas, small kidney beans, french beans diced or cut into lozenges, cauliflower . The vegetables are cooked separately, some boiled, others glazed .They are arranged around the main dish in separate groups. This garnish is served with roast, stewed or braised meats and pot roasted poultry.
Consommé Jardinière: clear soup garnished with a variety of cooked garden vegetables.
82. JULIENNE
Jean Julich was a noted French chef who first made a clear vegetable soup in 1785 with vegetables cut in strips .The name is now applied to all vegetable garnishes cut in this manner.
83. LASAGNE
Made of sheets of fresh dough, Lasagna is an Italian pasta prepared in any of the ways as given for macaroni and noodles. Lasagna Lisci and Lasagna Ricci are lasagna with both sides grooved in waves .The above name are given to soups containing these pastas as a garnish. Now flavored with spinach (green) tomato (red/pink) and squid ink (black) lending a wide variety.
84. LORETTE
A Parisian woman of the better class, a glamorous woman.
Potatoes: Mashed and creamed, mixed with choux pastry, moulded into crescents and fried in deep fat.
85. LORRAINE
Province of Alsace – Lorraine.
District of high gastronomic repute. Here the connoisseur of good cooking will savor many succulent dishes and will find white, rose and red wines all delightful. Though some are more fragrant than others, the dishes of Lorraine are for the most part substantial; heading the list of culinary specialties of what was once an ancient province. The Quiche Lorraine is perhaps its most famous dish.
86. LYONNAISE
Lyons , city of France , in the style of pertaining to Lyons .The Lyonnaise district has an abundance of good quality potatoes as well as excellent onions such as those of Roanne which are used in the preparation of a large number of special dishes.
87. MALTAISE
Pertaining to the island of Malta.
Potage Maltaise – A thin veal soup with a garnish diced oranges a little shredded capsicum, chillies and very small julienne of orange peel.
Ris-de Veau Maltaise — braised with béarnaise sauce decorated with the Maltese cross in Forcemeat.
Sauce maltaise - hollandaise + blood orange juice
88. MANDARINE
The French form of Mandarin is a small orange from which liqueur is made.
Glace Mandarin—Fill the shells of mandarin oranges with orange ice topped with Meringue and baked quickly.
89. MARENGO
North Italian village where the famous battle of Marengo was fought on 14th June 1820 between Napoleon Bonaparte and the Austrians which victory was perpetuated by chef Dunard, Napoleon’s chef; by his creation of a chicken dish on the battle field itself .
Poulet sauté Marengo. It is characterized by a garnish of crayfish tails, poached egg on heart shaped croutons and parsley.
90. MARMITE
Stock pot , metal or Earthen ware , covered pot with or without feet depending on whether it is used for cooking in the hearth or on the stove .
Petit marmite—Name of a clear savory broth , a type of hot pot cooked and served in an earthenware pot .This broth was invented in Paris and is much prized by gourmets.
91. MAYRLAND
One of the original 13 states of U S A famous for its culinary creations.
Chicken Maryland -- Crumb fried joints, garnished with corn fritters, bacon rashers, grilled tomato and fried plantains.
92. MAYONNAISE
Speculation says that this sauce was invented by chef to the Duke Richelieu after the victory of MAHON ( Mahonnaise). Others are convinced that Spain should be given credit for its origin. Mayonnaise is probably a corruption of Moyeeinoise derived from the old French word Moyeau which means egg yolk.
Basically, it is a cold sauce with the basic ingredients of egg yolks and oil blended into an emulsion.
93. MELBA
Dame Nelly Melba a British Operatic Soprano. Her real name was Helen Porter Mitchell. She adopted the stage name Melba as she was a native of Melbourne Australia.
Peach Melba: Scoops of vanilla ice cream topped with poached peach halves and glazed with raspberry jam/sauce.
94. MERINGUE
Small patisserie made from egg white and sugar. It is said that the dish was invented in 1720 by a Swiss pastry cook called Gasparine who practiced his art in Meringham, a small town in the province of Saxe- Coburg. Until the beginning of the 19th century, meringues were shaped in a spoon as the pastry forcing bag had not yet been invented .
95. MEUNIERE
Miller, Miller’s wife’s style
Method of cooking fish which is seasoned lightly, floured and fried in butter. To serve, squeeze a few drops of lemon juice and cover it. Sprinkle with parsley and pour on the cooking butter piping hot. e.g. Sole meuniere.
96. MEXICAINE
Pertaining to the Republic of Mexico, in the Mexican style as prepared by the French chefs.
Potage Mexican - Puree of tomato soup with seasoned consommé.
Poulet sauté Mexicaine: Mushrooms capsicum and tomato (garnish).
97. MIGNONETTE
Small and delicate
Potatoes: cut thicker than match potatoes (alumettes) and cooked the same way.
98. MILANAISE
In the style of Milan, an Italian city. The usual garnish is spaghetti with shredded tongue, truffles and mushrooms blended with a puree of tomato and sprinkled with grated Parmesan cheese. Breaded meats have grated cheese mixed with bread crumbs and served with tomato sauce.
Choufleur Milanese—cooked buds of cauliflower sauté in butter, with grated cheese, buttered and baked.
Soufflé Milanese: lemon flavored soufflé, coated with biscuit crumbs and spiked with pistachio nuts.
99. MILLE FEUILLE
“Thousand Leaves” puff paste - a pastry very much in vogue in Paris. It is made by arranging thin layers of flaky pastry one on top of the other with layers of cream or some other filling in between. Mille Feuille can be baked in the form of a large sweet decorated in various ways; or as in Paris Patisseries in small individual portions by cutting the flaky pastry in pieces 5cm wide and laying them one on top of the other sandwiched as mentioned above.
100. MINUTE
60 seconds – something small or short a la minute - hurriedly prepared sole and other such fish when filleted are cooked meuniere style.
Minute Tenderloins – These are 4- 5 oz size, cut thin and sautéed with minced shallots and herbs.
Pommes minute: diced and fried.
101. MIREPOIX
Duc de: French Noble Family.
Foundation ingredients of most brown soups, sauces and the first step in braising, being the preparation of the fat, aromatic vegetables, herbs etc… sauté to gain a brown color.
101. MORNAY
1. Phillip De Plessis Mornay, French Protestant, born 5th November 1549.
2. Name given to a rich creamy sauce loaded with Parmesan cheese.
Sole Mornay – Poached and coated with Mornay Sauce and glazed.
102. NANTUA
A town in France
Sauce: Bechamel reduced with rich fish fumet, finished with crayfish or prawn butter.
Garniture for fish – Crayfish (or Prawns) tails with nantua sauce and slices of truffle.
Omelets – filled with chicken and truffle salpicon & sauce nantua.
103. NEAPOLITAINE
In the style of Naples city of Southern Italy often applied to dishes containing 3 distinct colors – red, white and green…the colors of the Italian flag..
Consommé: Clear game soup garnished with shreds of ham and celery and a generous amount of Macaroni.
Sauce: Brown sauce reduced with claret and red currant jelly with minced ham shallots grated horseradish flavored with bay leaf, cloves and thyme.
Glace – Ice cream layered in 3 distinct colors and flavors in oblong moulds and cut into oblong slices.
104. NAVARIN
Pertaining to the great town of Navarine in Italy, the scene of a battle on 20th October 1827.
Navarin Printanier – A rich brown lamb or mutton stew with carrots, turnips and potatoes.
105. NICOISE
In the style of Nice, city of southern France.
Consommé – Consommé with vermicelli and peeled tomatoes cut in small squares. Bring to a boil, serve grated cheese separately
Sauce: Demi glace and tomato Puree.
Garniture for fish - chopped tomatoes sautéed with garlic, Lemon slices and anchovy fillets topped with capers.
Salad – French beans, tomatoes, potatoes, olives and anchovy fillets.
106. NOISETTE
Hazelnut. Also term, applied to small, round, boneless, fatless pieces of meat such as small loins of lamb, rolled, thin cuts into dainty rounds.
a. Butter – Clarified butter browned hazelnut color
b. Sauce – supreme sauce, noisette butter, pounded hazelnut.
c. Potatoes - small hazelnut sized potatoes, sautéed in butter or fried in deep fat to golden yellow.
d.
107. NORMANDE
In the style of Normandy, north western province of France, Chief characteristics of fish dishes being mussels, oysters and shrimps with apples featured in most meat, poultry and game recipes.
Sauce: white sauce finished with egg yolks and butter flavored with lemon juice reduced cream.
Potatoes: Sliced, cooked in casserole with milk, onions and leeks browned on top under a grill.
108. ORIENTALE
Pertaining to the Oriental, Eastern Style.
Consommé: Carrots and turnips shaped like half moons, boiled, served hot in consommé with plain boiled rice.
Sauce: Sauce Americaine, with diced onion sauté lightly and flavored with curry.
109. ORLY
Bernard van Orly, noted Flemish painter. Fish or meat coated with rice egg batter, fried in deep fat and usually served with tangy tomato sauce.
Sauce – rich white sauce blended with meat extract and loaded with tomato puree.
110. PALOISE
Pertaining to Palus, the low lying vine yards of Gironde is France producing the cheaper types of carrots.
Sauce – Bearnaise sauce with an infusion of fresh mint.
111. PARISIENNE
In the style of Paris, dishes usually dressed elaborately
a. Consommé – Garnish of vegetables white leeks and custard royal.
b. Sauce – Rich brown sauce with chopped parsley and shallots, Madeira and meat glaze with fresh butter fine herbs.
c. Potatoes – Marble size potatoes, sautéed in butter sprinkle and chopped herbs.
Chicken Sauté – jointed chicken sautéed in butter, seasoned with done, cooked in tomato sauce with fresh sliced mushrooms for 2 minutes. Serve Chicken dressed on a platter cover with sauce and garnish with Macaroni in cream.
112. PARMENTIER
Antoine Augustin (1737-1813) French agriculturist, writer and food expert. In 1786, he introduced the potato to France and created many styles of cooking this tuber.
Potatoes – Cut into large diced blanched and cooked in casserole with butter and chopped parsley.
113. PARMESAN
Cheese made in Parma, Italy, from cow’s milk, very hard, used as a garnish/topping for many Italian pasta dishes, soup and chicken for which it is a proper partner.
114. PAYSANNE
In the peasant style, farmer’s wife style. Usually dishes prepared in a pot or casserole with onions, salt pork, and artichoke bottoms.
Potatoes – Sliced smothered and chopped onions, sorrel, chervil and baked in the oven with pork drippings.
115. PERIGOURDINE / A LA PERIGORD
Pertaining to Perigord, in France. Dishes finished with truffles from that district.
Sauce: Perigourdine – Demi glace with foie gras puree. Garnished with slices of Truffles.
116. POIVRADE
A piquant pepper sauce.
Sauce – a brown pepper sauce, flavored with ham, onions, celery, bay leaf, and thyme, reduced with vinegar and black pepper.
117. POLONAISE
Polish style as practiced by French chefs.
Sauce – Veloute with sour cream, chopped fennel, lemon juice and grated horse radish.
118. POMPADOUR
Jeanne Antoinette Poison Le Normand D’etrores, Marquis De Pompadour. Mistress of Louis the XV of France, born 29th December 1721 had a great influence in the politics of France.
Consommé – Chicken Consommé garnished with turnips and carrots, pink, green and plain royal, fancily cut.
Salad – Sprigs of cooked cauliflower, sliced potatoes, celeriac, seasoned with celery salt.
Sauce - Allemande or Veloute with slightly cooked minced shallots, cream, egg yolks chopped mushrooms and parsley.
119. PORTERHOUSE
Porter House steak – A thick Steak cut from the middle of the ribs of beef ½” – 2” thick.
120. PORTUGAISE
Consommé – A rich clear beef soup with stoned and halved prunes, diced ripe tomatoes and strips of leeks.
Sauce – Tomato sauce reduced with rich veal gravy, flavored with garlic and onion and chopped parsley.
Garniture – small stuffed tomatoes, chateau Potatoes with tomato sauce.
121. POULETTE
Name of a very popular velvet like sauce made with an egg liaison.
Sauce – rich white sauce flavored with herbs thickened with egg yolks and fresh butter, finished with lemon juice and chopped parsley.
123.
123. PRINCE, PRINCESSE, PRINCIERRE (Prince, Princess, Princely)
Consommé – Clear chicken broth garnished with diced chicken and asparagus points.
Sauce – White fish sauce, enriched with crayfish, butter, finely shredded crayfish and truffles.
124. PRINTANIER, A LA PRINTANIERE, PRINTEMPS
Spring like, spring, spring time.
Potage Printanier – Soup made of spring vegetables.
Consommé - A clear soup garnished with spring vegetables which may be ball shaped or cut finely.
Sauce – Rich Veloute and puree of green vegetables with finely cubed green vegetables.
125. PROVENCALE
Of Provence, formally a maritime province of France. A la Provencale in the style of that region usually implies that garlic, olive oil and tomatoes have been used.
126. RATAFIA
The word is believed to stem from Mala tafia, a spirit of liqueur made from cane sugar. This has taken on certain occasions to ratify a treaty or agreement. The drink is now a light liqueur with a slightly bitter almond flavor.
127. RAVIGOTTE, RAVIGOTER:
To revive, refresh
Sauce (hot) white sauce flavored with fine herbs reduced with white wine and vinegar and finished with butter and cream.
Sauce (Cold) a spicy mayonnaise colored green with spinach puree mixed with finely chopped chives, parsley and tarragon.
128. REFORME
After the style of the famous Reform Club where Alexis Soyer was the chef.
Garnished for cutlets and entrees – julienne of ham, tongue, truffles, boiled white of egg, mushrooms, carrots and beetroot and gherkins + reform sauce.
Sauce: Poivrade sauce diluted with port wine and red currant jelly.
129. RICHELIEU
Cardinal Armand Jean Du Plessis De Bonn in Paris.
Consommé – beef consommé garnished chicken quenelles julienne of carrots and turnips with shredded chervil.
Sauce – Rich brown sauce with Madeira wine and meat extract.
130. RISOTTO
Italian Arborio rice, moistened with broth. Seasoned, steamed in covered pan without stirring. White wine, butter and grated cheese are then added.
131. ROBERT
a. Name of one of the earliest kings of France.
b. King of Naples, son of Charles II
i. Sauce – rich brown sauce and chopped sautéed onions reduced with chilly vinegar, red wine, and prepared mustard, spicy and pungent.
ii. Potatoes – Sliced and stewed in Robert sauce or baked, scooped out pulp flavored with chives shaped into patties and shallow fried.
132. ROMAINE
In the manner pertaining to Rome.
Potage – chicken stock, rice, onions, carrots, celery, cream seasoning.
133. ROQUEFORT
French cheese made from Ewe’s milk which has attained a world wide reputation. The green mottling develops around bread crumbs that are used in preparing it.
134. ROSSINI
Gironde Antonio famous Italian Opera composer. Born at Pasio, friend of Cooks and Maitres d’ Hotel in the cosmopolitan restaurants of Europe.
Tournedos and Filet Mignons
Italian Method: Sautéed in butter, placed on a lightly fried slice of bread and garnished with asparagus tips braised white Italian Truffles and small grilled tomatoes; surrounded with demi glaze.
French Method: The boiled tenderloin is topped with sliced foie gras tossed in butter, masked with Madeira sauce.
135. ROYAL, ROYALE, A LA ROYALE – REGAL – Kingly Style
Custard royal – Seasoned eggs with milk or Consommé steamed cut into cubes maybe flavored with / or covered variously with puree of vegetables, poultry or game.
Consommé – Beef Consommé garnished with plain royale custard.
136. RUSSIA
Russians were real gourmets. They knew how to eat and how to prepare a dish that was always delicious to the palette. Their Zakuski is a somewhat elaborate overture in a meal. The famous Russian Caviar is relished on the French table.
Borscht – Beef Soup cooked with red beets, onions, celery, cabbage, potatoes and carrots. Served with sour cream.
Blinis – pancakes made from Buckwheat flour served with smoked sturgeon or salmon and caviar, sour cream and melted butter.
Shashlik Moscow – Loin of pork pickled and broiled on a skewer before an open fire served with cooked or raw vegetables.
Baklava - Original pastry dough made of dough, honey, nuts, and butter.
Russian Rum Baba – A delicious yeast cake flavored with salt, sugar, spiced with cinnamon and cooked in rum.
137. SABAYON
An Italian wine cream or egg punch served as dessert sweet in glasses and eaten with a spoon. Zabaglione or Zabaione in Italian. Also refers to a thick consistency obtained by beating egg yolks and sugar vigorously.
138. ST. GERMAINE
Suburb of Paris where a castle was built by Louis VI, Treaty of St. Germaine – was signed here.
Crème – Puree of peas and onions, with veal stock, enriched with cream and egg; garnished with sprigs of fresh mint.
139. SOUBISE
Charles de Rohan, Prince de Soubise, peer and marechal of France.
Sauce: A rich creamy sauce blended with onion puree seasoned with sugar, salt, pepper, nutmeg.
140. SPAIN
Spanish food is highly flavored and colorful with the use of pimentos and tomatoes. Spaniards claim to have first made mayonnaise and sauce espagnole. A characteristic feature of Spanish cooking is a mixture of a number of ingredients in one dish. Most of their cooking is done in oil as butter is expensive.
141. STANLEY
Sir Henry Morton, famous British explorer of Africa.
Sauce – Rich cream sauce with grated horseradish and curry powder.
142. STRUDEL
A Viennese desert specialty of wafer thin dough in roll form with chopped apples, pistachios, raisins, sugar, lemon rind, cinnamon.
143. SUPREME
a. Highest best quality.
b. The best parts of poultry, breast of chicken.
Sauce – Rich white velvet sauce made from well cleared chicken broth enriched with cream.
Lobster – Diced lobster mixed with chopped olives, hard boiled eggs, capers, French dressing, chilled and served on a bed of chilled lettuce, surround alternately with slices of cucumber and tomato, garnished with lobster claws.
144. SUZETTE
Said to be the name of the lady friend of a V.I.P.; at the end of the 19th century, during whose visit to a humble Parisian cabaret, the Crepe Suzette were created in her honor by chef Henry Charpentier.
Crepes – Thin pancake doused in a thick sauce of orange juice, lemon juice, butter, sugar flavored with rind and orange liqueur flamed with brandy and served hot.
145. THERMIDOR
Name given during the French revolution to the 11th month of the year in the republican calendar.
Lobster – Roasted Lobster meat in a cream sauce with shallots, Parsley, Mustard, Tarragon meat, butter. Arranged in the shell sprinkled with grated cheese ground in oven.
146. TUTTI FRUTTI
An Italian term used in connection with ice cream where various kinds of candied fruits are used.
147. TYROLIENNE
In the manner of Tyrol; an Austrian province in the Alps.
Sauce (Cold) – Tomato Mayonnaise Sauce.
Sauce (Hot) – Rich hollandaise with Tomato Puree.
148. VERDI
Giuseppe Fortino Francesco – Famous Italian Operatic composer and singer. Born in 1913
Sole – Folded fillets, poached in wine, dressed on cooked macaroni mixed with shreds of truffle and lobster coated with cheese sauce and glazed.
149. VERONIQUE
French form of Veronica, characterized by use of seedless grapes.
Sole – Rolled, poached fillets dressed with 3-4 grapes (peeled and piped) on each and coated with a blend of sauce Hollandaise and sauce Vin Blanc.
150. VERT-PRE
Green Meadow – dishes served with fresh green vegetables. Garnish for chicken consommé. Green Peas, asparagus tips, French beans, lettuce, chervil, chicory.
151. VICHY
City of France, a noted Spa, Vichy Celestine is a practically flavourless water and may be used as table water.
Potage - Puree of red carrots with cream liaison.
Carrots – glazed with butter, sugar, salt, parsley in Vichy water.
152. VIRGINIA
Southern state of USA noted for its food.
Ham – A fine ham, flat and lean of the “Rapos” Black pig, peanut fed and chicory smoked.
Chicken – Sauté fillets in butter moistened with cream; braise to finish. Serve on a slice of Virginia ham, and corn fritters garnish.
153. WALDORF
One of New York’s famous Hotels. The Waldorf Astoria, the old Waldorf having being names after the village of Waldorf near Heidelberg, Germany.
Salad – Juliennes of celery, diced apples, mixed with mayonnaise, set on a bed of lettuce, sprinkled with chopped walnuts.
Eggs – Poached eggs on a canapé spread with foie gras and a mushroom on top. Served with Madeira sauce and truffles.
Tomato: filled with Waldorf salad.
154. WALEWASKI, WALEVSKA
Polish Countess, the mistress of Napoleon I; bore him a son who then become Count Walewaski, French politician, diplomat and author.
Sole - Poached folded fillets, dressed on a ragout of sliced lobster, mushroom and truffle, blended with lobster sauce, coated with cheese sauce and glazed under the salamander.
Omelets – Stuffed with diced lobster, truffles, caviar.
155. WELLINGTON
Arthur Wellesley, first Duke of Wellington famous for victory over Napoleon at the battle of Waterloo in June 1815.
Beef – Seasoned beef wrapped in pate, duxelle and puff pastry. Baked and sliced and served with Madeira sauce.
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Superb post.  Merci.  :)
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PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT

