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Food Production Theory Notes
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VOLUME FEEDING (Quantity Food Production)

The difference between small and mass food production is very difficult to define. Most food standards, principles and large number of techniques are the same. Some define quantity food production (for volume feeding ) as the production of 25 or more portions. A report compiled by the National Restaurants Association, lists food service units under two major groupings

Commercial or those establishments which are open to the public, are operated for profit and which may operate facilities and / or supply mela service on a regular basis for others.

Non-commercial (as employee feeding in schools, industrial and non-commercial organizations), education, government of institutional organizations which run their own food service operations. Food services in schools and universities, hospitals and other transportation armed services, industrial plants and correctional units are in the second group and may not show a profit or even balance out financially at the break even point.

SALIENT FEATURES
To serve hygienically prepared wholesome food.
Food is primarily as a service to complement their other activities and contribute to the fulfilment of the objectives of the institute.

Cyclic menus
Not profit oriented
Educational experience for those who are involved as they happen to experience different regional cuisine through the cyclic menus. As a result, the food habits become more flexible.
Quantity control quantity control and portion control are very important. A good quality standard, should cover essential characteristics that indicate quality in a product. Quality control programmes make it possible to serve as a consistent standard. Employee evaluation, taste panel, scoring customer reaction and other menus can be used to evaluate quality.
Good purchase specifications and finding the right product to suit the production need can do much to raise and maintain the quality standards.
Proper forecasting of quantities needed in production and controlling portion size are two essentials of good quality controls. Portion size varies according to food, type of meal and patron, cost of the food, appearance. Adults, teenagers and small children consume different quantities and portion sizes vary from them. Men eat more than women, an individual doing hard work eats more than other doing sedentary tasks.
Giving liberal quantities of less costly foods and smaller ones of the more expensive foods can be practised. The portion appearance is affected by the portion size and shape of the dish, decoration and width of the rim, dish colour and food arrangement.

QUALITY OF A GOOD PARTY CATERER :- The success of any catering service depends upon the person behind the venture. He must have good contact with the people who will be most likely to make use of his services. He must be able to perform these services satisfactorily and must employ suitable, efficient and capable staff. Most important he must be able to serve tasty, eye appealing food deliver it to its destination on time at right temperature.

COMPLEXITIES OF PARTY CATERING :- Party catering like other skilled technical jobs is highly specialised job. While profit is an interesting part of the catering industry, the multitude of activities throwing a challenge to the caterer, is the difficult side of the coin. If careful consideration is given to certain small details and the people concerned take active participation. It will increase turnover, improve profits and generally enhance the reputation of the caterer. There are no get standard procedures and formula for a successful caterer. Procedures and techniques vary from job to job to place and according to the requirement of the occasion. The facilities available and the cost factor also plays an important role.

PLANNING OF THE MENU :- The arrangement of a suitable menu, perfect from all points of view necessary for any successful party catering. The caterer must be an individualist full of novel ideas and must be able to pressure them profitable for the company and attractively for the client. The dishes chosen should be fhuirless in quality rasry in and attractive in appearance. Equally important is the cost of the dishes.
Nothing could be more disappointing and irritating to the guest as being served a dish smaller in portion size than he was tole at the time of booking the party. This could be avoided if the price of an item is given along with its portion size. Every party, whether for 20 or for 2000 must be a speciality and different from anything that has gone before. Clients seldom come to the caterer and ask him to arrange a party like the one they have had before, usually suggestions are wanted to make the party different, something that is unique and will be talked about. The following points will help in thoughtful planning of the menu.
Planning well in advance will ensure minimum amount of repetition of the dishes.
Planning a menu for a definite cycle of time have been found to be different.
Variation must be produced by serving different vegetables and meats having a colour contrast.
Seasonal availability is very important as parties are booked in advance.
Nutritional balance must be ensured.
It must fir within the budget of the customer and to his satisfaction.
Equipment and personal must be adequate for the party.
The menu must adhere to the established standards of service and must ensure quality and variety of the food.
It helps to procure stores in advance.
The occasion for which the catering is done is an important factor and so the pattern of food will change accordingly.
To be successful, the menu must reflect the eating habits and expectations of the restaurant market. The tastes of customers are complex and varied and change from day to day and time to time.

EQUIPMENT : - These may include an assortment of good china, for special occasions such as weddings and anniversaries, good hollow ware and flatware, attractive glass and silverware, serving dishes of all kinds and sizes, good quality linen and all kinds and types of buffet service equipment. These are the items that the guest see and by which they judge and catering establishment. For storage and transportation of these equipment, it is important to have special boxes where the equipment will fit. There are many kinds and types of kitchen equipment, such as insulated carriers for soup, coffee and other beverages. There are containers to carry ice cubes, portable hot cases to keep food warm and also portable griddles. Caterers could also hire out tables, chairs and other accessories on a contract basis.

CHECK LIST :- Various check list help the caterers in smooth and systematic functioning of the parties. Server should be informed before service on the size of the portion by weight, Volume or count. The dish in which they are served, the serving tool etc.
The use of standard recipe offers a sound basis for controlled portioning and the achievement of a uniform product.
In almost all organisations where they have to cater to a large group of people, the kitchen as well as the service areas will be well equipped. The personnel handling the food will also be educated in the field of food production, nutrition, hygiene and service.

MENU PLANNING IN VOLUME CATERING
In volume catering units, the main factors influencing the planning of menus are as follows :
1. Cost :- This is one of the main considerations in menu planning. The cost of the menu should be within the budgeted allowance of any unit to be economically viable, whether it is run on a profit or non profit basis.
2. Ease of preparation :- Since mass catering units provide for large numbers, case of preparation of any dish must be considered. Elaborate preparation is time consuming and may result in delays in service of prepared foods leading to bad customer relations and appearance of inefficiency.
3. Incorporation of leftovers :- Menus for mass catering should be planned in such a way that any leftovers from one meal can be incorporated in the next meal so as to avoid abnormal wastage, reduce food cost.
4. Cyclic menus :- Menus should be planned in sets for a fortnight or for a month. This is then repeated all over again for ease in operations. Menus can be changed after such periods and seasonal foods can be incorporated. This will help provide variety economically.
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INDIAN COOKERY (Quantity Food Production)

Think of India and one of the first things that comes to mind is its diversity. A large country, its population is second only to China, its languages are numerous and every state (of which there are 28 and seven Union territories) is unique in its traditions and very importantly, its food. In fact, food from one region may actually be totally alien to a person from another region! The common thread that runs through most Indian food though, is the use of numerous spices to create flavor and aroma. 

The culture of food
Indians take their food very seriously. Cooking is considered an art and mothers usually begin to teach their daughters and pass down family recipes by show-and-tell, fairly young in life. Mealtimes are important occasions for family to get together. Most meals comprise of several dishes ranging from staples like rice and breads to meat and vegetables and rounded off with a dessert. In a lot of Indian homes, foods are made from scratch with fresh ingredients. For example, some families buy their favorite type of wheat, wash it, dry it in the sun and then take it in to a flourmill to have it ground into flour exactly the way they like, as opposed to buying flour from a store! This is changing in bigger cities where people have increasingly hectic lives and are happy to use ready-to-eat, pre-made ingredients. 
To eat (meat) or not to eat?
To the western mind, India is perceived as largely vegetarian. This is not necessarily true. To a larger extent, religious beliefs (as compared to personal preference) dictate what a person cannot eat. For example, Islam forbids its followers from eating pork while a lot of Hindus do not eat beef. Followers of the Jain faith abstain from all meats and even avoid onions and garlic! 

The matter of influence
Throughout history India has been invaded and occupied by other cultures and each has left its own mark on Indian cuisine. Some of the predominant influences have been: 
•  Aryan - which focused on the mind-, body-enhancing properties of foods; 
•  Persian and Arab - which led to the Mughal style of cooking with rich, thick gravies and the use of dry fruits like cashews and almonds in dishes; 
•  British - which gave India its love of tea and put the European twist into some dishes. Anglo-Indian cuisine was the delicious result; 
•  Portuguese – which left its mark on parts of India in the form of dishes like the world-renowned Vindaloo and Xacuti.

As a land that has experienced extensive immigration and intermingling through many millennia, India's cuisine has benefited from numerous food influences. The diverse climate in the region, ranging from deep tropical to alpine, has also helped considerably broaden the set of ingredients readily available to the many schools of cookery in India. In many cases, food has become a marker of religious and social identity, with varying taboos and preferences (for instance, a segment of the Jain population will not consume any roots or subterranean vegetables; see Jain vegetarianism). One strong influence over Indian foods is the longstanding vegetarianism within sections of India's Hindu, Buddhist and Jain communities. People who follow a strict vegetarian diet make up 20–42% of the population in India, while less than 30% are regular meat-eaters.

Around 7000 BC, sesame, eggplant, and humped cattle had been domesticated in the Indus Valley. By 3000 BC, turmeric, cardamom, black pepper and mustard were harvested in India.  Many recipes first emerged during the initial Vedic period, when India was still heavily forested and agriculture was complemented with game hunting and forest produce. In Vedic times, a normal diet consisted of fruit, vegetables, meat, grain, dairy products and honey. Over time, some segments of the population embraced vegetarianism, due to ancient Hindu philosophy of ahimsa. This practice gained more popularity following the advent of Buddhism and a cooperative climate where variety of fruits, vegetables, and grains could easily be grown throughout the year. A food classification system that categorised any item as saatvic, raajsic or taamsic developed in Ayurveda. Each was deemed to have a powerful effect on the body and the mind
Later, invasions from Central Asia, Arabia, the Mughal empire, and Persia, and others had a deep and fundamental effect on Indian cooking. Influence from traders such as the Arab and Portuguese diversified subcontinental tastes and meals. As with other cuisines, Indian cuisine has absorbed the new-world vegetables such as tomato, chilli, and potato, as staples. These are actually relatively recent additions.

Islamic rule introduced rich gravies, pilafs and non-vegetarian fare such as kebabs, resulting in Mughlai cuisine (Mughal in origin), as well as such fruits as apricots, melons, peaches, and plums. The Mughals were great patrons of cooking. Lavish dishes were prepared during the reigns of Jahangir and Shah Jahan. The Nizams of Hyderabad state meanwhile developed and perfected their own style of cooking with the most notable dish being the Biryani.
During this period the Portuguese and British introduced foods from the New World such as potatoes, tomatoes, squash, and chilies as well as cooking techniques like baking.

Elements
 A typical assortment of spices and herbs used in Indian cuisine
The staples of Indian cuisine are rice, atta (whole wheat flour), and a variety of pulses, the most important of which are masoor (most often red lentil), chana (bengal gram), toor (pigeon pea or yellow gram), urad (black gram) and mung (green gram). Pulses may be used whole, dehusked, for example dhuli moong or dhuli urad, or split. Pulses are used extensively in the form of dal (split). Some of the pulses like chana and "Mung" are also processed into flour (besan).
Most Indian curries are cooked in vegetable oil. In North and West India, groundnut oil has traditionally been most popular for cooking, while in Eastern India, Mustard oil is more commonly used. In South India, coconut oil and Gingelly Oil is common. In recent decades, sunflower oil and soybean oil have gained popularity all over India. Hydrogenated vegetable oil, known as Vanaspati ghee, is also a popular cooking medium that replaces Desi ghee, clarified butter (the milk solids have been removed).