The objective of Kitchen Management is to lead , organize and control the means of
Production and service of food.
To manage the kitchen , the kitchen Manager / Chef de, Cuisine should have a sound Practical knowledge and should have the ability to organize labour , delegates and responsibility to appropriate staff who communicate well. The persons handling the machines should be able to follow the persons handling the machines should be able to follow the correct procedure for assembling ,use and cleaning .Safety precautions have to be observed such as a). Gas pilot light must be lit before turning on the main jet. b). The liquids should never be stored above eye level. c).The por handles sticking and should never be placed over the edges of the stoves or sides of the tables . d). Sprinkle flour on hot lids and pans. e).If fat or liquid is spilt on the floor , it should be cleaned and salt sprinkled on top immediately. f).Hot fritures should not be carried. g).Knives if carried should Point downwards .h). Sharp instruments should never be left in sinks.
Controlling of labour needs great tack and ability , their comfort , skill , work and welfare has to be seen to- A strict disciplinarian is respected by many ,provided he has a good judgement in dealing with matters and understand people.
A good mangement will see that food cost is controlled and the people working in the kitchen will be content in their jobs and the work given is comparable with their ability, staff should be trained on the job and if the performance is good , incentives, increments or promotions should be given if need be.
Certain factors such as budgetary control , Portion Control cost control proper Purchasing Control of Production and service , control of waste etc., Play an important part in managing the kitchen. Proper layout of work areas in the kitchen contribute to a successful catering establishment which will not only satisfy customers but also the staff will be contended. Cramped and lack of Proper kitchen delay food preparation and service certain points have to kept in views before planning such as the types of meals to be served , no. Persons to be served . Forecast of peak period , ventilation , proper drainage etc., It is important that the kitchen should be close to the restaurant to facilitate service efficiently.

FOOD PREPARATION PREMISES

By law , no food business is allowed to be carried on in any insanitary premises. A well
planned layout largely depends on :
1). Receiving Supplies(checking qlty and weights)
2). Storing of food Properly
3).Food Preparation. Mise-en-place
4).Cooking
5).Servery
6).Scullery (Pan Wash)
7).Scullery (Crockery , Cutlery Wash up)
Intelligent placing of machinery , sinks and work tables are a contributing factor to the total daily .Kitchen mileage of food and unnecessary traveling by the kitchen staff. A perfect planned kitchen is one , where raw and cooked materials need the minimum of movement and require only to cover the same route once.
KITCHEN PLANNING
Along with the restaurant , the kitchen determines the no. of customers to be dealt with during service period ,Kitchen areas vary according to the type and number of meals provided and if allowance is to be made for special functions .
Knowledge of Peak load is essential and intelligent forecasting the area may be 40% of the restaurants area .However the modern school of thoughts flavour smaller and more compact kitchen premises , 3 sq.ft per head , is now considered adequate . This is the space recommended for labour saving equipped and work studied Premises.
The floor is subjected to much traffic, so durability must meet the demand of the particular premises .The floor shall be impervious to moisture and not affected by grease , salt vegetable or fruit acid and Preferably non-slip even when wet. There must be no joints or crevices where dirt. Pests and Vermin may accumulate and live in. The walks should be tiled to the ceiling or at least five feet. The wood work should be glass painted as this is easy to wipe clean. Doors should be self closing and they should has easily cleaned kick Plates and finger plates. Natural light should be properly fitted and shadows should be presented Canopy over Cookery equipments and range should be connected by ducts to Extractor fans, The ducts should be sufficiently high and the Exhaust fan should have a strong pull for maximum Extraction.

MEAL PRODUCTION

Food preparation is the term Employed to denote cookery. The budget Committee is formed for the purpose of Preparation, co-ordination , review and revision of budgets. The budget made is period wise break up or annually. The Seasonal character of the business is taken into consideration .The first step in preparation is giving management objectives for the forth coming year and giving a Performa to be used in Preparation of budgets.
PURCHASING
Buying ,quality and freshness of supplies and Portion control are of the utmost importance for the operation of a successful business. Large establishments will employ a Purchase Manager , as he can concentrate and get the best supplies .Requisition for supplies are placed with the stores / kitchen stewarding dept. at a specified time. The storekeeper will forward his requisition to the suppliers Knowledge of buying is very importance for the Purchase in charge . The Purchasing Mgr/ in charge should have a reasonable technical knowledge in Catering as he will be able to follow the requisition properly and understand the importance of delivery times ,size ,qlty and specifications.
Selection of a Supplier.
Instructions to Supplier along with the order of supplies.


STORE CONTROL AND FOOD CONTROL

Food Control begins when the order are placed ,it ends when the ultimate cash takings and banked .The store should be close to the preparation area for smooth flow of the items. The stocks should be taken at least once a month. The best system of according is a card index comprising of a separate card for each commodity and all issues supported by related documents .

PREPARATION AND COOKING
From Purchasing and the acquiring of the raw commodities , we come to the next stage in the Catering Cycle , the preparation and processing. Again the operation must be planned and controlled and a knowledge of the menu together with a clear indication of quantities regd, are essential .Preparation means preparing food for Cooking .Cooking is a technical skill knowledge is regd. to decide how to prepare the food and process it.
Cookery brings all the senses into Play :
Sight
:In the recognition of commodities and the eye appeal in the presentation of
dishes.
Smell
:In the testing of freshness of food and identifying the various cooking
smells.
Taste
: An important field and one allied to small , testing for flavour cooking
smaller.
Touch
: In the whole field of manual density , the use of the hands , in sampling or testing of food for freshness , texture and other factors.
Hearing
: In Communication and listening to food being cooked , recognizing if the
cooking process is too fast or slow.
Kinesthesia: It is the sixth sense .A general term involving the co-ordination of sense in Performing a task .The Know and the recognition on an unconscious level, this being achieved by proficiency. The preparation of dishes involves a mode of procedure which we know as a recipe .This is cooking to a formula .A recipe is defined as a statement of ingredients and procedure for a dish. To a recipe there are three operation the list of ingredients , the method and the Presentation of the dish for Service.


MENU PLANNING
A menu is a list of Prepared dishes which are available to a customer .The chef should try to compile menus with new dishes from time to time and see the likes of the customers visiting the Catering Establishments .The recipes should be standardized to that the cooling of the dishes could be accurate.

COST CONTROL

The Costs of meal fall naturally into three distinct sections , the first being the cost of the food and second the cost of the over heads , which includes fuel , light , heat , water , staff uniform and laundry, social security Payments, super annuation Contributions, Printing & Station , cleaning materials, advertising , telephones and Postage flowers, etc., The third Section is labour , the salaries and wages. The problem of any management control system is to make sure that after a pre-determined food and wage cost % has been decided this figure will take in all aspects of Expenses .The final trading results will show that a correct return has been made to obtain this the following information will be studied.
1). All purchases must be controlled .
2). Details of all items received must be recorded as well as when issued.
3). Any over production of food must be checked and of course reused in the best and most economical way.
4). Production Control
5). Check of sales with direct numbers catered for.
6). An efficient system of cash control.
7). Sales of any kind checked with cash receipts.
8). A record of cost for each section must be made be compared .
9).A weekly summary of all the relevant details must be made
10) The trading Profit & loss account is prepared.

MATERIAL COSTING

There are three basic methods of cost control
a). Quantity
b). Selling Price
c). Cost Price

QUANTITY CONTROL
The Control of quantity consumed ensures that everything consumed has been accounted for. It does not ensure profitability but provides a needful supplementary check and in simple to operate .
SELLING PRICE CONTROL
This method is also most suitable for establishments with a limited range of items on the menu , especially when each item contains a small no. of standardized ingredients. It can be used in Conjunction with quality control.
COST PRICE
This system is most Practical and best understood .It allows for a certain elasticity and provides the chief with a margin for artistic development .The kitchen % entails the application of the following simple formula.
Gross profit x 100
----------------------= rate Percent of gross Profit or kitchen percentage.
Takings
Gross Profit = takings (on any particular date or day) Purchases.
NET PROFIT
All Expenditures can be classified as M.C, LC and overheads , it follows that the
difference between total revenue and the total of these costs in the net profit before tax.
GROSS PROFIT = TOTAL INCOME – COST OF MATERIALS (M.C)
= L.C. + over heads + net Profit.
PORTION CONTROL
“Portion Control means the amount of size of a portion of food to be served to a customer.
There is a natural tendency for clients to eye one others Portion when they are served and if one is thought to be slightly larger than the others , there is apt to be resentment and a reaction detrimental to the good name of the establishment , only exact portion control can eliminate this.
Methods of Monitoring Portion Control is by direct supervision , by sales analysis and
by comparing the requisitions of each department with issues.

Purpose of Portion Control
1).To ensure fair Portions for each Customer.
2). To see that each department utilizes purchases to the full.
3). To control waste.
4). To ensure that standard costing are as accurate as possible.
Methods of Monitoring Portion Control
1).Ordering the right quantity and quality and suppressing when receiving it.
2).Even Preparing the food in the Production area doing direct supervision.
3).By Proper checking of the service of food.
4).Comparing the requisitions of each department with issues.
5).By sales analysis .
1.Aids to Portion Control
It is assisted by equipment and utensils as for example a scoop (ladle) used mainly for ice
cream , can also be used for mashed potato as a portioner for mixture.
a). Automatic Portion Control Equipment include- Tea dispenser , Butter Pat machines.
Bread slicing and buttering machines gravity feed slicers coffee making , milk dispensers.
b). Utensils used in Portion Control include.
ladles wire servers , Pie dish , Scales, baking tins , measures.
c). Serving dishes that help in Portion Control .
glasses, Casseroles, Coupes, Tureens, Sundae glasses, sauce boats, soufflé cases.
Vegetable dishes, Cocottes.

2. Portion Sizes
As Portion sizes vary from one establishment to another between table d’hote and a la Carte service , It is difficult to definite average Portion sizes . A few examples are.
Hors d’ oeuvre – Fruit juices -75ml to 110ml
Fruit Cocktail -120 gms
Smoked Salmon - 35 gms to 40 gms
Caviar – 30gm.
Salami
- 45 gms
Farinaceous dishes – Spaghetti/ Macaroni – 60 gms
Rice
-120 gms
Egg dishes
- Boiled / Poached / fry - 2 large ones
- Omelette
- 3 large
Meat
- Steaks
- 120 – 240 gms
- Chops
- 30 gms – 150 gms
- Stews
-100 gms raw weight
- hamburger
- 120 gms.