The most important/frequently used spices in Indian cuisine are chilli pepper, black mustard seed (rai), cumin (jeera), turmeric (haldi, manjal), fenugreek (methi), asafoetida (hing, perungayam), ginger (adrak, inji), coriander, and garlic (lassan, poondu). Popular spice mixes are garam masala which is usually a powder of five or more dried spices, commonly including cardamom, cinnamon, and clove. Each region, and sometimes each individual chef, has a distinctive blend of Garam Masala. Goda Masala is a popular spice mix in Maharashtra. Some leaves are commonly used like tejpat (cassia leaf), coriander leaf, fenugreek leaf and mint leaf. The common use of curry leaves is typical of all South Indian cuisine. In sweet dishes, cardamom, nutmeg, saffron, and rose petal essence are used.

The term "curry" is usually understood to mean "gravy" in India, rather than "spices." The term Desi Diet indicates a Diet followed by Indians.
Popularity and influence outside India
 
Chicken tikka, a well-known dish across the globe, reflects the amalgamation of Indian cooking styles with those from Central Asia
Indian cuisine is one of the most popular cuisines across the globe. The cuisine is popular not only among the large Indian diaspora but also among the mainstream population of North America and Europe. In 2003, there were as many as 10,000 restaurants serving Indian cuisine in the United States alone. A survey held in 2007 revealed that more than 1,200 Indian food products have been introduced in the United States since 2000. According to Britain's Food Standards Agency, Indian food industry in the United Kingdom is worth £3.2 billion, accounts for two-thirds of all eating out and serves about 2.5 million British customers every week. 
 
Butter Chicken, also known as Murgh Makhani, is a popular dish in Western countries and Arab world.
Apart from Europe and North America, Indian cuisine is popular in South East Asia too because of its strong historical influence on the region's local cuisines. Indian cuisine has had considerable influence on Malaysian cooking styles and also enjoys strong popularity in Singapore. Indian influence on Malay cuisine dates back to 19-century. Other cuisines which borrow Indian cooking styles include Vietnamese cuisine, Indonesian cuisine and Thai cuisine. The spread of vegetarianism in other parts of Asia is often credited to ancient Indian Buddhist practices. Indian cuisine is also fairly popular in the Arab world because of its similarity and influence on Arab cuisine. 

The popularity of curry, which originated in India, across Asia has often led to the dish being labeled as the "pan-Asian" dish. Curry's international appeal has also been compared to that of pizza. Though the tandoor did not originate in India, Indian tandoori dishes, such as chicken tikka made with Indian ingredients, enjoy widespread popularity. Historically, Indian spices and herbs were one of the most sought after trade commodities. The spice trade between India and Europe led to the rise and dominance of Arab traders to such an extent that European explorers, such as Vasco da Gama and Christopher Columbus, set out to find new trade routes with India leading to the Age of Discovery.

Most Indian cuisine is related by the similar usage of spices and the use of a greater variety of vegetables than many other cuisines. Religious and caste restrictions, weather, geography and the impact of foreigners have affected the eating habits of Indians. 
For example, Brahmins (one of the highest orders of caste) are strict vegetarians usually, but in the coastal states of West Bengal and Kerala, they consume a lot of fish. Southern Indians generally speaking, have been orthodox in their tastes, probably because eating meat when it is hot all year round can be difficult. In the North, the weather varies from a scorching heat to a nail-biting cold, with a sprinkling of showers in between. So, the food here is quite rich and heavy. Also, the Mughal influence has resulted in meat-eating habits among many North Indians. Also, a variety of flours are used to make different types of breads like chapathis, rotis, phulkas, puris and naan.
In the arid areas of Rajasthan and Gujarat, a great variety of dals and preserves (achars) are used to substitute the lack of fresh vegetables and fruits. Tamilian food uses a lot of tamarind to impart sourness to a dish, whereas Andhra food can be really chili-hot. It is believed that a hot and spicy curry may be one of the best ways to combat the flu virus! From, ancient times Indian food has been on principle, divided into the Satwik and Rajsik kinds. The former was the food of the higher castes like the Brahmins and was supposed to be more inclined towards spirituality and health. It included vegetables and fruits but, not onions, garlic, root vegetables and mushrooms. The more liberal Rajsik food allowed eating just about anything under the sun, with the exception of beef. The warrior-kings like the Rajputs whose main requirements were strength and power ate this food.

Just as Japanese sushi relies on the freshness of the meat and Chinese food relies on the various sauces to impart the right flavor and taste, Indian food relies on the spices in which it is cooked. Spices have always been considered to be India’s prime commodity. It is interesting to see an Indian cook at work, with a palette of spices, gratuitously sprinkling these powders in exact pinches into the dish in front of him/her. A foreigner can discover the many differences in the foods of various regions only after landing in India, as most of the Indian food available abroad, is the North Indian and Pakistani type. The variation in Indian food from region to region can be quite staggering.


Many Indian dishes require an entire day’s preparation of cutting vegetables, pounding spices on a stone or just sitting patiently by the fire for hours on end. On the other hand, there are simple dishes which are ideal for everyday eating.

Eating from a ‘thali’(a metal plate or banana leaf) is quite common in most parts of India. Both the North Indian and South Indian thali contain small bowls arranged inside the rim of the plate(or leaf), each filled with a different sort of spiced vegetarian food, curd and sweet. At the center of the thali you would find a heap of rice, some puris(wheat bread rolled into small circular shapes and deep-fried in hot oil) or chapathis(wheat bread rolled out into large circular shapes and shallow-fried over a hot ‘tava). Indians wash their hands immediately after and before eating a meal as it is believed that food tastes better when eaten with one’s hands.
‘Paan’ is served as a digestive after some meals. The dark-green leaf of the betel-pepper plant is smeared with a little bit of lime and wrapped around a combination of spices like crushed betel-nuts, cardamom, aniseed, sugar and grated coconut. It is an astringent and is believed to help in clearing the system. Mumbai is known to be a good place for connoisseurs of paan.

An everyday meal of a Punjabi farmer would be centered around bread, corn bread, greens and buttermilk(lassi). Buttermilk is whipped yogurt, and can be had sweetened or with salt and is usually very thick. Wheat is the staple food here. Shredded vegetables mixed with spices and stuffed into the dough, which is then rolled and roasted to make the delicious stuffed parathas. Some Punjabis also eat meat dishes, an Indian cottage cheese called paneer, pilaus garnished with fried onions and roasted nuts like cashew and topped with silver leaf and rose petals. Another specialty from this region is ‘khoya’ a kind of thick cream, mainly used in the preparation of sweets. ‘Tandoori’ food, a favorite with many foreigners is a gift from the Punjab. Various meats are marinated with spices, ginger and garlic pastes and curd and roasted over a primitive clay-pot(tandoor) with a wood-fire burning underneath. The special wheat bread cooked over the tandoor is called ‘Naan’. 

In the beautiful and rich valley of Kashmir, all dishes are built around the main course of rice. A thick-leafed green leafy vegetable called ‘hak’ grows in abundance here and is used to make the delicious ‘saag’. The boat-dwelling people use the lotus roots as a substitute for meat. Morel mushrooms called ‘gahchi’ are harvested and consumed around summer time. The tea drunk in Kashmir is not orange pekoe or Twinning, but a spice-scented green tea called ‘kahava’, which is poured from a large metal kettle, called ‘samovar’. Fresh fish found in the many lakes and streams here are also consumed with relish. Lamb and poultry are cooked in the Mughlai style. The Kashmiri equivalent of the thali is a 36-course meal called the ‘waazwaan’. 

Bengalis eat a lot of fish and one of the delicacies called the ‘hilsa’ is spiced and wrapped in pumpkin leaf and cooked. Another unusual ingredient used in Bengali cooking is the bamboo shoot. Milk sweets from this region like the Roshgolla, Sandesh, Cham-cham are world famous. In the south of India, rice is eaten for breakfast, lunch and dinner. Raw rice, parboiled rice, Basmathi rice are some of the different types of rice eaten here. Parboiled rice is raw rice treated through a process wherein the ingredients and aroma of the husk are forced into the rice. Steamed rice dumplings or idlis, roasted rice pancakes or dosais are eaten along with coconut chutneys for breakfast. A dosai stuffed with spiced potatoes, vegetables or even minced lamb constitutes the famous ‘masala dosai’. Coconut, either in a shredded, grated or blended form is a must in most dishes here. Tender coconut water is drunk for it’s cooling effect(now available in most supermarkets in cartons) on the system. The Chettinad dishes from Tamil Nadu consist of a lot of meat and poultry cooked in tamarind and roasted spices. 

Most Andhra food tends to be quite hot and spicy. Eating a banana or yogurt after such a meal can quench the fires raging within the system. Hyderabad, the capital city, is the home of the Muslim Nawabs (rulers) and is famous for its superb biryani, simply delicious grilled kebabs, kurmas and rich desserts (made with apricots).

In Bombay (Mumbai), the food is a happy combination of north and south. Both rice and wheat are included in their diets. A lot of fish is available along the long coastline and the Bombay Prawn and Pomfret preparations are delicious. Further down south along the coast, in Goa, a Portuguese influence is evident in dishes like the sweet and sour Vindaloo, duck baffad, sorpotel and egg moilie.

In Kerala, lamb stew and appams, Malabar fried prawns and idlis, fish molie and dosai, rice puttu and sweetened coconut milk are the many combinations eaten at breakfast. Puttu is glutinous rice powder steamed like a pudding in a bamboo shoot.
Sweets are very popular all over India and are usually cooked in a lot of fat. ‘Jalebis’, luscious pretzel shaped loops fried to a golden crisp and soaked in saffron syrup can be had from any street vendor in North India. ‘Kheer’ or ‘payasam’ are equivalents of the rice pudding and ‘Kulfi’ is an Indian ice cream made in conical moulds and frozen. 

Tea is drunk as a beverage in India. Tea from the hills of Darjeeling and Kalimpong are boiled in milk and water and served with a liberal dose of sugar. Filtered coffee is a favorite among South Indians and is a very sweet, milky version of coffee. 

Many varieties of foreign whiskies, rum, even Tequila is available in India now. Indian beers like ‘Kingfisher’ and ‘Kalyani’ are mild in comparison to the Australian ones. Indian wines have begun making a foray into the market now. ‘Grover vineyards’ have a good red and a decent pink. One doesn't need an alcohol permit to consume liquor here, but permits are issued on request. The ‘All India Liquor Permit’ is an interesting document that states the ‘requirement for a person to drink for medical reasons’. Prohibition has been imposed in some states like Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and Haryana. Among the local spirits available here is the famous ‘Feni’ from Goa concocted from cashew and coconuts (an ideal beach drink). ‘Toddy’ is tapped from coconut palms and is best drunk in the early hours of the morning. ‘Tharra’ is a deadly drink made from cane, orange or pineapple. This can make you stink to glory and is famous for it’s killing capabilities. 

Most of the spices used in Indian food have been used for their medicinal properties in addition to the flavor and taste they impart. Ginger is believed to have originated in India and was introduced to China over 3000 years ago. In India, a knob of fresh ginger added to tea is believed to relieve sore throats and head colds, not to mention its aphrodisiac properties! Turmeric is splendid against skin diseases and neem leaves are used to guard against small pox. 