B). Visual aid Sheets : A Portion Control sheet can be used for costing various items of food or complete dishes. The object is to ascertain the total yield of a given commodity after Preparation and processing’s.
4). Standardized Recipes: They assist in food Costing and Portion Control by taking the guess work away and substituting more exact approach, by listing the ingredients and methods in a readily understood form as the result will be uniform every time it is featured. The food cost can also be known in advances if a Price column is introduced Providing it is kept up to date with any price changes.

BUDGETARY CONTROL & FORECASTING
Budgetary Control and forecasting is not a substitute for the management .It is discipline of action and Policy making administered by the management . To ensure that short term and further objectives are attained .It makes Possible the maximum use of the assets, material and labour available and more importantly imposes on the management the obligation to specify its objectives.

Profit is the motive of all Commercial Enterprises . The intelligent application of forecasting and budgetary control will enable the management. To tackle the problem in the and effective manner to this end , having first defined its target.
The immediate gains of an efficient budgetary control and forecasting system to the long term advantage are:
a). Individual ability and skill can be demonstrated.
b). Training and requirement scheme to meet known needs can be more purposefully arranged.
c). The efficient and equitable incentive scheme to encourage activists requiring Slimulus can be introduced.
d). The development of continuous trained management aware of the necessity to keep upto date.
e). The Confidence that whatever difficulties the future may hold, the team will be able and willing to surmount them.
Control of Waste
Essential Elements in any form of Control of Waste up to date Planning , Effective Supervision and Maintaining records .As in any business , the following three items must be kept under constant examination.
A- Correct use of Payroll
Job description , work schedules, Job analysis
Communication
Staff Consultation
Staff feeding & Welfare.
B- Essentials of Purchasing
C- Store and Stock Control
- Records of goods in and ont
- Quality and Quantity goods
- Correct handling and storage
- Correct issues.
Kitchen Control
- Not to over order
- Correct yield
- Strict Control of issues
- Correct Supervision
- Replacement of outdated Equipments.
- Cost Comparison for particular Period of time. etc.,
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Ephrem Takele's profile photoAkashv Sky's profile photoPaul Smith's profile photoManish Upadhyay's profile photo
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THANK YOU CHEF FOR THE NOTES, I WOULD LOVE TO HAVE NOTES ON CAKE MAKING, BREAD MAKING, PUFF AND SHORT CRUST, IF YOU HAVE PLEASE DO NOT HESITATE TO FORWARD, CAN I HAVE YOUR PERSONAL EMAIL ACCOUNT CHEF
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Have them in circles
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SOUS VIDE, COOK CHILL & COOK FREEZE

Sous-Vide Cooking
Sous-vide, French for “under vacuum”, is a method of cooking food sealed in airtight plastic bags in a water bath for a long time—72 hours is not unusual—at an accurately determined temperature much lower than normally used for cooking, typically around 60 °C or 140 °F. The intention is to maintain the integrity of ingredients and achieve very precise control of cooking.
By cooking the food at a precise temperature, foods are cooked to perfection every time. You may decide that the ideal temperature for the interior of a cut of beef is 140 degrees, but by using any traditional cooking method, no matter how good the chef is, it’s pretty hard to hit that number exactly right every time, and there can sometimes by some considerable difference between the ideal and the reality. With sous vide cooking, a food wanted at 140 degrees, will be cooked at 140 degrees in simmering water, and because the cooking medium is not hotter than the desired temperature, the food can never be overcooked, no matter how long it’s left in.
The second reason that chefs love this is for the intensity of flavoring possible. The food effectively cooks in its marinade, and since it’s vacuum sealed into the meat, the effects of the seasoning are more pronounced. Additionally, because the food is cooked under a vacuum, the natural juices are unable to escape from the meat, and the resulting food is much more succulent.
Thirdly, the technique allows for a manipulation of food that is not really possible in any other way. Take short oxtail for example. A really delicious and flavorful cut of meat…but also very chewy, and as such the only way to cook it and make it tender is to braise it low and slow, and keep cooking it until it is thoroughly well done, and all of the collagen in the meat is transformed to gelatin. Trying to eat a medium ox cheek cooked conventionally would be close to impossible. But using sous vide, the ox cheek can be cooked over a very low heat for many many hours, and during this very long and slow cooking, the collagen eventually transforms to gelatin, and what you get is the texture of a sirloin steak, and the incomparable beefy flavor of ox cheek. Pretty remarkable stuff.




Cooking at lower temperatures for extended periods of time also has these benefits:
• Minimal loss of moisture and weight
• Preservation of flavour and aroma as water soluble substances – especially aromatics – are not lost
• Flavours are enhanced, colours retained and little or no salt is required
• Nutrients are preserved as water-soluble minerals are not leached into cooking water, as cooking in a vacuum bag eliminates this
• Research has shown that sous vide gives the highest retention of vitamins vs. steaming and boiling
• Little additional fat is required during cooking
• Consistent results every time a dish is cooked
Professionals cook vacuum sealed food in water baths originally designed for laboratory usage, and these water baths can maintain the precise temperatures wanted for as long as needed.
The vacuum sealed meats can also be held without spoilage for far longer than usual, which is another thing that restaurants love, but this does raise some concerns of botulism.









The Cook Chill System
Cook Chill Systems are used by many types of food service organizations including Fine Dining Restaurants, Fast Food Restaurants, Restaurant Chains, Hospital Food Service Departments, School Food Service Departments, Institutional Food Service Departments and Caterers. These organizations produce large quantities of consistent 'just made fresh' foods using the Cook-Chill method which gives products an extended shelf life while achieving a reduction in food and labor costs and practicing safe food handling.
The Cook Chill System from Cryovac, D C Norris and Plascon Food Solutions is a major advance in prepared foods technology that ensures consistent quality in every batch, at every location, while reducing labor required for preparation and serving. Like no other system now on the market, Cook-Chill can provide a high degree of quality and fresh cooked taste.
Plascon Food Solutions in partnership with Cryovac Sealed Air Corporation and D C Norris, provides cook-chill bags, cook-chill bag closures, cook-chill equipment and cook-chill accessories. 
The Cook Chill 7-Step Process
1. Food Preparation
Food is prepared on site or at a central location under highest quality control standards and cooked in volume.
2. Bag Fill 
Upon reaching the exact degree of doneness, and while still above pasteurization temperature, food is filled directly into a Plascon Food Solutions Cook Chill bag to ensure strict sanitation.
3. Bag Seal
The Cook Chill bag is then securely closed with a heat seal system or clip closure.
4. Ice Bath 
The sealed bag is immediately placed in iced water to arrest the cooking process and reduce the food's core temperature to 40 degrees.
5. Store 
Food is stored refrigerated or frozen until ready to serve.
6. Retherm
At the serving location, product can be reheated in several ways. The bag can be placed in a steamer, or simply immersed in hot water. An additional option for the retherming process is opening the bag and
pouring the contents into a kettle or serving pan to reheat the product.
7. Finished Product
Aroma, taste, texture...the final presentation deliverys quality, 'fresh-cooked' goodness.
The Central Preparation Concept
Basically any food of pumpable consistency can be cooked and prepared at peak quality with the revolutionary Cook-Chill system. This includes soups, chowders, sauces, gravies, gelatins, chili, stews, casseroles, pasta dishes, pizza toppings, and many, many more.
Optimum Sanitation Throughout
With Cook-Chill, once the raw ingredients go into the cooking kettle, the food is never again exposed to handling. The SavorGuard bag is used for packaging, storing, distribution and reheating. This unique, multi layered material also prevents crossover of flavors or odors in distribution. The foods are packaged at above pasteurization temperature, and not exposed to air until the bag is opened for serving.
Freshness and Quality
Each batch prepared with the Cook-Chill method is a "prescription" for freshness and quality. This centralized preparation enables foodservice operators to maintain absolute control over uniformity and quality. All recipes are precisely measured and cooking cycles carefully monitored. Foods are cooked to proper doneness, never over- or undercooked. Thus, every serving location, no matter how distant, is assured uniform flavor, texture and quality. Best of all, even after weeks in storage, the foods taste as if they were freshly prepared.
A Proven, Successful System
The Cryovac Cook Chill System is now in use by leading foodservice operators nationwide, helping them serve a broader variety of fresh-tasting foods with new ease and consistency.
Family-style restaurant chains are supplying a wide variety of soups and entrees to their stores. A leading Mexican-food chain, for example, is packaging everything from chili con queso to refried beans.
A health care facility is supplying satellite locations from its central commissary, upgrading the quality of its "institutional" fare and realizing significant economic benefits in labor management and foodservice operations.
And a supermarket chain's central commissary is efficiently supplying in-store delis with soups, chili and a variety of hot entrees.
Other Benefits
Cook Chill Bags from Plascon Food Solutions work equally well for refrigerated or frozen foods. The Plascon Cook Chill bag withstands temperatures ranging from -20 F to 212 F.
Savings in manpower can be substantial, since highly skilled personnel (dietitians, chefs, etc.) are needed only at the central kitchen. No trained cooks are necessary at the serving locations; even part-time employees with minimal training are capable of reheating and serving. And, because so few pots and pans are used at the commissary and serving site, cleanup requires less time and labor.
Storage and inventory are easier to handle, too. Each package is identified by content and packaging date and is easily stackable minimizing storage space requirements. Deliveries can be reduced; each satellite can maintain fresh inventory in its own cooler with assured 30-day shelf life from date of packaging.







Cook - Freeze
 
Cook freeze is the process of cooking meals until they are almost done and then rapidly freezing them.
 
The process involves the preparation and cooking of meals at a central factory, rapidly reducing temperature to minus 20 degrees centigrade for storage until they are needed.
 
Cook Freeze foods need to be packed in shallow trays to make the process more efficient. The food is cooled to storage temperature within 90 minutes of cooking and stored at a maintained temperature of -20 degrees Celsius. The meals can then be transported in refrigerated transport to where the food is to be reheated (regenerated) and consumed when needed.
 
The length of storage depends on the food but typically it can be stored for months. For longer storage the food may be subjected to pasteurization after cooking.
 
The main target group for these products are people who have no time to spend cooking. These products are ideal because they are so easy. Typical categories would be schools, pensioners and possibly hospitals.
 