It is these complexities of regional food in India that make it a so very fascinating try! 
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LIAISON WITH FOOD SUPPLIERS

There are certain important factors involved in a successful working relationship with food suppliers. Both parties have responsibilities that must be carried out to ensure proper food safety and quality. Food-borne illness incidents, regardless of the cause, have an impact on the reputation of caterers and suppliers’ business will be lost. A good working relationship and knowledge of each other’s responsibilities is a major help in avoiding such incidents.
Suppliers must be aware of what is expected of the product. They must also make sure that the caterer is aware of any food safety limitations associated with the product. These are usually stated on all labeling. Such statements may just simply say ‘keep refrigerated’ or ‘keep frozen’, others might well include a graph or chart of the projected shelf-life at different storage temperatures. The responsibility for meeting these specifications is an important factor in a successful catering operation.

FOOD PURCHASING
Once a menu is planned, a number of activities must occur to bring it into reality. One of the first and most important stages is to purchase and receive the materials needed to produce the menu items. Skillful purchasing with good receiving can do much to maximize the results of a good menu. There are six important steps to remember:

 know the market;
 design the purchase procedures;
 determine purchasing needs;
 receive and check the goods;
 establish and use specifications;
 evaluate the purchasing task

Knowing the market
Since markets vary considerably, to do a good job of purchasing a buyer must know the
Characteristics of each market
A market is a place in which ownership of commodity changes from one person to another.
This could occur using the telephone, on a street corner, in a retail or wholesale establishment or at an auction.
It is important that a food and beverage purchaser has knowledge of the items to be purchased, such as:
 where they are grown;
 seasons of production;
 approximate costs;
 conditions of supply and demand;
 laws and regulations governing the market and the products;
 marketing agents and their services;
 processing;
 storage requirements
 commodity and product, class and grade


The buyer
This is the key person who makes decisions regarding quality, amounts, price, what will satisfy the customers but also make a profit. The wisdom of the buyer’s decisions will be reflected in the success or failure of the operation. The buyer must not only be knowledgeable about the products, but must have the necessary skills required in dealing with sales people, suppliers and other market agents. The buyer must be prepared for hard and often aggressive negotiations.
The responsibility for buying varies from company to company according to the size and management policy. Buying may be the responsibility of the chef, manager, storekeeper, buyer or buying department.
A buyer must have knowledge of the internal organisation of the company, especially the operational needs and to be able to obtain the product needs at a competitive price. Buyers must also acquaint themselves with the procedures of production and how these items are going to be used in the production operations, in order that the right item is purchased. For example, the item required may not always have to be of prime quality, for example tomatoes for soups and sauces.
A buyer must also be able to make good use of market conditions. For example, if there is a glut of fresh salmon at low cost, has the organisation the facility to make use of the extra salmon purchases? Is there sufficient freezer space? Can the chef make use of salmon, by creating a demand on the menu?

Buying methods
These depend on the type of market and the kind of operation. Purchasing procedures are usually formal or informal. Both have advantages and disadvantages. Informal methods are suitable for casual buying, where the amount involved is not large and speed and simplicity are desirable. Formal contracts are best for large contracts for commodities purchased over a long period of time. Prices do not vary much during a year, once the basic price has been established. Prices and supply tend to fluctuate with informal methods.

INFORMAL BUYING
This usually involves oral negotiations, talking directly to sales people, face to face or using the telephone. Informal methods vary according to market conditions.

FORMAL BUYING
Known as competitive buying, formal buying involves giving suppliers written specifications and quantity needs. Negotiations are normally written.

Selecting suppliers
Selecting suppliers is important in the purchasing process. Firstly consider how a supplier will be able to meet the needs of your operation. Consider:

 Price
 Delivery
 Quality / Standards.

Information on suppliers can be obtained from other purchasers. Visits to suppliers’ establishments are to be encouraged. When interviewing prospective suppliers, you need to question how reliable a supplier will be under competition and how stable under varying market conditions.
Principles of purchasing
A menu dictates an operation’s needs Based on this the buyer searches for a market that can supply the company. After the right market is located, the various products available that may meet the needs are then investigated. The right product must be obtained to meet the need and give the right quality desired by the establishment. Other factors that might affect production needs include:

 type and image of the establishment;
 style of operation and system of service;
 occasion for which the item is needed;
 amount of storage available (dry, refrigerated or frozen);
 finance available and supply policies of the organisation;
 availability, seasonability, price trends and supply

The skill of the employees, catering assistants, chefs, must also be taken into account as well as condition and the processing method; the ability of the product to produce the item or dish required; the storage life of the product.

THREE TYPES OF NEEDS
• Perishable: fresh fruit and vegetables, dairy products, meat and fish; prices and suppliers may vary; informal needs of buying are frequently used; perishables should be purchased to meet menu needs for a short period only.

• Staple: supplies canned, bottled, dehydrated, frozen products; formal or informal purchasing may be used; because items are staple and can be easily stored, bid buying is frequently used to take advantage of quantity price purchasing.

• Daily use needs: daily use or contract items are delivered frequently on par stock basis; stocks are kept up to the desired level and supply is automatic; suppliers may be daily, several times a week, weekly or less often; most items are perishable, therefore supplies must not be excessive but only sufficient to get through to the next delivery.

WHAT QUANTITY AND QUALITY
Determining quantity and quality of items to be purchased is important. This is based on the operational needs. The buyer must be informed by the chef or other members of the production team of the products needed. The chef and his or her team must establish the quality and they should be required to inspect the goods on arrival. The buyer with this information then checks out the market and looks for the best quality and best price. Delivery arrangements and other factors will be handled by the buyer. In smaller establishments the chef may also be the buyer. When considering the quantity needed, certain factors should be known:

 the number of people to be served in a given period;
 the sales history;
 portion sizes (this is determined from yield testing a standard portion control list drawn up by the chef and management teams)

Buyers need to know production, often to be able to decide how many portions a given size may yield. He or she must also understand the various yields. Cooking shrinkage may vary causing problems in portion control and yield.
The chef must inform the buyer of quantities. The buyer must be aware also of different packaging sizes, such as jars, bottles, cans and the yield from each package. Grades, styles, appearance, composition, varieties, quality factors must be indicated, such as:

 Colour
 Bruising
 texture
 irregular shape
 size
 maturity
 absence of defects

Quality standards should be established by the chef and management team when the menu is planned. Menus and recipes may be developed using standardised recipes which directly relate to the buying procedure and standard purchasing specifications.

Buying tips
The following is a list of suggestions to assist the buyer:
 Acquire, and keep up to date, a sound knowledge of all commodities, both fresh and convenience, to be purchased.
 Be aware of the different types and qualities of each commodity that is available.
 When buying fresh commodities, be aware of part-prepared and ready-prepared items available on the market.
 Keep a sharp eye on price variations. Buy at the best price to ensure the required quality and also an economic yield. The cheapest item may prove to be the most expensive if waste is excessive. When possible order by number and weight:
20 kg plaice could be:
80 X 250 g (8 oz) plaice
40 X 500 g (1 lb) plaice
20 X 1 kg (2.2 lb) plaice

It could also be 20 kg total weight of various sizes and this makes efficient portion control difficult. Some suppliers (butchers, fishmongers) may offer portion control service by selling the required number of a given weight of certain cuts:

100 X 150 g (6 oz) sirloin steaks
25 kg (50 lb) prepared stewing beef
200 X 100 g (4 oz) pieces of turbot fillet
500 X 100 g (4 oz) plaice fillets

 Organise an efficient system of ordering with copies of all orders kept for cross checking, whether orders are given in writing, verbally or by telephone.
 Compare purchasing by retail, wholesale and contract procedures to ensure the best method is selected for your own particular organisation.
 Explore all possible suppliers: local or markets, town or country, small or large.
 Keep the number of suppliers to a minimum. At the same time have at least two suppliers for every group of commodities, when possible. The principle of having competition for the caterer’s business is sound.
 Issue all orders to suppliers fairly, allowing sufficient time for the order to be implemented efficiently.
 Request price lists as frequently as possible and compare prices continually to make sure that you buy at a good market price.
 Buy perishable goods when they are in full season as this gives the best value at the cheapest price. To help with the purchasing of the correct quantities, it is useful to compile a purchasing chart for 100 covers from which items can be divided or multiplied according to requirement. Indication of quality standards can also be inserted in a chart of this kind.
 Deliveries must all be checked against the orders given for quantity, quality and price. If any goods delivered are below an acceptable standard they must be returned either for replacement or credit.
 Containers can account for large sums of money. Ensure that all the containers are correctly stored, returned to the suppliers and the proper credit given.
 All invoices must be checked for quantities and prices.
 All statements must be checked against invoices and passed swiftly to the office so that payment may be made in time to ensure maximum discount on the purchases.
 Foster good relations with trade representatives because much useful up-to-date information can be gained from them.
 Keep up-to-date trade catalogues, visit trade exhibitions, survey new equipment and continually review the space, services and systems in use in order to explore possible avenues of increased efficiency.
 Organise a testing panel occasionally in order to keep up to date with new commodities and new products coming on to the market.

METHODS OF PURCHASING
There are three main methods for buying, each depending on the size and volume of the business.
 The primary market: raw materials may be purchased at the source of supply, the grower, producer or manufacturer, or from central markets such as Smithfield (meat), Nine Elms (fruit and vegetables) or Billingsgate (fish) in London. Some establishments or large organisations will have a buyer who will buy directly from the primary markets. Also, a number of smaller establishments may adopt this method for some of their needs (the chef patron may buy his fish, meat and vegetables directly from the market).
 The secondary market: goods are bought wholesale from a distributor or middle man; the catering establishment will pay wholesale prices and obtain possible discounts.
 The tertiary market: the retail or cash and carry warehouse is a method suitable for smaller companies. A current pass obtained from the warehouse is required in order to gain access. This method also requires the user to have his or her own transport. Some cash and carry organisations require a VAT number before they will issue an authorised card. It is important to remember that there are added costs:
1. running the vehicle and petrol used;
2. the person’s time for going to the warehouse

Cash and carry is often an impersonal way of buying as there is no staff to discuss quality and prices.
Standard purchasing specifications
Standard purchasing specifications are documents which are drawn up for every commodity describing exactly what is required for the establishment. These standard purchasing specifications will assist with the formulation of standardised recipes. A watertight specification is drawn up which, once approved, will be referred to every time the item is delivered. It is a statement of various criteria related to quality, grade, weight, size and method of preparation, if required, such as washed and selected potatoes for baking. Other information given may be variety, maturity, age, colour, shape, etc. A copy of standard specification is often given to the supplier and the storekeepers who are left in no doubt as to what is needed. These specifications assist in the costing and control procedures.

Commodities which can be specified include:
 Grown (primary): butchers meat; fresh fish; fresh fruit and vegetables; milk and eggs.
 Manufactured (secondary): bakery goods; dairy products.
 Processed (tertiary): frozen foods including meat, fish and fruit and vegetables; dried goods; canned goods.
It can be seen that any food product can have a specification attached to it. However, the primary specifications focus on raw materials, ensuring the quality of these commodities. Without quality at this level, a secondary or tertiary specification is useless. For example, to specify a frozen apple pie, this product would use:
 a primary specification for the apple;
 a secondary specification for the pastry;
 a tertiary specification for the process (freezing).

But no matter how good the secondary or tertiary specifications are, if the apples used in the beginning are not of a very high quality, the whole product is not of a good quality.