These processes have the advantage that the preparation and cooking of the meals is not tied to the times when the food is to be served, enabling staff and equipment to be used more efficiently.
 
A properly managed operation is capable of supplying high quality meals economically in spite of the high initial equipment costs. There are potential problems, however. In particular, careful attention has to be paid to hygiene, as there are a number of points in the process where food pathogens can gain access. This requires careful attention to both the control of the process and to staff training.
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Hi Chef I want to know, what is the proceedure of dfrost of meat and sea food and pls guide me for storage also? 
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LARDER

1. LAYOUT & EQUIPMENTS

A.. Definition and Introduction of Larder Work :
The larder or Garde Manger is a department set aside for the storage of perishable
food , both raw and cooked and where food stuffs such as meat fish poultry and game
are prepared and made ready for cooking. In this department all cold food items
found on the menu such as Hors d’oeuvre cold fish or meat dishes ,Cold sauces,
salad dressings are prepared and dressed. For these functions to be carried out , it is
essential that:
1. The larder be separated from the kitchen and located in a cool place. At the same
time, it must be close to the kitchen to avoid undue running about between two
department which are closely interrelated.
2. It should be light, airy and well established and sufficiently spacious to allow the
staff to carry out their duties in a clean and efficient manner.
3. It should be equipped with the necessary fitting, machinery and tools.

B. EQUIPMENTS FOUND IN THE LADDER
Refrigerators, Mincing Machine and bone cutter, slicing machine, scales and
weighing machines , Electric Grinding machine ,Boiling Plate or Gas Ranges ,
Griller/Toaster , Gas boiler, Butcher’s Blocks , Steel Tables ,Sauce pans and lids
frying Kettles and frying pans , polythene bins and other larder tools such as serving
spoons and ladles, sieves , Colanders , Conical strainers and Chinois, heat Presses ,
Pie moulds, whisks, egg slices, steel basins and graters, Knives, Choppers, Saws etc.,
Butchers Boning knives ,butcher’s steak or cutting knives , Butchers saw, Butcher’s choppers and cleavers, Butchers chopping Knives,Cook’s 30 cms(12 inches)Knives, Cook’s 20-24 cm (a/7 inches) knives, Cook’s 6-8cm (4 inches) knives, Cook’s 14-20cm(7 inches) filleting Knives Palette Knives, Potato Peelers, French or English, Mandoline vegetable slices.

WOODEN UTENSILS
Wooden spatulas and spoons are used for stirring food stuffs to Prevent burning .
Wooden mushrooms are used for Pressing food stuffs through sieves .These wooden
utensils should be well scrubbed , washed , rinsed and dried after use.
The following tools are kept clean by washing in hot water, rinsing and drying . Care
should be taken to present them from rusting or deteriorating.

MISCELLANEOUS
Cutlet Bat - For flattening cuts of meat.
Trussing Needles - For Poultry trussing.
Larding Needles - For larding cuts of meat , Poultry etc.,
Larding Pin - For larding joints etc.
Lemon Zesters - For Scraping of lemon Peel.
Lemon decorators - For channeling lemon Peel.
Vegetable Scoops - For shaping vegetables and potatoes.
Butcher’s Hooks - For hanging joints etc.
Skewers - For skewering ,meat etc.
Brining syringe - For Pumping brine solution into joints.
Brinometer - For measuring density of brine solution.

2. TERMS AND LARDER CONTROL

BREAKDOWN OF WORK :
It naturally follows that the work is broken down into various fields such as Hors
d’oeuvre,salads,butcher,Poultry,Cold Buffet and in a large establishment each function
is carried out by a chef specialized in that area . These duties are allocated by the chef
Garde Manger who is in overall charge of the department .His assistants are the
Commis Garde Manger. The smaller establishment, the chef Garde Manger works
single handed and carriers out all the functions himself .

LARDER CONTROL
If the larder is to be run efficiently and economically ,it is essential that the chef
Garde Manger should exercises strictest possible control over the food stuffs received
and stored in the department .This will involve:
1. Checking the quantity and quality of all goods delivered to the larder.
2. Ensuring that all food stuffs are stored at the right temperature and that they can
be easily checked.
3. That the food is protected from contamination by vermin.
4. That Portion Control is rigidly carried out e.g., a given piece of meat, fish and
vegetable should always Produce required portions of steaks, fillets, salads or
Hors d’oeuvre.
5. That stocks are regularly turned over.
6. That food is not overstocked.
7. A simply daily stock sheet by each sub department is maintained .
8. Every Possible effort must be made to maintain the highest possible standard of
hygiene. Every Precaution should also be taken to discourage Pilferage.
The stock and order sheet should be as simple and easy to keep up to data as possible.

A complicated stock sheet requiring too much writing will defect the whole purpose
as it will be neglected during busy rush periods, the very time it is needed most. For
some sub departments, devising an easy and simple system is reasonably easy. In
some cases it is not so easy for example, Also keeping of the stock of food sent in and
returned by the cold buffet can be complicated and time wasting if one is to measure
every ounce or inch. Therefore it is necessary to accept some rule of thumb providing
it is well supervised .

An experienced chef Garde Manger should be able to tell at a
glance the weight or number of Portion of a given joint or cold dish. The butchery
Department also Presents some Problems and the stock sheet for this department
needs careful consideration. Each establishment will devise its own system taking
into account its own Problems.

PLANNING THE GARDE MANGER
Layout : Planning the layout for a garde manger department can be a complex task.
Unlike other departments that can depend on a basic menu and basic work load,the
Garde Manger department is unique in its operation. On a daily basis the Garde
Manger department may handle its own butchery, its own bakery, and its own sauce
making, its own frying, smoking of fish and cold meats, all the decorating including
tallow and ice sculpture, Plus a complete line on charcuterie products such as
galantines and pates.

The Garde Manger department can relate to a food service facility in three ways:
- on a pick up Basis.
- on a distribution basis.
- on a combination of the two bases.

When a Garde Manger department Executes food order on an ala Carte basis, this is
known as Pick up .This system operates in an unpredictable fashion, Since the
number and timing of orders is not known in advance. Work load is set depending
upon the dishes listed on the menu.

When the Garde Manger department Executes food orders in advance for a known
quantity, to be delivered at a certain time (Parties, banquets) this is known as the
distribution basis. The main problem here is work loads will be different each day
depending upon booking, functions etc., For this reason it is difficult to establish an
appropriate mise-en-place on a daily basis as it is bound to vary.

In the combined system represents a combination of the above two systems. This
layout is appropriate when the garde manger department is located near both a la carte and banquet facilities.


Responsibilities of the Chef Garde Manger
The responsibilities of the Larder Chef are many and varied. He is responsible to the Executive chef for the smooth running and operation of his department. He is responsible for all menu planning, developing new dishes, standardizing the food items produced in his department. He is also responsible for co ordination between his staff and has to make sure that they have understood the work required from them and the production schedule, either daily or weekly. This co ordination also extends to the other departments and different kitchens as the Garde Manger does inter act with then all. Training is another important function he has to carry out. As I have mentioned earlier, the work of the larder is of a highly skilled nature and involves a lot of expensive ingredients, procedures and equipment It is therefore imperative that the staff is well trained. With regards to the staff, the larder Chef is also responsible for their scheduling and duty rotas. A lot of pre preparation is done in the larder for the other departments and satellite kitchens. Their requirements must be made available well in time. He also has to maintain registers to record the receipts and dispatch of the foodstuff. He is also responsible for maintaining hygiene and sanitation standards in the department. Remember, a lot of the foodstuff being processed here is in the raw state and susceptible to contamination and possible food poisoning. Kitchen safety and Food safety are crucially important. In this day and age keeping abreast of modern trends is also important. This relates to current eating habits, new equipment and new products that have been introduced in the market that will help the Chef Garde Manger in his work. Doing market surveys, visiting other hotels and interacting with other chefs will help in this regard. Control is another important aspect of the chefs role. Understandably, this is a difficult task in a department that does not have any sales figures to measure against. But controlling pilferage and losses due to poor storage as well as standardization and portion control will all help.
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hello sir i haven't any hotel management degree but i'm in good position in 3 star category hotels i would like to know about continental and Italian cuisine kindly provide me the material which can understand easily with from the basics till derivities
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APPETIZERS & GARNISHES
Hors d’oeuvre is a French Expression and its true definition is a preparation served outside the menu proper, at the beginning of a meal or before the main course .An hors d’oeuvre is essentially a small tit bit, it should be light ,attractive very delicate and of course tasty.
There are four main types of hors d’oeuvre :
Cold hors d’oeuvre
Hot hors d’oeuvre
Zakuski
Canapes

COLD HORS D’OEUVRE
These can broadly be categorized into two , the ready to serve variety, available in the market today in Every conceivable form and type (smoked Salmon , Pate, smoked Sausages). Then there are those that require culinary preparation and , when made properly , have the advantage of being freshly prepared from fresh ingredients with maximum flavour and appeal .This is where fine cuisine can make a very important contribution to eating Pleasure.
Cold hors d’oeuvre can be broken down into further Classification.
1. Hors d’oeuvre frequently served at luncheons and generally known as hors d’oeuvre a la francaise. This variety is served in oblong , round or square dishes called raviers. These would include small salads made of meat, fish, vegetables, eggs as well as ham, Sausages and a variety of marinated fish products.
2. The luncheon hors d’oeuvre is part of the meal and has its place in the proper sequence of dishes served at the meal. While the dinner hors d’oeuvre is usually Served with cocktails , at a time prior to the meal and is not part of the menu.



HOT HORS D’OEUVRE
Hot hors d’oeuvre are generally served at a Cocktail party or before dinner, they are served with a lunch Menu. Although there are some hors d’oeuvre which may be prototype and serve as a base for many preparations. As a matter of fact, any dish when reduced to a tit bit portion can be used in the preparation of hors d’oeuvre. Eg. Bouchees croustades, rissoles, ramekins and the ever popular quiche,can all be served in smaller portions as hot hors d’oeuvre. The presentation of these hors d’oeuvre are important as they set the tone and the Expectations of the dishes to follow in the meal.
ZAKUSKIS
In the late 19th century , Zakuskis or hors d’oeuvre a la russe as they were once called became very popular. Perfected for the mighty czars and czarinas of the Russian Empire , they soon became classical works of art .
Originally, the base that was used was the traditional russian blinis, but over the years , these have been substituted with normal brown bread .Over the base was placed a topping which would vary from meats ,fish, vegetables and poultry . The top was then garnished and finished off with a layer of aspic or gelee to enhance the presentation. One essential ingredient in a Zakuski is smoked fish which could be a part of the topping or the garnish .When it came to the topping or the garnish, the chef’s imagination was the limit and these Zakuskis soon became works of art as chefs competed to out do each other. Although they can be classified as Canapes, the Zakuski is larger in size and is essentially served only for dinner.
CANAPES
These are tiny open sandwiches which may be cut into a variety of shapes . These are made up of a base , a topping and a garnish. The base could be brown or white bread, toasted or plain , savoury biscuits, pastry or other similar food stuff. The topping could be a variety of meats, fish, poultry and Even veg and fruits , cheese. Egg or a combination of these. The chef can use his creativity to include left overs as well. The garnish is used to enhance the appearance and this is what makes the tray of Canapes attractive .A tray may consist of an assortment of Canapes or may be restricted to just one type . The key is to create interesting combinations and make the tray visually appealing as well. Most Canapes are served cold but you could have a few hot ones as well.
Canapes are never served as a starter on the menu. Mostly they are offered along with Cocktails before the meal is actually served .Canapes both hot and cold are now very popular on the cocktail circuit and other gatherings especially when dinner is not included as part of the function .A variety of Indian dishes like Kebabs can be converted into canapés.

CLASSICAL CANAPES
Anchory Canapes : Butter a piece of toast with anchory butter, lay strips of anchory and garnish with siesed egg yolk and Parsley.
Shrimp Canapes: Butter a piece of toast with shrimp butter arrange shrimp tails on top, garnish with fines herbes.
Caviar Cigarettes : Spread Caviar over a very thin slice of bread,rollinto a cigar shape and secure with a tooth pick and truffle.
Canapes a la danoise : Butter a piece of rye toast with horseraddish butter, arrange slices of smoked Salmon and garnish with strips of smoked herrings.
Canapes rigoletto: Butter a piece of toast with cayenne butter, place a mixture of chopped egg whites and yolks, ham and tongue . Garnish with a bit of truffle.
Canapes Concalaise: Butter a piece of toast with tuna butter , top with a poached /smoked mussel and garnish with a twist of lemon.
Canapes rejane : Butter a piece of toast with lobster butter ,top with a mound of egg white and mark with mayonnaise .Surround with a ring of lobster Coral.
Canapes a la nicoise : Butter a round Canape with anchory butter and top with a slice of ham , decorate with a sprig of tarragon.

APPETISERS
Appetisers are small Portions of food items , served as the first Course to stimulate the appetite , they may be served in a liquid or solid form . It should be Colourful , dainty , decorated and well Presented to look attractive.
COCKTAILS
They are generally served chilled and could be a liquid form or solid .Juices of fruit or vegetables or sea food , cut into bite size , mixed with Worcester shire sauce and lemon juice . Jal Jeera (Indian) They must be fresh in appearance and arranged attractively to have an Eye appeal. The various cocktails :
1). Juices of fruits such as orange , Pineapple ,grapefruit or tomato served with cold salad dressings are served as cocktails.
2).Mixed fruit cocktail
3).Avocado & Melon Cocktail.
4).Florida Cocktail

SALADS
A salad is a food served with a dressing, the food can be a cold dish, or green vegetables or mixture of fruit, or hot mixture of Piquant foods, or frozen mixture of fruit, or chopped foods in aspic, coleslaw.
The difference between hors d’oeuvre and salad, is that the hors d’oeuvre is an important course and it is always the first course .It is served in small quantities and is a light ,appetizing , colourful and stimulating dish. Hors d’oeuvre is not served as any other course ,salad can be served as the first course in small quantities . It can also be served as a salad course or as an accompaniment with roast or entrée Course.
Salads should be cold ,crisp, Piquant , colourful, well seasoned and attractive. They supply nutrients to the dish ,especially when they are made of fresh fruit and vegetables.
Salads are of two types : Plain or simple salads and compound or composite salads.
Simple Salads : These can be subdivided into green salad or salad in season , which is served raw or cooked , consisting of a single kind of vegetable as a case. One or two ingredients are used for decoration and as a garnish. Eg. Artichoke , Beetroot , Tomatoe Salad.
Compound Salads : They are more elaborate salads and consists of more than one ingredient . On the basis of base is can be divided into fish based ,Veg based , Poultry or meat based and fruit based.
The salad has four basic parts : Underlines or base body dressing and garnish .we have to take care for every part ,and if any part is omitted or poorly done the finished salad will not be up to the mark.
BASE: The Underlines is usually a leafy veg such as lettuce of different kinds as romaine,Cos,. water cress, cabbage etc. The tossed salads do not have an underlines , they are piled in bowls.
BODY: This is the most important part of the salad .The salad gets its name from the ingredients, that are used for the body. This part gets the most attention and its appearance is enhanced by decorations .The body consists of broken salad green ,fruits in moulded aspic, sliced cooked potatoes raw cabbage ,tomato stuffed with fish, chicken or meat.
DRESSING: A dressing is usually served with all types of salads . It adds flavour , Provides food value, helps digestion , improves Palatability and appearance.Dressing is in a liquid or
semi liquid form and generally a mixture of oil,vinegar , seasoning or egg or cream etc.,


The basic dressings are :
Mayonnaise , Vinaigrette or French dressing , lemon dressing, mustard cream and acidulated cream.(3 cream , 1 vinegar, or lemon , salt + Pepper) Compound or Composite Salads (Examples)
1).Cole slaw – sliced veg & vinaigrette dressing
2).Andalaouse- ¼ of tomatoes , Julienne of Pimentos ,boiled rice, garlic, onion .
3).Carmen – Rice ,red Pimentos ,cold chicken , green Peas.
4).Chatelaine – Hand soiled egg, truffles , artichoke , Potato, tarragon
5).Paristenne-Fish aspic, veg salad ,lobster ,truffles, herbs, lettuce with mayonnaise & Aspic.
CLASSICAL GARNISHES
1. Americaine (Fish) : Slice of lobster and truffles.
2. Dieppoise(Fish): Shrimps, bearded mussels, mushrooms.
3. Financiere : Chicken quenelles , cockscombs, cock’s kidney ,truffles, stoned olives.
4. Marinnier (Fish) : Shrimps or Prawns , bearded mussels .
5. Milanaise : Julienne of Ham , mushrooms , tongue , truffles , tomatoes.
6. Mirabeau(Grills): Anchovy butter , Fillet of anchovy, stuffed Olives.
7. Normande(Fish) : Bearded Oyster and mussels , mushroom heads , Crayfish tails,Goujon of sole, slices of truffles , crutons .
8. Regence :
a). Fish : Fish Quenelles , crayfish tails , mushrooms, bearded oysters, soft roes,slices of truffles.
b). Chicken Sweet-bread : Chicken quenelles , cockscomb, triangles of foie gras,mushroom heads.
c). Game : Game quenelles ,cockcombs, triangle of foie gras , mushroom heads,crutons.
9. Reforme : Julienne of ham , tongue , beetroot ,whites of egg, gherkins
10. Strasbourgeoise : Lardons of boiled bacon , slices of foie gras ,chipolatas.
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it is very easy to study
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KITCHEN PLANNING

The plan or layout of a kitchen should be determined by a clear catering policy, even though the plan is often limited by space available. The policy adopted and the space and layout required for the kitchen to carry out that policy will be affected by many factors like, the type of business, whether a restaurant is for resident guests or is open for the public. The type of area it is located in and one type of customer, seasonal pressured of trade and the possibility of expansion. These are the points that must be considered when the kitchen is in the project stage.

There are two basic intentions that remain constant whatever the catering policy is.

They are: -
1. Receiving of commodities in various forms, either by partial of complete preparation, followed by cooling re-heating, portioning and other dispensing methods, of conversion of this food supply into meals.
2. Regulating the supply of food in meal forms because of limitations such as economy, time, locality, and quantity but in such away that the quality of food and service is acceptable and attractive.

Often when planning the layout, these main intentions are not very well understood and kept in mind, instead consideration is given more to small details which result in poor designing, subsequent operating confusing and even failure. Besides keeping in mind the basic intentions, it is also important to study the present day trends and anticipations of future developments in the catering industry.

Amongst the current trends, in the food production and service industry are the following:

1. Greater mechanization
Simpler operations and increased use of convenience food. This has been brought about because of the high cost of manual labour.
2. Selling prices are based less on the actual food cost but more upon the value to the customers, of the total food service being offered.
3. Increasing development of specialties, either if foods, dishes, and forms of service capable of giving individuality and character to our establishment.

The menu is the blueprint of the catering establishment and may be considered as the starting point when planing the kitchen layout. The points of importance in determining menu policy will depend on the type of establishment and style of the catering to be provided.

One should be very clear on these points:
(a) These for whom it is intended to cater.
(b) The reason for their patronage.
(c) Any service demands, which the two above points will bring about, exalt high, service, gourmet standards, and service.

Once the menu form and service has been decided, then the equipment and its installation can be planned out. Food supplies can be received in many forms, convenience food are already a reality in the catering industry. Meat, fish, poultry and vegetables may be obtained frozen or in prepared form or portioned forms. Dehydrated products, bakery premixes, prepared soups etc. are all in convenient packs.

Increased use of convenience foods has had a profound effect upon the layout, planing, and equipment, storage facilities even need adjustments and alteration.

Modern food service and kitchen operation must be planned not only in accordance to the culinary principles and the changing modern trends, but also with the basic fundamentals of kitchen design, which is the work flow which is based on work study.

To obtain continuos flow of goods from section to section, the design of each section should be considered carefully to ensure that the paths within its bounds do not cross more than its necessary.

A well-planned layout largely depends on the following requirements:
1. Ordering, receiving and storage.
2. Preprocessing of raw material such as meats, bakery products.
3. Cooking- soups, vegetables, sauces, meats, and bakery products.
4. Pantry or setup section-salads, sandwiches.
5. Service area.
6. Crockery and cutlery wash up.

Intelligent placements of sinks, machinery etc will make a great difference in the daily kitchen movement covered by the food and unnecessary travelling by the kitchen staff, so minimum of crisis crossing and backtracking. The perfect kitchen from this point of view is the one in which the raw materials and cooked materials need the minimum of movement and requires once only to cover the same route.

Information required before beginning the kitchen planing is:
1. What type of meal will be offered?
2. How many persons will be served?
3. Meal timings and how many sittings (turnover) (PAX)
4. What type of service?
5. Will convenience foods be used?
6. Is allowance to be made for special functions?
7. What is the floor space available?
8. What type of service is proposed?