EXAMPLES OF STANDARD PURCHASING SPECIFICATION
Tomatoes
 Commodity: round tomatoes.
 Size: 50 g (2 oz) 47—57 mm diameter.
 Quality: firm, well formed, good red colour, with stalk attached.
 Origin: Dutch, available March—November.
 Class/grade: super class A.
 Weight: 6 kg (13 lb) net per box.
 Count: 90—100 per box.
 Quote: per box/tray.
 Packaging: loose in wooden tray, covered in plastic.
 Delivery: day following order.
 Storage: temperature 1O—130C (50—550F) at a relatively humidity of 75~80O/a.
 Note: avoid storage with cucumbers and aubergines.

EXTRACT FROM A PURCHASE SPECIFICATION

SCHEDULE B: SUPPLIER’S QUALITY AND PREPARATION SPECIFICATION

PRODUCT: BEEF AND VEAL

GENERAL:

1. All products supplied to Gardner Merchant Limited must comply with the provisions of the Weights and Measures Act 1976 and 1985, Trade Descriptions Act 1968, Food Act 1984 and any amendments that are enforced from time to time.
2. No meat from cow (including that designated as ‘commercial’) or bull carcasses will be supplied.
3. Cuts, joints and steaks of fresh beef are to be prepared from the chilled unfrozen carcasses or primal cuts of ‘clean’ steers and heifers of English, Irish or Scottish origin.* Beef of intervention storage and from imported chilled and frozen meat can also be supplied if they originated from animals which conformed to the standards of home killed graded beef.
4. No cuts from excessively lean or fat carcasses to be supplied.
5. Unfrozen beef carcasses and primal cuts from the hindquarter must be stored at chilled temperatures for 7—10 days prior to preparation, to allow for maturation.
6. Cuts, joints and steaks of veal are to be prepared from the chilled unfrozen carcass of English or Dutch milk fed beasts.
7. Beef and veal other than that supplied frozen must be kept chilled (below 50C) throughout preparation, storage and distribution.
8. Prepared cuts of chilled beef and veal that are supplied-frozen must be fully frozen to a temperate of not higher than —1 80C by mechanical blast freezers. Meat that has not been frozen by such means cannot be supplied to Gardner Merchant Limited. The exception to this is stewing steak that has been frozen too much higher temperatures to allow mechanical dicing.
9. Fresh beef and veal that has been designated as frozen must be delivered by transport that has frozen storage capacity. The temperature of the meat must not reach a value of more than 100C during distribution.
10. Meat purchased as frozen and then thawed for the preparation of joints, steaks, mince or stewing steak, must not be refrozen.
11. Prepared cuts must be wrapped and sealed in polythene bags and delivered in a rigid impervious receptacle or tray of good hygienic standard.
12. Suppliers of fresh beef and veal to Gardner Merchant must adhere to the purchasing and Supply specification of Schedule D.

Home-killed beef to conform to the Meat and Livestock Commission (MLC) grading system outline of the quantities and quality of goods required

 whether supplier has ‘sole’ status
 incorporation of the purchase specification
 the way in which unsatisfactory goods will be treated
 the collection arrangements for returnable containers
 a disputes procedure
 an indemnity clause
 delivery arrangements
 invoicing procedures
 a termination and review clause

For most perishable items, rather than entering into a long term contract, a daily or monthly quotation system is more common. This is essentially a short term contract regularly reviewed to ensure that a competitive situation is maintained.
The control cycle of daily operation
PURCHASING
It is important to determine yields from the range of commodities in use which will determine the unit costs. Yield testing indicates the number of items or portions obtained and helps to provide the information required for producing, purchasing and specification. Yield testing should not be confused with product testing which is concerned with the physical properties of the food — texture, flavour, quality. In reality tests are frequently carried out which combine these objectives.

RECEIVING
Goods must be checked on delivery to make sure they meet the purchase specifications.
Before items are delivered, it is necessary to know what has been ordered, both the amount and quality, and when it will be delivered. This is essential so that persons requiring items will know when foods will be available, particularly perishable items and that on arrival they can be checked against the required standard. It is also helpful for the storekeeper to know when to expect the goods so that he or she can plan the working day and also inform staff awaiting arrival of items.

The procedure for accepting deliveries is to ensure that:
 adequate storage space is available;
 access to the space is clear;
 temperature of goods where appropriate is checked;
 perishable goods are checked immediately;
 there is no delay in transporting items to cold storage;
 all other goods are checked for quantity and quality and stored;
 any damaged items are returned;
 items past their ‘use by’ or ‘best before’ dates are not accepted;
 receipts or amended delivery notes record returns;
 one part of the delivery note is retained;
 the other part is kept by the supplier;
 a credit note is provided for any goods not delivered;
 should there be any discrepancies, the person making the delivery and the supplier are informed
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PURCHASING

It is defined as a function concerned with search, selection, purchase, receipt, storage and final use of commodity in accordance with the rated policy of establishment. Purchasing function should be managed carefully, otherwise it creates problem which leads to unsatisfactory level of profit and dissatisfy customers with no specification of commodities.

The Duties of Purchasing Manger are:-
1. Responsibility for the management of purchase office, the receiving, storing and cellar areas.
2. The purchasing of all commodities.
3. Ensuring continuity of supply of all items to the user department.
4. Finding cheaper and efficient source of supply.
5. Keeping up to date the markets and evaluating new products.
6. Research into products, market and prices.
7. Coordinating with the user department to standardize the commodity and thereby reducing stock level.
8. Coordinating with product, control, accounts and department.
9. Reporting to the senior manager.

What needs to be emphasized to senior management is the importance to an organization of an efficient purchasing department in that it should be looked at more as a profit oriented department.

 PURCHASING PROCEDURE
1. A requisition from the authorized member of staff informing the purchasing department the low levels of items.
2. The selection of the source of supply.
3. Entering into contract with the supplier over the phone or in writing and negotiating the price to be paid and the satisfactory delivering performance with reference to time, date and place of delivery.
4. The acceptance of goods ordered and adjustment of any discrepancy in quality or quantity of goods delivered.
5. Transfer of commodities to the ordering department or to the stores.

FOR BUYING WELL THE PERSON RESPONSIBLE FOR PLACING THE ORDERS FOR FOOD MUST KNOW

How Various Commodities are Marketed and Handled. Food and food products available in the market undergo a constant change. New varieties of fresh fruits and vegetables are constantly researched to improve size, colour, texture, and flavour e.g. appearance of new varieties of citrus fruits and mangoes, different sizes of chilies, cabbage, tomatoes, potatoes, and so on.

Fresh food is available in forms as desired. E.g. meat can be purchased as chops, boneless, leg of mutton for roast, mince etc. Fish may be bought whole or filleted as required. Freezing technology has added a number of possibilities to the range available by capturing the freshness and qualities of foods at their different stages of growth and preparation. Instant foods, mixes, texturised protein products, dehydrated, canned, freeze dried, partly cooked and ready to eat foods, have all become familiar. In addition there is a wide range of ingredients offered in the form of syrups, spices, flavouring, food colours, stabilizers and preservatives to enhance the sensory and keeping qualities of food.

What Food and Food Products are Available in Market in Particular Season. Fresh foods which have to be transported long distances reach the consumer after a lapse of few days. It is therefore good policy to use fresh produce especially meat, fish, poultry, and vegetables as soon as they are received in a food service establishment. Different foods are packed and handled in different ways. For e.g. radishes and carrots are packed in jute bags in standard weights and transported while cabbages or cauliflower may simply be stacked one top on other directly in a truck. On their receipt in markets, vendors or retailers sometimes scrape carrots and radishes and wash them in water before arranging them in their stall or shops for sale. Such handling improves the sheen, colour and smoothness of the vegetables and attracts buyers. But such treatment reduces the keeping qualities. Appearance should not be the only characteristic on which to base one’s decisions regarding food purchasing. Quality characteristics of different foods must be kept in mind.

Prices of Food Fluctuate from Season to Season and also in response to external factors like famines, droughts, customer demand, factory closures and so on. An occasional visit to markets – wholesale and retail, is good policy instead of depending entirely on price quotations and qualities offered by the suppliers. Suppliers tend to offer products which are most profitable to them within their conditions of supply and the best quality may never reach an establishment unless the supplier is aware of the buyers’ knowledge. Knowing market prices also helps to make use of seasons of glut in terms of buying in quantities which carry ‘cash discounts’. Request price lists as frequently as possible and compare prices continually to make sure that you buy at a good market price.

Size and Types of Packs for Bulk Purchasing – Foods of the same quality come in many sizes and types of packs. For e.g. rice may be purchased in gunny bags of 25 kg each or polybags of 10 kg or 5 kg polypacks of 1 kg net weight. Canned foods come in different sizes containing different net weights of foods. Depending on their requirements of individual food service, the appropriate sizes will need to be purchased.

Quantities to be Bought of Each Commodity at a Time. The buying quantities will depend on a number of factors – degree of perishability of the food and thus its keeping quality, rate of use in the menus of establishment, frequency of deliveries possible and amount of storage necessary for different foods.

Suppliers and their Terms of Supply. Very often suppliers agree to fixed prices of a range of items over a period of time and have no objections to supplying immediately on demand. Others may be rigid on the mode of delivery in which case stocks have to be maintained with the establishment for some commodities the establishment may request for items straight from a farm situated close to the establishment. In that case the price advantage may have to be weighed against storage space and immediate usefulness to capture the fresh quality characteristics in prepared meals. Explore all possible suppliers.

What Quality is Best Suited for what use in Production of Meals. This would be determined by the end use to which a food item purchased would be put.

How much Food Costs be Controlled at the Purchasing Point. The control at the point of receipt of items is vital to the profitability of a food service. E.g. a bag of potatoes weighs 95 kg instead of 100kg at a cost of Rs. 200/- and 20 bags are used in a month by a food service establishment.
100 kg = Rs.200/-
actually 95 kg = Rs.200/-
i.e. 1 kg = Rs.2.11
establishment uses 20 bags, i.e. 20 x 100 kg  =  2000 kg
cost – 2000 x 2.11  =   Rs.4220/-
expected cost = Rs.4000/-
loss = Rs.  220/-      
annual loss = 220 x 12  =  Rs. 2640/-

This proves that small leakages if not checked at the point of purchase can change a profitability projected situation to one of loss. Other sources through which similar cost effects can be produced are accepting poor quality food items, where peels are too thick or seeds too large affecting edible portions obtained from foods. Processed foods which are not of standard quality such as stale or infested cereal products or defective cans can lead to preparation of food items which have lost their normal portion size colour, or flavour. The kitchen if often held responsible for quality of preparation, forgetting the importance of checking flavour at the receiving point. Therefore poor quality received is poor quality served, thus affecting volume of sales and profitability.
Available kinds of Storage Space. The amounts of space available for storing foods in an establishment will determine the amounts in terms of pack sizes and numbers to be purchased. The kinds of storages such as cold or freezer storage at hand will also affect the range of products that can be bought and stored. On this will depend the number of trips to the market or number of deliveries per week or month.

Relative keeping Quality of Different Foods. Different types of food, perishable or semi and non perishables require different temperature storages if food quality is to be maintained and loss through deterioration prevented.

Communication of Requirements to the Supplier to ensure that the right quality is received in the right form and at the right time. The best way to communicate food requirements to a supplier are by the use of very accurate word pictures of food samples. Issue all orders to suppliers fairly allowing sufficient time for the order to be implemented efficiently.

Organize an efficient system of ordering with copies of bill orders kept for cross checking, whether orders are given in writing, verbally or by telephone.

Keep the Number of Supplier to a minimum. At the same time have at least two suppliers for every group of commodities when possible.

Deliveries must all be checked against the orders given for quantity, quality and price. If any goods are delivered below an acceptable standard they must be returned either for replacement or credit.
Containers can account for large sums of money. Ensure that all the containers are correctly stored, returned to the suppliers and proper credit given.

All invoices must be checked for quantities and prices. All statements must be checked against invoices and passed swiftly to the office so that payment may be made in time to ensure maximum discount on the purchases.

Foster good relations with trade representatives because much useful up to date information can be gained from them.

Keep up to date trade catalogues, visit trade exhibitions, survey new equipment and continually review the space, services and systems in use in order to explore possible avenues of increased efficiency.

Consider Computer Applications to assist the operation.
 
THE SELECTION OF A SUPPLIER
A supplier can be easily selected from amongst those that the buyer has previously purchased from in that the quality of goods received price and service offered would be known when seeking a new supplier caution must be exercised and detailed enquiries made to cover at least the following points:
a)  Full details of the firm and the range of items they are selling.
b)  Copies of recent prices lists.
c)  Details of trading terms 
d)  Details of other customers.
e)  Samples of products.

Ideally a visit should be made to any potential supplier to see the size of his company, the full range of products, the size of processing and storage facilities, the size of their transport fleet and to meet members of the management team. All of this takes up valuable time for the buyer, but is essential in order to obtain a supplier with whom it is possible to have a satisfactory business relationship, who will stock the quality and quantity of commodities he needs and who is able to offer a satisfactory performance within a suitable price range. This procedure would convince the supplier of the professionalism of the purchasing officer.

Having selected suppliers and placed them on an ‘Approved Supplier List’, and after having purchased from them, it is necessary to periodically evaluate their performance using a rating system. There are three main performance criteria which may be used in a rating system – price, quality and delivery.

Systematic Ordering Procedures:
The complexity of the purchasing system will depend on the size and type of organization and established management policies. Procedures should be as simple as possible, with record keeping and paper work limited to those essential for control and communication.

Good purchasing system include the use of specification and appropriate buying method, a systematic ordering schedule, and maintenance of an accurate flow of goods to meet production requirements. A system of communication needs from the production areas and the store room to the buyer is essential. Establishing a minimum and maximum stock level provides a means of alerting the buyer to needs, particularly regarding canned and frozen foods and staples.

Frequency of purchase and the amount of food purchased at one time is fairly dependent on the amount of money at hand, the method of buying, frequency of deliveries, and the space for inventory stock. With adequate and suitable storage, the purchase of staples may vary from a 2 to 6 month supply, with perishables weekly and/or daily.
A well organized purchasing routine will save time, eliminate error and give assurance that the right food will be at the right place when needed.

Purchase Specification for Food:
A purchase specification is a concise description of the quality, size and weight (or count), required for a particular item. Each specification would be particular to an establishment and would have been determined by members of the management team (e.g. the purchasing officer, head chef and the food and beverage manager) by reference to the catering policy, the menu requirements and its price range. Copies of the specification should be kept by the members of the management and the goods received clerk and sent to all suppliers on the ‘approved suppliers list’.

The reasons for preparing specifications are:
a) It establishes a buying standard of a commodity for an establishment so that a standard product is available for the kitchen and restaurant to prepare for the customer.
b) It informs the supplier in writing (and often aided by a line assists the supplier in being competitive with his pricing.
c) It provides detailed information to the goods received clerk and the storeman as to the standard of the goods to accept.
d) It makes staff aware of the differences that can occur in produce, e.g. size, weight, quality, quantity, etc.

When writing specifications it is convenient to write them in a standard form giving the following information’s:
a) Definition of the item. Care must be exercised here that the common catering term used by the buyer means exactly the same thing to the supplier. 
b) Grade or brandname, e.g. apples – Grade Extra Class; Lea and Perrins ‘Worcester Sauce’.
c) Weight, size or count, e.g. Pounds, hundred weights, kilos, etc. A 10s, etc, lemons 120s, pineapples 12s etc.
d) Unit against which prices should be quoted, e.g. per pound per case, etc.
e) Special notes for the commodity, e.g. for meat it could contain detail of the preparation of a particular cut of the meat or details of special packaging requirements.

A point which must be noted is that whilst standard purchase specifications have many advantages to an establishment, there is always the problem that unless the buyer is careful he can easily over specify and buy goods of too high a standard than is really necessary.
 
PURCHASING METHODS
Every establishment has its own purchasing policies according to its specific needs for different types of foods. The methods of purchasing depends largely on the quantities of the various items to be purchased at one time.

When purchasing food it is necessary to consider what true cost of the item will be in relation to what the printed price from the supplier states. The true cost and calculation has to take into account invoice price less discount, storage cost of the item and production cost. For any organization its profitable to buy products that are less in cost and upto their product specification. It is important for the buyer to have accurate figures of consumption of the items based on which he can decide his buying methods.

The following are the seven purchasing methods-

a) Purchasing by Contract – There are two types of contract purchasing – specific period contract quantity period contract. Specific period contract determines the source of supply and the price of goods for a stated period from 6 months to 1 year. This reduces the labour and time and ordering to a minimum and it has the advantage to assist in budgeting and pricing. Quantity contract ensures the continuity of the supply at a specified rate over a particular period. This reflects on the price of the products that are being sold. A contract is basically into two parts – the general conditions and the specific conditions. The general conditions include period of contract, delivery point, mode of payment, sample of commodity etc. the specific conditions on the other hand is nothing but the detail specification of the product concerned.

b) Purchasing by Dealing Market – It is usually done for perishable goods on daily basis or it can be purchased from the supplier based on the need of the hotel, to assist the actual requirements. This has to be done on a regular basis by the concerned department and hand it over to the purchasing department.

c) Purchasing by Weekly/Fortnight Occasion – It is used to purchase grocery product where delivery can take place weekly wise. It is mostly on the line of daily purchase. The product which are being purchased has to be on the line of product specification.

d) Purchasing by Cash & Carry – Is applicable to medium and small establishments whose requirements are not large enough to go into contract. Cash and carry shops are situated mostly in small towns like supermarkets. The advantages of these are – most of the catering establishments are situated close to cash & carry; small or large quantities may be purchased at competitive price; the customers can see what they are buying against the price list/category. The customers can use the service of cash & carry any number of times he wants.

e) Purchasing by Paid Reserve – This method is used when it is necessary to ensure continuity of supply. In this method the establishment buys in advance large quantity of commodity to cover the need of several months ahead. The establishment gives the requisition to the supplier on a weekly basis who would supply as per requirements.

f) Purchasing by Total Supply – This is a offer made by the supplier to the hotel in which the supplier supplies all commodities to the hotel. The advantage in this is the hoteliers have less negotiation, less paper work and few deliveries. But the disadvantage might be the of the price which might not be competitive. 
g) Purchasing by Cost Plus Method – In this method the agrees to pay the approved supplier exactly the same price the supplier paid for it, plus an agreed percentage. This percentage might include cost of handling delivery charges and profit.     
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Cake Making

The ingredients used in cake making are mostly flour, sugar, shortening or butter, eggs, salt, liquid and leavening. The ingredients may vary in kind, quantity and method used. It is important to understand and recognise the function of ingredients in various cakes. Formula balance is the key to producing a good cake of any type.

Main Ingredients
1) Flour
It should be bleached soft wheat flour. This produces a fine cell structure, fine grain and smooth texture. It is low in gluten and reduces the possibility of toughness. It gives structure to the cake and helps in the absorption of moisture, thus it is also an anti-staling agent.

2) Sugar
It gives softness and colour to the product. It helps in mechanical aeration, i.e. while creaming the fat and sugar, friction takes place which accounts for air incorporation. It is also and anti-staling agent because it is hygroscopic in nature, i.e. it absorbs water. It is also called a tenderiser as it makes cakes soft.

3) Shortening/Fat
Those mainly used in cake making are butter, margarine, lard, etc. Shortening means cutting down of gluten strands. It helps in creaming for aeration and emulsification, i.e. action between moisture and fat. It also gives colour to the product and acts as a lubricant; i.e. it does not allow gluten strands to stick together.

4) Eggs
It contributes to structure by working with the gluten in the flour. Egg binds and helps stabilise the batter. Whipped egg holds air and allows it to expand during baking, supplying some leavening action. It also acts an emulsifying agent because of lethicin present in yolks, which is a natural emulsifier. Moisture, colour, flavour and eating quality are all contributions of the egg present in cake making. Eggs used should be fresh and at room temperature.

Optional Ingredients
5) Baking Powder
A chemical leavening agent that, in the presence of heat and moisture, gives out carbon dioxide which brings about aeration.

6) Milk
Can be used in the form of fresh, condensed or powder. It helps in adjusting the consistency of the batter. It gives colour to the crust because of lactose present and gives richness to the product because of its fat content. Milk powder is used to absorb moisture.

7) Water
It helps in giving moisture to the batter and to adjust the consistency. Water helps in adding volume because of steam that is emitted during baking which raises the batter until protein coagulates.

8) Fruits and Nuts
They enrich the batter and contribute to a variety of flavours and textures of the cake.

Types of Cakes and their Mixing Methods
There are two types of cakes
A) High Fat/ Shortened Cakes
1) Creaming/ Sugar-Batter Method
• Cream fat and sugar
• Beat eggs stiff for mechanical aeration
• Add eggs to the creamed mixture
• Sieve all the dry ingredients (flour, baking powder, cocoa powder, etc.)
• Add all the dry ingredients to the creamed mixture
• Add flavour and colour
• Add liquid to adjust consistency

2) Blending Method
High ratio flour is mixed in a mixer with and emulsified type of fat.
• Cream fat and flour and other powders (baking powder, soda bi-carbonate, salt, etc.)
• Add sugar and part of the water/milk at low speed.
• Beat eggs and remaining water/milk and add to the mixture in three parts.

3) Flour Batter Method
This method is used mainly in high ratio cakes, i.e. cakes that have a higher ratio of sugar and liquid as compared to flour. These cakes have a greater shelf life, good eating quality and are moist, light and tender with a fine even grain.
• Cream fat and flour of equal quantity until light and fluffy
• Sugar and eggs of equal quantity are beaten together until stiff.
• Add both mixtures together.
• Sieve flour, baking powder and any other dry ingredients and flavourings and fold in.
• Dissolve the remaining sugar in milk or water and add to the mixture.
This method is also followed when the flour is of high quality, i.e. strong flour (high gluten content). Fat and flour are creamed together so that they get shortened.

B) Low Fat/ Foam Type Cakes
1) Foaming/ Sponge Method
• Heat butter and liquid until melted
• Beat eggs and sugar over a hot water bath until thick and foamy. Remove from heat.
• Fold in the sifted flour and other dry ingredients.
• Gently fold in the melted butter. Take care not to over mix.
• Pour into a prepared pan and bake immediately. Delays will cause loss in volume.

2) Angel Food Method
• Sift flour and half the sugar
• Beat egg whites until they form soft peaks.
• Add salt and cream of tartar.
• Beat in sugar until they form soft glossy peaks.
• Fold in flour-sugar mix until thoroughly absorbed, but not too much.
• Pour into prepared pan and bake immediately.