Area requirement: It is possible that kitchen space will be reduced in size in order to provide more sitting capacity in the restaurant. Cramped inadequate kitchens will lead to delays and falls in service. This will invariably effect the turnover. Inadequate kitchen facilities will also adversely effect the staff.

The kitchen areas very according to the type of and number of meals provided. Hotel restaurants require kitchens out of all proportions in size to the actual sitting capacity of the restaurant, about 40% of the area added to the dining room. A useful rule of thumb is 6sq feet of floor area per person accommodated in the dining room. Out of the kitchen areas ¼ may be required for storage and remaining for food preparation, cooking and service.

KITCHEN LAY OUT AND FUNCTIONS

RECEIVING AND PREPARATION AREA:
Materials required for a food facility is numerous varied often bulky and subject to deterioration and misappropriation. Several people normally are involved with placing taking filling orders and with the delivery and receiving of good. Good communication is required between these people in order to have a smooth operation and to avoid wastage spoilage etc.

RECEIVING AREA:
The receiving area should be a large and convenient enough to receive the volume and type of good delivered. All items must be inspected before accepting by the receiving clerk. Many items need minimum inspection and merely call for package label and count. Perishable items like fish, poultry, meat, and vegetables, etc. Need thorough checking and inspection for quality. The receiving area should be located near the entrance to the storage. So that once the checked can be stored directly as soon as possible.

EQUIPMENT:
Scales, container opening tools such as crow bar, claw hammer, short bladed sharp knife, can opener etc should be available at the receiving are to help in inspection the good.

DELIVERY QUAY OR LOADING BAY:
Situated at the back of the hotel has a platform at Lorry’s platform level for easy unloading. This place should be well lighted (reflector type lights) and fitted with anti pest fans at the doors, and should be kept clean always. (A water connection with hosepipe attachments is diserable for cleaning.) To avoid work accidents, slipping etc. Trolleys and other equipment should be kept for easy unloading and carrying in the goods to stores.

GAS BANK:
If cylinders are used they must be kept outside in an open shelter opening from the outside (in case of blast the shock wave damages be decreased). In case of gas tank this one has to be at a distance of 150 yards from the main building. A daily check of gas shelter and tank is necessary as a safety measure.

GARBAGE DISPOSAL:
Wet and dry garbage should be stored separately. Wet garbage is stored in containers in an air-conditioned shelter to prevent fermentation and smell. As far as possible collect garbage in plastic fresh bags, change when they are full, tie them up and then kept them in garbage rooms. Dry garbage is sometimes incinerated. Disposal of garbage is done on daily basis and garbage shelters are thoroughly cleaned, disinfected, disordorized with phenol.

CENTRAL STORES:
Dry store: A temperature of 70oF (21oC) is ideal. Storing principles. Light weight item in height (top of the shelves). Heavy weight items in containers, which are labelled. Cases are kept either on shelves or pellets. Nothing should be kept directly on the floor. Leave about 8” height for the bottom shelf from the floor for easy cleaning and control pests and rodents. Do not keep shelves touching to the wall, leave about 2” from the walls. The different records kept in the stores for control purposes are: Bin cards, Entry Books, Issue Books, Indent Forms Orders, Deliveries, invoices, etc.

FRUIT STORE:
Ventilated common storage can be used for fruits to keep and ripen them for 2 or 3 days 50 – 60oF is ideal.

COLD ROOM:
Refrigerated and low temperature storage. Cold rooms are under the responsibility of the executive storekeeper or chef larder depending upon the hotel policy.

Types of Cold Rooms
Two types negative and positive.
Negative cold rooms -0oC temperature (deep freezer)
Positive cold rooms +0oC temperature (walk in cooler, or cooler.

The ideal temperature: for a negative cold room is –18oC
Positive cold room Meat 0 – 1oC
Fish 2 – 3oC
Dairy 4 – 5oC
Vegetables 6 – 7oC
& Fruits

PREPARATION AREA:
The different types of food (fish, meat, poultry, etc.) should have their appropriate preparation space. The equipment necessary for cooking the food should be sited closed to the appropriate point.

VEGETABLE PREPARATION:
The work in this section forms into three works centres. 1) Washing & Cleaning 2) Paring 3) Trimming, Cutting, Shaping, chopping, etc. Depending upon the volume of work these activities may be performed in one center or an assembly line production may be used. One centre completely separated from the other. Use of frozen and convenience in this largely determines the space and equipment required in this section. These rooms sometimes may be air-conditioned. This section has containers, shelves, sinks, and various machines for cutting, peeling, shredding, etc. In smaller hotels this section may be combined with butchery.

BUTCHERY:
Air-conditioned room for meat preparation. Boning, paring, cutting, as well as charcuterie are done in this section. Portions and cut according to specifications and controlled with scales. Poultry, fish games etc. are also prepared and portioned here.

LARDER ROOM:
For cold dishes, sauces, hors d’oeuvres and cold buffets.

COOKING AREA
The cooking section/main kitchen is generally regarded as the heart of the kitchen. The material used here are likely to be the most of us wish to work. The material used are likely to be the most expensive the work here is done by the workers who are paid the highest rates. Here semi manufactured products are turned into finished products. To ensure fast service the close relationship between cooking area and serving area is of very important. In a classical organization it is divided into partie system. This area can go from a simple kitchen to a more complex group of section or even satellites.

USUAL SECTIONS OF COOKING AREA:
Sections usually found are:-
Main kitchens or hot kitchen, pastry, bakery, confectionery usually called bake shop
Short order kitchen or pantry
Pot and pans wash up

MAIN KITCHEN: Heart of the kitchen.

MATERIAL FLOW:
The flow of raw materials will come from three main source:-
1. The meat and vegetable preparation sections.
2. From stores.
3. Direct delivery. Food partially processed in a main kitchen may be sent to a service kitchen for final cooking as in a decentralized kitchen.

COOKING FUNCTIONS:
The variety and volume of items to be prepared will influence staff and equipment needs and the formation of work centres.

EQUIPMENT NEED:
The essential equipment for production will be a worktable, sink, and cooking equipment. Depending on the size and type of food facility the requirement differs. Study the menu to decide on the equipment requirement. Most of the cooking activities can be grouped as follows – Roasting & Baking, Boiling and Toasting, Steaming, Deep-frying, etc. to decide the number of centres. The cooks’ table is generally the core of the cooking section.

SETTING THE EQUIPMENT’S:
‘Runs’ of varied cookery apparatus parallel to and near service can eliminate unnecessary movement of staff and food from kitchen to service as well as it speeds up the service. Bain-marie and stockpot stands should be close to ranges. Adequate ventilation and canopies have to be provided wherever necessary, to clear the kitchen from smoke and steam. Modern kitchens have fresh air input supplied by a deviation of the central A/C unit.



BAKE SHOP:
Pastry, Bakery, and confectionery is usually called as the bake shop. The control of quality and cost of desserts and breads served by a hotel is very important to its successful operation. In small hotels this will be in the corner of the main kitchen whereas in big hotels, this may be a separate fully equipped dept, of its own.

HOT AND COLD SECTION:
This Bakeshop section is usually divided into two sub-sections, Hot & Cold.
The hot section is equipped mainly with an even single double or 3 tier deck. Conventional or convection. Racks, dough mixer, food mixer and provide all the bake items, bread cakes, gateaux, etc. The cold Section is equipped mainly with refrigerated marbles, mincers, ice cream machines, freezers, & food mixer. It is usually air-conditioned and provides all cold desserts. Next to it there is the pastry cold room where mise-en-place is kept.

PANTRY:
Short order kitchen (pantry) as the name indicates this section provides for items prepared and served fast at any time. This section deals mainly with beverages, salads, sandwiches relishes, fruit juices, cold plates, dessert ice creams, milk shakes etc. Quick service cooking equipment for such a contact grill, toasters, suitable equipment for providing hot and cold drinks and shakes, ice cream can opener, slicer, chopper, juice extractor, shaker, shredder, etc. are to be provide in the pantry.

The main kitchen, bakeshop, and pantry must have direct access to service counter or have each a counter of their own.

POTS AND PANS WASH UP:
These should be located near area of food preparation. The process of cleaning includes, scraping, soaking, (both usually done by hand) washing, rinsing, sanitizing, and drying may be done by hand or machine. Equipment for hand washing of pots consist of three compartment large sinks with a drain board on either side one for solid pots and one on the other side for clean pots.
A convenient floor drain is need for the wash water from those extra large objects.
Drain board Drain board
Solid Washing Rinsing Sanitizing Clean pots
It is desirable to have an overhead spray with extension can really located, to use for flousing the refuse after scraping and rinsing the pots and pans this section should include large racks for storage of utensil items can be readily seen and selected without having to move a stock in order to get an item required.

SERVICE AND WASH UP AREA
From where do the waiters pick up their orders?
From where do they got clean cutleries?
Service and wash up area situated exactly between the restaurant (and restaurants) and the kitchen, has the following function.
1. Cleans dirty equipment coming from restaurants or floors.
2. Supplies clean equipment to restaurants and service equipments to kitchens.
3. Food orders calling out.
4. Delivery of Food orders.
5. Cashiering.
6. Restaurant sections.
1 and 2 are being the wash up area. 3,4,5,6 being the service area.

SERVICE AREA:
Issuing meal to the restaurants in carried out in this area. A kitchen counter throughout the meals service period.
ABOYEUR’ DUTIES:
On receipt of waiters checks ( KOT’S )be announce in a loud and clear voice the requirements of the order with any special instructions. Often he expand the time of the receiving the order of the KOT and usually has a board fitted with hooks or pins maintaining the tables or waiters stations to while the orders relate.
The orders of the aboyeur normally consists of
a) The designation of the chef de partie or partie address e.g.patissier, totisseur.
b) The number of portions required.
c) Name of the item.
d) Style of cooking.
e) Garnishes dressings or sauces.

The parties must acknowledge the orders in returns. Usually the order or part of the order is sent first. The second part will be called the suite.

When an order has been completed and has been collected by the waiter, the aboyeur removes the check (KOT) from its hook and places it through a slit into a locked box. This at the end of the service goes to the control office where the key is kept for control procedure. The aboyeur is responsible for the safety of the box.

CASHIERING & BILLING

The cashier prepares the bills and gives it to the waiter for presentation. The waiter present and collects the money and gives to the cashier. The cashier after receiving the money stamps the bill with ‘paid’ seal and gives back the top copy of the bill to the waiter to hand over to the guest. In the same area there is a room service section where all orders are centralized in case of centralized Room Service system. Also found in the service area is a dispense bar for drinks served in the room or in the Dinning Hall.