3) Chiffon Method
• Sift all the dry ingredients including part of the sugar.
• Beat and add the oil, then the yolks and water, liquid and flavourings, all in a slow steady stream.
• Mix until smooth.
• Whip egg whites until they form soft peaks. Add cream of tartar and sugar and beat until thick and glossy
• Fold whites into the flour-liquid mix
• Pour immediately into baking pans and bake.

C) All in One Process
It is made in a mixer. Flour has to be of a weaker quality and the fat used is of the emulsified type, i.e. it can carry extra liquid without curdling.
• All the ingredients are put together in a mixer. It is whisked on low speed for about a minute to combine the dry ingredients with the liquid.
• Whisk on high speed for two minutes for aeration.
• Whisk on low speed for one minute for uniform aeration.

Cake Faults
General faults in cakes are due to one of or a combination of the following causes:
1) Poor quality raw material
2) Incorrect baking
3) Faulty processing
4) Faulty handling of cakes after baking
The raw materials like flour, eggs, baking powder, sugar, fat and fruits that are used in the preparation of a variety of cakes should be suitable to the type of cake to produce a goo quality product

1) Flour: Weak flour has a protein content of 7-9%, which is suitable for cake making. Strong flour possesses proteins that have elastic resistance; i.e. gluten does not expand during baking. It tends to break and burst allowing the expanded air to escape, thereby causing peaks. This leads to coarse texture of cakes with tough eating quality. If strong flour is used in cheaper cakes, the liquid content should be increased slightly and flour batter method should be adopted. If too weak a flour is used, it is unable to carry the tenderisers, leading to cake of poor quality.
2) Sugar: Sugar of medium-small granules that dissolves completely during processing is desirable. If sugar crystals are very large, they will not dissolve during mixing which results in cakes having a dry and hard texture. If sugar crystals are too small they do not cream well, which results in poor aeration and the volume of the cake reduces. For sugar to be effective there should be a sufficient amount of water to dissolve it.
3) Fat: Fat used should be white, have a natural flavour and odour and should be plastic at room temperature. Oil or melted fat should be avoided as aeration and air retention is reduced.
4) Eggs: Fresh eggs at room temperature are best for cake making. Watery eggs or stale eggs have poor beating quality and introduce a high percentage of moisture into the batter that can lead to curdling.
5) Baking Powder: It consists of approximately two parts acid and one part soda bi-carbonate and should be stored in an air tight container in a cool dry place. It should be used in moderation as specified in the recipe. Excessive amounts can cause the cake to collapse and produce an undesirable bitter flavour in the mouth.
6) Dry Fruits: Fruits used in cakes should be washed, stoned and dried before adding to the cake batter. They should be of even size for proper distribution in the mixture. 

When the percentage of any main ingredient is changed, defective results are noticed in the cake. The use of suitable raw material and balanced recipe will not produce a quality cake if the processing and baking is faulty; e.g., temperature of the batter is important. The batter must be warm enough to keep fat in a free, easily creamed condition, but without making it oily. Although cakes may be perfect while leaving the oven, careless handling and packing can spoil it.

Correct baking is an important factor in obtaining good cakes. When a cake is baked too quickly due to excessive oven temperature, a thick, hard crust is formed rapidly. The cake has poor volume and a peaked top. The crust begins to blacken before the cake is baked inside. The unbaked part of the cake will be shown as a damp patch under the crust. Sponge goods should be baked at high temperature to bring about expansion and coagulation almost simultaneously. , If baked at a lower temperature, the crust will be thick and crack easily. The cake should not be moved in the oven until the structure is set. A pan of water is kept in the oven for cakes that require long baking time. This helps create a humid atmosphere that allows the top crust to form more slowly, thus allowing the batter to expand fully before becoming firm.

Points to Remember while Baking
1) Pre-heat the oven.
2) Make sure the oven and shelves are levelled.
3) Do not let pans touch each other while baking, this prevents air circulation and cakes rise unevenly.
4) Bake at the correct temperature.
• Too hot and the cake sets unevenly or before it has fully risen. Crust will be dark.
• Too cool and the cake will have poor volume and texture, it may not set properly and could collapse.
5) Do not open oven doors or disturb cakes until they have finished rising.
6) If steam is available use this for creamed or two stage batter. This steam prevents the top crust from forming and ensures a flat top.
7) Testing for doneness
• Shortened cakes will shrink away from the sides.
• Cakes will be springy, centre of cake will spring back when pressed.
• A knife or toothpick inserted in the centre will come out clean.

Cake Faults
A) Shape Faults
1) Collapsed cake with white surface spots: Too much of tenderisers used which in turn prevents the cake from setting in the centre. Too much sugar, thus the white spots.
2) Baked cake with a peaked top: Oven temperature too high, flour used too strong, thus it resists breaking and only stretches.
3) Cake with flat top: Temperature of oven is too cool, Insufficient liquid added to the batter.

B) Structural Faults
1) Under-baked area under top crust: Temperature of oven too high, cakes removed from oven in the middle of the baking process, faulty testing of the cake.
2) Fruits fall to the base of the cake: Fruits are not coated with flour. They are not washed and dried properly to remove excess syrup, batter is too thin (weak flour used, excess sugar and tenderiser which does not allow structure to form, excess baking powder and fat, low oven temperature).
3) Fruit cake crumbles when cut: Low oven temperature, thus excessive moisture loss. Too much fruits used, fruits are too dry or flour used is too weak.
4) Streaks in the crumb/cake: Insufficient mixing of flour during processing. Failure to scrape the bowl during processing.
5) Seams in crumb/cake (dense layers): Moving of cake in the oven while it is baking causing some layers to collapse and stick to each other.
6) Tunnel like holes in the cake: Too much baking powder, fat not mixed properly. Over-mixing of batter and batter not put all at once in the baking pan.

C) Texture Faults
1) Coarse texture: Too much of tenderisers that cause the cake to take too long to bake, which in turn results in moisture loss. Low oven temperature.
2) Greasy texture: Excess fat and/or greasing of tin/pan.
3) Compact texture: Less tenderisers, more liquid, over-mixing of batter, hot batter or too cold a batter, due to which emulsion is broken and thus the batter curdles and gets less volume.

D) Crust Faults
1) Thick crust: High oven temperature, low moisture/humidity levels.
2) Top crust peels and flakes off: Oven temperature too low, over-baking, lack of humidity, excess baking powder.
3) Ring of fat around the cake: Excess fat.

E) Colour Faults
1) Crumb discolouration in fruitcake: Baking time too long, colour of fruits is transferred to the crumb, excessive heat from bottom that causes the base to over-bake, excess baking powder.
2) Pale crust colour: Less sugar, slow baking, low oven temperature, and too much humidity.
3) White spots on cake surface: Too much sugar, less liquid, too much colour.
4) Crumb discolouration in white cake: Too much baking powder and sugar, low oven temperature and over-baking, therefore loss of moisture. Transfer of fruit colour, unclean vessels and/ or eggs beaten in an aluminium bowl.

F) Miscellaneous Faults
1) Mould growth in cake: Too much moisture, wrapping of cakes when still warm, cakes stored with mouldy cakes, packing in contaminated wrappers, handling with unclean hands.
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FSSAI

http://www.fssai.gov.in/

The Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI)
has been established under Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006 which consolidates various acts & orders that have hitherto handled food related issues in various Ministries and Departments. FSSAI has been created for laying down science based standards for articles of food and to regulate their manufacture, storage, distribution, sale and import to ensure availability of safe and wholesome food for human consumption. 

Highlights of the Food Safety and Standard Act, 2006 
 Various central Acts like Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954 , Fruit Products Order , 1955, Meat Food Products Order , 1973,
Vegetable Oil Products (Control) Order, 1947,Edible Oils Packaging (Regulation)Order 1988, Solvent Extracted Oil, De- Oiled Meal and Edible Flour (Control) Order, 1967, Milk and Milk Products Order, 1992 etc will be repealed after commencement of FSS Act, 2006.

The Act also aims to establish a single reference point for all matters relating to food safety and standards, by moving from multi- level, multi- departmental control to a single line of command. To this effect, the Act establishes an independent statutory Authority – the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India with head office at Delhi. Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) and the State Food Safety Authorities shall enforce various provisions of the Act.
 
Establishment of the Authority
 
Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India is the Administrative Ministry for the implementation of FSSAI. The Chairperson and Chief Executive Officer of Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) have already been appointed by Government of India. The Chairperson is in the rank of Secretary to Government of India.
 
FSSAI has been mandated by the FSS Act, 2006 for performing the following functions:
• Framing of Regulations to lay down the Standards and guidelines in relation to articles of food and specifying appropriate system of enforcing various standards thus notified.
• Laying down mechanisms and guidelines for accreditation of certification bodies engaged in certification of food safety management system for food businesses.
• Laying down procedure and guidelines for accreditation of laboratories and notification of the accredited laboratories.
• To provide scientific advice and technical support to Central Government and State Governments in the matters of framing the policy and rules in areas which have a direct or indirect bearing of food safety and nutrition.
• Collect and collate data regarding food consumption, incidence and prevalence of biological risk, contaminants in food, residues of various,contaminants in foods products, identification of emerging risks and introduction of rapid alert system.
• Creating an information network across the country so that the public, consumers, Panchayats etc receive rapid, reliable and objective information about food safety and issues of concern.
• Provide training programmes for persons who are involved or intend to get involved in food businesses.
• Contribute to the development of international technical standards for food, sanitary and phyto-sanitary standards.
• Promote general awareness about food safety and food standards.















DECODING “FOOD SAFETY AND STANDARDS ACT”


 

You may be aware that the above Act has been implemented on 5th
August, 2011 throughout India. Thus w.e.f. from 5th.August 2011, all earlier food laws / acts such as PFA, FPO, Agmark, M & MPO, EO, VAO, Milk Supplements Order & Feeding Bottle Order are scrapped, null and void.
The enactment of Food Safety & Standards Act and establishment of the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) is a landmark development which will have a pervasive impact on all segments of the Indian Hospitality Industry. It becomes obligatory on all food business operators to acquire license under this Act either before the expiry of their existing license or by 5th August, 2012, whichever is earlier. The processing of license takes 60 days.
Download Form B from the link: http://www.fssai.gov.in/Portals/0/Pdf/Application%20for%20Registration%20&%20Renewal.pdf
For hotels less than 3 Star, the license fee is Rs.2000/-p.a.
For hotels above 3 Star, the fee is Rs.5000/- p.a.
It is recommended that hotels apply for a 5 year license.
By 12th.August 2012, all Food Business Operators must have license or should have applied for the license.







STEP WISE LICENSE PROCESS

 

1)   Register your company as a FBO (Food Business Operator) 
Go to the link: http://www.fssai.gov.in/Default.aspx
Select: - FLRS (Food Licensing and Registration System) on the left hand menu under the Heading FSSAI ONLINE.
Sign up for Self Care portal:http://foodlicensing.fssai.gov.in/UserRegistration.aspx
After successful signing up, you shall receive a mail in the email mentioned during the sign up process.
Log in with the registered username and password on the link:http://foodlicensing.fssai.gov.in/UserLogin/Login.aspx
Select License/Registration from the link:http://foodlicensing.fssai.gov.in/SLS/FBO/FBOHome.aspx
Then select: Apply for License registration under the title License/Registration.
Select “STATE”
Tick on relevant “KIND OF BUSINESS”
In case of any clarifications, please click on the Help Desk link after logging in to http://foodlicensing.fssai.gov.in/UserLogin/Login.aspx
Alternatively, you can write a email to: complaintfssai@gmail.com
Or send queries by post to:
DIRECTOR ENFORCEMENT,FDA Bhawan near Bal Bhavan, Kotla Road, New Delhi - 110002 India.

2)   Pay Challan & get UID No.
UID No. is PRN.
3)   After payment of challan, within 14 days a designated officer calls up for doubts.
4)   Within 30 days, an inspection happens and the inspection report comes within 30 days.
5)   License has to be received within 60 days. If there is no communication from FSSAI within 60 days, it is assumed that the license is granted.
LICENSE IS FOR THE ENTIRE PREMISES & NOT FOR INDIVIDUAL OUTLET.
It is recommended that hotels apply for a 5 year license.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE OLD LAWS & THIS ONE?
OLD LAW NEW LAW
It was a Product Based Law It is a Process Based Law
Focused on Adulteration Focuses on sub standard and unsafe food products.
There was no adjudication possible Compounding of offences and adjudication possible.
Permitted colors were allowed to be used within limits. No food colors allowed in any food, exceptions though are Indian sweets, Bakery products, Confectionaries, Ice creams, packed juices and Dal Bhujiya.


 


 












 REASONS FOR FOOD SPOILAGE
This law deals with Food, Water & Personal Hygiene.

1)   Temperature
2)   Personal Hygiene
3)   Improper Cooking
4)   Improper Storage
5)   Time
6)   Humidity
7)   Bad process
8)   Bad Raw Material
9)   Bad Water Quality
10) Foreign Matter
11) Lack of Waste Disposal
12) Chemical Residue
13)  Pests
14) Cross Contamination
15)  Illness or Injury to Staff
16) Improper Additives or Essences.
17)  Bad Drainage
18) Use of non food grade equipment
19) Bad packing material
20) Droppings of birds or rodents.
21)  Improper sanitation.


Thus, if you control and take proper care of the above pointers, the food served in your premises is ought to be safe for human consumption.










RECORDS & DOCUMENTS TO BE MAINTAINED BY FBO                                                 (Food Business Operator) 

 

1)   Receiving time table
2)   MFP Inspection Procedure
3)   Vegetable Washing Schedule
4)   Approved Vendor List
5)   Perishable Specification Manual
6)   Legal Verification Matrix (Agency – Renewal Date – Status)
7)   Supplier Audit Checklist (Audit two suppliers a month)
8)   Material Rejection Record
9)   PCD (Pest Control Devices) Map
10)  Rodent Bait Diagram
11)  Store Discard Policy
12)   FIFO (First In First Out) or FEFO (First Expired First Out)
13)  Slow Moving & Non Moving Food Materials
14)   Physical Inspection record of raw materials
15)  Copy of Import Clearances.
16) MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet) of Pest Chemicals
17)  Pest Chemicals Dilution Chart
18)   Water Treatment Plan & Diagram
19)    Sewage Treatment Plan & Diagram
20)  Grease Trap Cleaning Procedure
21)    Kitchen Uniform Washing Procedure
22)   Color Coding of Dusters
23)  Waste Disposal Plan
24)    Exhaust Hood Cleaning Procedure
25)   Dish Wash Temperature Record
26)  Pot Wash Temperature Record
27)   Cooking Temperature Record
28)   Hot Buffet Temperature Record
29)   Cold Buffet Temperature Record
30)   Re-Heating Temperature Record
31)  Walk in Cooler Temperature Record
32)  Walk in Freezer Temperature Record
33)  Micro Biology Report of Food
(6 samples per quarter is the guideline)
34) Chemical and Micro Biology Report of Water
35) TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) Ph Chlorine Monitoring Record of Swimming Pool
36)  Buffet Reject Food Handling Procedure
37)  ODC (Outdoor Catering) Vehicle Inspection Record
38)  Hand Swab Reports
(1/5th of food handlers per month is the guideline)
39) Food Handler’s Medical Certificate
40)  Illness and Injury Reporting System
41)  Used Oil Handling Procedure
42)   AHU (Air Handling Unit) and FCU (Fan Coil Unit) Cleaning Procedure
43)   Legionella Testing Report of AC Water
44)   OHT (Over Head Tank) Cleaning Procedure
45)   Food Safety Compliant Handling Mechanism
46)  Pest Control Schedule of Receiving, Stores, Kitchen & Restaurants.
47)       Sanitation Schedule of Receiving, Stores, Kitchen & Restaurants.


                It is rightly said by an anonymous author that:

     Safety is as simple as ABC - Always Be Careful. 
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What is HACCP?
HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) is an internationally accepted technique for preventing microbiological, chemical and physical contamination along the food supply chain. HACCP is a management system in which food safety is addressed through the analysis and control of biological, chemical, and physical hazards from raw material production, procurement and handling, to manufacturing, distribution and consumption of the finished product
The HACCP technique does this by identifying the risks, establishing critical control points, setting critical limits, and ensuring control measures are validated, verified and monitored before implementation.
The effective implementation of HACCP will enhance the ability of companies to: protect and enhance brands and private labels, promote consumer confidence and conform to regulatory and market requirements.
How does it work?
The first step is to make a commitment. The next step is to learn about the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system which allows you to develop and implement your own quality system. HACCP is the premier tool used by the world's food industry to manage risks to food safety and quality.
HACCP does this by identifying the risks and ensuring control ensures are validated, verified and monitored before implementation.
Implementation and certification requires people with recognized quality, HACCP system development and training skills. NCHC has certified trainers and auditors to assist companies implementing HACCP systems.
The effective implementation of HACCP will enhance the ability of companies to: protect and enhance brands and private labels, promote consumer confidence and conform to regulatory and market requirements.




DEFINITIONS
CCP Decision Tree:
A sequence of questions to assist in determining whether a control point is a CCP.
Control:
(a) To manage the conditions of an operation to maintain compliance with established criteria.
(b) The state where correct procedures are being followed and criteria are being met.
Control Measure:
Any action or activity that can be used to prevent, eliminate or reduce a significant hazard.
Control Point:
Any step at which biological, chemical, or physical factors can be controlled.
Corrective Action:
Procedures followed when a deviation occurs.
Criterion:
A requirement on which a judgement or decision can be based.
Critical Control Point:
A step at which control can be applied and is essential to prevent or eliminate a food safety hazard or reduce it to an acceptable level.
Critical Limit:
A maximum and/or minimum value to which a biological, chemical or physical parameter must be controlled at a CCP to prevent, eliminate or reduce to an acceptable level the occurrence of a food safety hazard.
Deviation:
Failure to meet a critical limit.
HACCP:
A systematic approach to the identification, evaluation, and control of food safety hazards.
HACCP Plan:
The written document which is based upon the principles of HACCP and which delineates the procedures to be followed.
HACCP System:
The result of the implementation of the HACCP Plan.
HACCP Team:
The group of people who are responsible for developing, implementing and maintaining the HACCP system.
Hazard:
A biological, chemical, or physical agent that is reasonably likely to cause illness or injury in the absence of its control.
Hazard Analysis:
The process of collecting and evaluating information on hazards associated with the food under consideration to decide which are significant and must be addressed in the HACCP plan.
Monitor:
To conduct a planned sequence of observations or measurements to assess whether a CCP is under control and to produce an accurate record for future use in verification.
Prerequisite Programs:
Procedures, including Good Manufacturing Practices, that address operational conditions providing the foundation for the HACCP system.
Severity:
The seriousness of the effect(s) of a hazard.
Step:
A point, procedure, operation or stage in the food system from primary production to final consumption.
Validation:
That element of verification focused on collecting and evaluating scientific and technical information to determine if the HACCP plan, when properly implemented, will effectively control the hazards.
Verification:
Those activities, other than monitoring, that determine the validity of the HACCP plan and that the system is operating according to the plan.

HACCP PRINCIPLES
HACCP is a systematic approach to the identification, evaluation, and control of food safety hazards based on the following seven principles:
Principle 1: Conduct a hazard analysis.
Principle 2: Determine the critical control points (CCPs).
Principle 3: Establish critical limits.
Principle 4: Establish monitoring procedures.
Principle 5: Establish corrective actions.
Principle 6: Establish verification procedures.
Principle 7: Establish record-keeping and documentation procedures.











GUIDELINES FOR APPLICATION OF HACCP PRINCIPLES
Introduction
HACCP is a management system in which food safety is addressed through the analysis and control of biological, chemical, and physical hazards from raw material production, procurement and handling, to manufacturing, distribution and consumption of the finished product. For successful implementation of a HACCP plan, management must be strongly committed to the HACCP concept. A firm commitment to HACCP by top management provides company employees with a sense of the importance of producing safe food.
HACCP is designed for use in all segments of the food industry from growing, harvesting, processing, manufacturing, distributing, and merchandising to preparing food for consumption. Prerequisite programs such as current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs) are an essential foundation for the development and implementation of successful HACCP plans. Food safety systems based on the HACCP principles have been successfully applied in food processing plants, retail food stores, and food service operations. The seven principles of HACCP have been universally accepted by government agencies, trade associations and the food industry around the world.
The following guidelines will facilitate the development and implementation of effective HACCP plans. While the specific application of HACCP to manufacturing facilities is emphasized here, these guidelines should be applied as appropriate to each segment of the food industry under consideration.
Prerequisite Programs
The production of safe food products requires that the HACCP system be built upon a solid foundation of prerequisite programs. Examples of common prerequisite programs are listed in Appendix A. Each segment of the food industry must provide the conditions necessary to protect food while it is under their control. This has traditionally been accomplished through the application of cGMPs. These conditions and practices are now considered to be prerequisite to the development and implementation of effective HACCP plans. Prerequisite programs provide the basic environmental and operating conditions that are necessary for the production of safe, wholesome food. Many of the conditions and practices are specified in federal, state and local regulations and guidelines (e.g., cGMPs and Food Code). The Codex Alimentarius General Principles of Food Hygiene describe the basic conditions and practices expected for foods intended for international trade. In addition to the requirements specified in regulations, industry often adopts policies and procedures that are specific to their operations. Many of these are proprietary. While prerequisite programs may impact upon the safety of a food, they also are concerned with ensuring that foods are wholesome and suitable for consumption (Appendix A). HACCP plans are narrower in scope, being limited to ensuring food is safe to consume.
The existence and effectiveness of prerequisite programs should be assessed during the design and implementation of each HACCP plan. All prerequisite programs should be documented and regularly audited. Prerequisite programs are established and managed separately from the HACCP plan. Certain aspects, however, of a prerequisite program may be incorporated into a HACCP plan. For example, many establishments have preventive maintenance procedures for processing equipment to avoid unexpected equipment failure and loss of production. During the development of a HACCP plan, the HACCP team may decide that the routine maintenance and calibration of an oven should be included in the plan as an activity of verification. This would further ensure that all the food in the oven is cooked to the minimum internal temperature that is necessary for food safety.
Education and Training: The success of a HACCP system depends on educating and training management and employees in the importance of their role in producing safe foods. This should also include information the control of foodborne hazards related to all stages of the food chain. It is important to recognize that employees must first understand what HACCP is and then learn the skills necessary to make it function properly. Specific training activities should include working instructions and procedures that outline the tasks of employees monitoring each CCP.Management must provide adequate time for thorough education and training. Personnel must be given the materials and equipment necessary to perform these tasks. Effective training is an important prerequisite to successful implementation of a HACCP plan.
Developing a HACCP Plan: The format of HACCP plans will vary. In many cases the plans will be product and process specific. However, some plans may use a unit operations approach. Generic HACCP plans can serve as useful guides in the development of process and product HACCP plans; however, it is essential that the unique conditions within each facility be considered during the development of all components of the HACCP plan.In the development of a HACCP plan, five preliminary tasks need to be accomplished before the application of the HACCP principles to a specific product and process. The five preliminary tasks are given in Figure 1.
Figure 1. Preliminary Tasks in the Development of the HACCP Plan
 Assemble the HACCP Team

Describe the Food and its Distribution

Describe the Intended Use and Consumers of the Food

Develop a Flow Diagram Which Describes the Process

Verify the Flow Diagram
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INDENTING (Quantity Food Production)

Principles of indenting are-
(a) The Indents are made well in advance for regular items keeping in view the earlier sales trends, fresh bookings, forecast regarding walk-ins etc. For grocery and dry items the store request is made for a long period of 4-5 days together. For fresh items and perishable items it is generated for each day. 
(b) The chef in charge will see what is left in the freezers, refrigerators, kitchen store and then check the requirement of ingredients for the day and coming days and then the indent is raised.
(c) Indents are made in triplicate. Original copy along with the 2nd copy goes to store and after the issue is made by store and actual issuing quantities are mentioned on it a copy of the same goes to accounts/ F & B Control department. 