WASH – UP (DISH WASHING)

Dish washing has a high rating of importance in food service because of its significance in protecting sanitation and hygiene, utilization of labour time, saving on operational cost for power hot water and detergent and for prevention of loss and breakage of table ware.
The wash area is composed of 3 sub sections each manned by a steward:
a) Loading – Dirty equipment is pre-washed and loading on baskets or trays for the machine or passed to hand washing.
b) Washing is done by machine or hand in any case the process is the same.
Washing Rinsing Sanitizing
c) Unloading – The clean equipment is
- kept on racks
- picked by waiters
- delivered by stewards.
The dishwashing operations includes
a) Removal of soiled table ware from dinning areas.
b) Receiving, scrapping, and stacking ready for washing.
c) Washing and drying and then storing.

There are 3 temperatures of water required in the washing process.

PRE RINSING (WASHING):
For the removal of coarse soil calls for a warm temperature of 120oF that will melt fat and loosen cooked food from the surfaces.

THE WASHING
The washing temperature should be 140oF to be hot enough for effective cleaning action.

SANITIZING:
Sanitizing calls for a rinse temperature of 180oC for 10 seconds. Most bacteria are killed at 170oC if held for 30 seconds or longer. At temperature higher than 180oF the water vaporizes sufficiently to interfere with the effectiveness of the rinsing action. Allow to air dry after washing and sanitizing procedure is over. To guard protection of sanitizing water temperature must be maintained and correct sanitizing and handling practices to be followed. Separate workers should be provided for handling soiled and clear dishes. In smaller hotels washing is done manually. In any case the process is the same.

ANCILLARY & EMPLOYEE FACILITIES

Which is the other important area in the kitchen?
Chef’s office/cabin
While considering in great detail factors with the kitchen itself, it should be remembered that passages to and from the kitchen must be kept clear and unobstructed, both for entry of goods exists of containers and movements of staff. Other matters to be considered are the offices, dinning room and clock room for the employees.

OBJECTIVE
Management of a food facility as discussed earlier involves planning, maintaining records of many aspects of operations, interviewing, training, placing orders, calculating pay rolls etc. etc. performance of these management functions calls for an office or offices that is suitably located and adequately equipped depending upon the size of the establishment. The office is an important section that must be planned in relationship to the food production.



CRITERIA IN PLANNING OFFICES
Criteria is based on functions to be performed which may serve as a guide while planning offices include the following.

PROXIMITY
For continual awareness and case of supervision in specific areas of responsibility. Convenient location can promote better control and utilization of management time and effort. A manager needs to know what is happening and gives timely instructions. In a remotely located office he may tend to become absorbed in his office activities.

READY VISIBILITY
Ready visibility of areas to be supervised can save many steps in keeping aware of work in progress. Office functions can be performed peacefully, if things are able to be seen as progressing well in the various work sections.
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Good Morning Chef, Please could you send a notes regarding quantity food production to my email id : ramdurai_am@yahoo.co.in
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KITCHEN LAYOUT

The plan or layout of a kitchen will be determined by the catering policy of the establishment. The plan is often limited by space availability. The production area is divided into 3 very distinctive areas.

1. Receiving, Preparation & Storage.
2. Cooking.
3. Service (Dispatching) and wash-up.

As in any other industrial production unit, the kitchen has three functions:

1. Receiving raw materials
2. Transforming them into finished goods
3. Forwarding the products.

The main factors that determine the layout of a kitchen are:

1. Whether the hotel is primarily for guests or if there is a busy chance trade.
2. The locality.
3. The type of customer.
4. The type of menu/service.
5. Seasonal pressure of trade.
6. Possibility of expansion.

Among current trends in cooking, kitchen organization and food service, the following are readily noticeable.

1. Greater mechanization
2. Simpler operations
3. Increased use of convenience foods

The information that will be required before beginning kitchen planning will be:

1. What type of meal is offered?
2. How many persons will he served?
3. Meal timings and how many sittings.
4. What type of service?
5. Will convenience foods be used?
6. Is allowance to be made for special functions/seasons?

Area Requirements: It is possible that kitchen space will be reduced to provide more seating capacity in the restaurant. However cramped, inadequate kitchens will lead to delays and faults in service. This will invariably affect the turnover. Inadequate facilities will also affect staff morale. Kitchen areas will depend on the type of service. Normally a kitchen will occupy between 25%-33% of the space allotted to the restaurant. Whereas 10-12 sq. ft. per cover is the norm in the restaurant, the kitchen space is generally 2½–4 sq. per cover. In smaller establishments this will go up to 6-9 sq. ft. per cover. Generally ¼th the kitchen area is set aside for storage. The remaining is divided between food pre-preparation, cooking and service.



RECEIVING AND PREPARATION AND STORAGE AREAS

Receiving area: The receiving area should be large and convenient enough to receive the volume and type of goods delivered. The receiving clerk must inspect all items before acceptance. The receiving area should be located near the entrance to the storage area so that once checked, goods can be stored quickly.

Delivery Quay: The delivery quay will be situated near the store and will consist of a platform of lorry level for easy unloading. It should be well lit, and fitted with anti-pest fans and an air curtain at the door. A water connection with hosepipe will ensure easy regular cleaning. Trolleys must be kept for easy unloading and cartage.

Gas Bank: If cylinders are used, these must, be kept outside. Incase of a gas tank the distance from the building must be at least 150 yards. A daily check of gas shelters and tank is necessary as a safety measure.

Garbage Disposal: Wet and dry garbage must be stored separately. Wet garbage is stored in containers in a cool area to prevent fermentation and smell. Dry garbage can be incinerated. Disposal of garbage must be on a daily basis. Garbage areas must be cleaned daily, then disinfected and deodorized.

Central stores: Dry stores must be maintained at 70ºF (21º C). Lightweight items could be stored on top of shelves and heavy weight items at the bottom. Cases/Cartons can be stored either on shelves or pallets. Nothing should be stored on the floor. 8” height above the floor will ensure easy cleaning. Shelves should not touch the wall. A 2” space must be maintained.

The Cold Room: Many foodstuffs will have to be maintained at refrigerated temperatures. There are two types of cold rooms:
1. Negative cold room (freezer) with an ideal temperature of -18ºC.
2. Positive cold room (walk-in) with a temperature of 3ºC- 5ºC.
Recommended temperatures for various food stuffs:
Meat 0-1ºC
Fish 2-3ºC
Dairy 4-5ºC
Veg. & Fruits 6-7ºC

Vegetable Pre-preparation Area: The work here consists of:
1. Washing and Cleaning.
2. Paring and Trimming
3. Cutting, Chopping etc.
Use of frozen vegetables will determine the area required here. This room is sometimes air-conditioned, and in small establishments will be combined with the Butchery.

The Butchery: It is an air-conditioned room for meat pre-preparation. Bone saws, weighing scales and butchers blocks will be provided. The butchery must be situated close to the freezer. Non slip flooring is essential and flycatchers must be installed.

The Larder: The larder must be situated near to but separate from the kitchen. It must be air-conditioned, well lit and well equipped.

COOKING AREA

In this area, raw materials and pre-prepared goods are turned into finished products. This area can range from a simple kitchen to a more complex group or sections or even satellites.

- Pastry/Confectionery - Bakeshop
- Short order kitchen - Pantry
- Hot Kitchen - Main Kitchen

The Bake Shop- The control of costs and quality of desserts and breads sold in hotels is very important for successful operation. In a small hotel, this will be a corner of the main kitchen whereas in big hotels, this will be a separate fully equipped department. There are two sections

Hot: equipped mainly with ovens (single, double decker or triple tier) (convection or conventional), racks, dough mixer, food processor and will provide all bread, cakes and gateaux.

Cold: is equipped with refrigerated marbles, laminators, ice-cream machines, and food processors. It is usually air-conditioned, and provides all the desserts.

The Pantry- As the name suggests all the short orders are executed from here. These will include sandwiches, icecreams and beverages. Quick service equipment, such as toasters, juicers and shakers will be provided.

The Main Kitchen- Known as the heart of the kitchen. The area is divided into work islands where various jobs will be performed.

A) Roasting and Baking
B) Grilling
C) Frying

The equipment must be placed so as to avoid unnecessary movement. Bain Maries must be located near the gas ranges. Exhaust fans are essential. Good lighting, non-slip floors, and easy-to-clean walls are necessary.
In a classical organization the main kitchen is divided according to partie system. But in India it is divided according to the cuisine. E.g. Continental, Chinese, Indian.

SERVICE AND WASH-UP AREA
The Service Area is situated between the kitchen and the restaurant and has the following functions.
1. Cleans dirty equipment corning from the restaurant or floors.
2. Supplies clean equipment to the restaurant and kitchen.
3. Calling point for food orders.
4. Delivery of food.
5. Cashiering.

Issuing meals to the restaurant is carried out in this area. A kitchen clerk called the Aboyeur is stationed at the survey counter throughout the meal period. On receipt of the waiter’s check (KOT) he announces in a loud and clear voice the order with special instructions. The section must acknowledge the order in return. Most orders are executed in parts (en suite.)

The Cashier prepares the bills and gives it to the waiter for presentation. The paid check and cash is returned to the cashier who will stamp it with a PAID stamp. A dispense bar is also situated in this area for drinks in the restaurant and in rooms

The Wash-up Area: Dish washing has a high rate of importance because of its significance in sanitation and hygiene. The wash-up area consists of three parts, manned by the kitchen steward.

a) Loading – dirty equipment is pre-washed and loaded on baskets/trays for machine or hand washing.
b) Washing – consists of cleaning, rinsing and sanitizing.
c) Unloading – The clean equipment is kept on racks, picked by waiters or delivered by stewards.

Pre-rinsing calls for water of a warm temperature. 120º F will melt fat but not cook foods firmly onto the surfaces.

The washing temperature must be 140º F hot enough for effective cleaning action. Sanitizing calls for a temperature of 180º F for 10 seconds. In small hotels, dish washing is done manually, but the process is the same. Ideally separate workers should be provided for handling dirty and clean dishes. To ensure effective dish washing water temperatures must be maintained, detergent concentration should be effective and correct handling procedures followed.
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Working as an Associate Professor & HOD - Food Production since past 4 years, I realised that there isn't any single handy book to refer for Food Production Theory notes. Thus the students have to gather material from various sources. This is an attempt to stream line data for a one stop shop for all hotel mgt.students.
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