Factors affecting indenting: 
(a) Portion size
(b) Day of function
(c) Type of guest: Age group, religion.
(d) Type of menu
(e) Number of snacks offered
(f) Time of service
(g) Whether cocktail is offered
(h) Weather
(i) Availability of ingredients
(j) Based on what is the type of event

 INDENTING
Indenting is similar to a requisition which is used as inter-departmental document and in which we indent or summarize the quantity of the ingredients while making a standard recipe and standard purchase specification.
Stores scrutinize such indents and collectively places and an order with the suppliers to send such material on the specified time and date.
It is very easy to make indent for a small quantity but when we make an indent for a thousand meals or a buffet or a banquet or a coffee shop or industrial canteen then some amount of experience or yardstick of thumb rules do apply and a lot of factors should be considered while doing such indents which are: -
1.       The number of persons to feed; the larger number of people the lesser the indent quantity becomes.
2.       Number of items on the menu.
3.       Choice provided on the menu.
4.       Number of non-veg. items on the menu and its vegetarians alternatives.
5.       Number of non –vegetarians and vegetarians.
6.       Whether or not Indian bread or only rice is included.
7.       Type of people to dine.
8.       Choice of desserts provided.
9.       If a dry or gravy preparation.
10.   Selling price of the menu.
11.   Per stock or misc-en-place.
12.   Kind of menu has been planned either a la carte or on a banquet or buffet.
13.   Silver, plated or buffet service.

Recapitulation:
All the factors mentioned must be considered and then work out exactly the cost per portion of each dish and then updating the same yearly in terms of increase in prices and then working out the selling price will give an accurate indenting and costing procedure.
 
Indent or requisition slip
              Menu
1.       ________________
2.       ________________
3.       ________________
4.       ________________
5.       ________________
Date of indenting_________

Date of receiving_________
S.No. INGREDIENT 1 2 3 4 5 Total quantity Price per qty Total price
1.  
2.  
3.  
4.  
5.  
 
Signature of storekeeper                                                                                            
signature of indenter
Signature of purchase manager
 
 

How to calculate food cost%?
Food cost % = food cost x 100/ selling price

Various practical difficulties for volume Feeding
1.       Selling price of menu,
2.       Nov or dec. in the no. of pax
3.       Sudden change of menu,
4.       Availability of raw materials/ ingredients.
5.       Different food habits.
6.       Exact no. of guest is not known,
7.       Different food habits,
8.       Exact no. of guest is not known,
9.       The indenting is on based on assumption,
10.   Quantity and quality of different raw materials sometime vary from region to region,
11.   Infrastructure of kitchen,
12.   Skill level of staff,
13.   Storage consideration,
14.   Due to large no. of ingredients indenting sometimes becomes complicated,
15.   Different cooking techniques,
16.   Difficulty in judging portion size.
 
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FOOD STORAGE SYSTEMS

STORES

Storage involves arranging goods in specified areas earmarked for particular materials. Till they are required for use by the production, service or other departments. It consists of the complete process of receiving and handling materials and checking them for quality and quantity against orders placed.

A clean, orderly food store run efficiently is essential in any catering establishment for the following reason:
 Stocks of food can be kept at a suitable level, so eliminating the risk of running out of any commodity.
 All food entering and leaving the stores can be properly checked, this helps to prevent wastage.
 A check can be kept on the percentage profit of each department of the establishment.

The planning of storage spaces depends on 3 basic factors:
 Nature of foods to be stored
 Quantities in which food are stored
 Length of time for which they are stored before use

LOCATION OF STORAGE SPACES – Storage spaces should be located as near the point of use of the stored commodity as possible. Spaces should also be accessible to roads so that deliveries are easily received without interference with other organizational activities. Stores are best situated on the east or northeast side of the building to prevent direct sunlight affecting the storage temperatures. At the designing stage care has to be taken to ensure that the storage spaces are not located over or near a boiler, have steam or hot water pipes running through or under them, concealed or otherwise. Care is necessary to ensure that traffic to and from stores does not interfere with kitchen or service activity. Storage spaces need to be worked out according to the degree of perishability and the rate of turnover of commodities to be stored. The planned arrangements in a store are referred to as ‘functional storage’ the idea being to provide a facility which make s ingredients available for use with the least possible delay.  

THE STOREROOM – The storeroom is divided into 6 main areas: the receiving or loading dock, liquor storage, dry food storage, the dairy and vegetable cooler, the meat cooler and the freezer. 

Receiving or loading dock is the first place where food stuffs and supplies are stored. As the articles are unloaded from trucks, they are inspected to ensure that the delivery order is complete and accurate. Each item is checked against the order sheet to verify that the weight, size, and amount are correct. The price of each item is also checked. If any item is damaged or spoiled it is sent back to truck.
After foodstuffs have been received and inspected they are placed immediately in the appropriate storage areas. New items are placed in the back of the storeroom and on the bottom of each stack, and the older items are moved forward and to the left. This process is called rotating the inventory and ensures that the items that have been in storage the longest are used first.
Supplies of liquors, wines are kept in the liquor storage area. The dry storage area is used to store items such as grains, spices, canned foods and dry packaged foods such as pasta.
The dairy and vegetable cooler is a refrigerated, walk in space where dairy products such as milk, butter and cheese are stored along with fresh produce such as lettuce, tomatoes and celery. 
The meat cooler is used to store meat, poultry and seafood that will be used within one to three days. Meat that is not likely to be used within this time is kept in the freezer.

Maintaining the proper temperature in the coolers and freezer is essential to controlling food costs. For e.g. if milk is not stored properly, it will spoil after 3 days. Proper refrigeration can extend the shelf life to a week. Meat, dairy foods, and produce can spoil quickly if the temperature is not maintained at the proper level. Food loss due to spoilage is a significant factor in the F & B department.

STORAGE ACCOMMODATION – Foods are divided into groups for the purpose of storage. Dry foods and perishable foods.
Dry foods include cereals, pulses, sugar, flour, bread, cakes, jams, pickles, & other bottled foods, canned foods etc.
Perishable foods include meat, poultry, game, fish, dairy produce and fats, vegetables and fruits.

TYPES OF STORAGE – There are basically two types of storages, dry and low temperature storage. These are further sub divided according to temperatures required as Perishable: meat, fish, poultry, milk and milk products, breads, cereals or pulse flours, butter cream, cheese, fruits, vegetables and cooked food. Semi Perishable: cereals, pulses, and their products, propped, flaked and dry roasted cereals and pulses, roasted nuts and fried products, oil seeds, eggs, cakes, biscuits and sweets, fruits and vegetables, partially or wholly prepared food. Non Perishable: all preserved foods (canned, dried, pickled etc.), whole pulses, cereals, legumes and millets. Dry roasted cereal products, sugars, hydrogenated fats, oils, ghee, tea, coffee, cocoa, spices, condiments and essences.

DRY STORAGE: is a place for the storage of dry ingredients (usually stored at Room Temperature of 20-25oC). The storage should be dry, cool, well ventilated, and free from infestation of any kind in order to maintain the food in good condition. The space for storages must be large enough to hold stocks of a commodity for one to three months according to its frequency of use. Dry storage is suitable for non-perishable and semi-perishable commodities.

Dry storage may be divided into

Food Store: This store is mainly for the storage of some semi perishable and all non-perishable items.
Manner of storing food in dry storage:
Cereals (jute or polythene bags) stacked one on top of the other in a pile placed on slatted platforms for air circulation. Placed in airtight tins. Cereal products (1Kg to 25Kg packs) in airtight tins or bins with lid depending on the quantity.
Pulses and their products (1Kg to 20Kg//1Kg to 5Kg) can be stored in transparent plastic jars with screw-able lids.
Nuts and fried products (polythene packs 1Kg to 5Kg) packs may be placed together in airtight tins and opened only one Kg at a time. Once opened the items should be transferred to transparent airtight jars, neatly labeled and stored.
  Eggs (cardboard trays or cartons) stored such that these may be consumed within a day or two or kept in cold store.
Preserved foods, cans, jars quantity of 24 and above supplied in cartons or store out of cartons on shelves or racks. Spices & condiments, generally not more than 1Kg packs (polythene) or glass bottles with transparent labeled jars or tins. 
Essences & flavourings (glass bottles), stored as such.
Food colours (small tins or glass bottles), as purchased.

Equipment Store: This involves storage of spare kitchen equipment, service equipment etc.

Trash Store: This includes storage space for waste materials from all points of production, such as delivery points, storage, service, and cleaning up areas.

LOW TEMPERATURE STORAGE: The principle underlying the designing of low temperature storage is to maintain temperature at levels, which will inhibit the growth of microorganisms, thereby preserving the food. The different types of low temperature storages based on different temperature ranges, maintained for the storage of semi-perishable and perishable food.

Refrigerated Storage: is a storage space planned and maintained at a temperature between 0oC and 10oC. Such storages are necessary for maintaining the quality of perishable foods for 3-5 days only, after which certain changes start taking place in the foods due to enzymatic or microbial activity. It is good practice to keep foods covered in refrigerated storage to prevent them from drying. This also prevents odours from one food being picked by another. The space required for refrigerated storage is determined by the volume of food produced and the type of menus, along with the accuracy of forecasts of sales. If the menu involves the use of many of perishable foods or forecasting is incorrect and plenty of food is leftover then the space required will be greater than if the number of perishable ingredients involved are few and all that is prepared is sold. Also, if the menu items involve preparation methods such as soaking, fermenting and so on then refrigerated space required is greater so that the degree of fermentation can be controlled over time.

Cold Storage: is generally one in which the temperature is maintained between 0oC & 5oC, thereby reducing the enzyme activity to a minimum. Such storages are also called chill rooms and can hold perishables for over a week and in case of fruits and vegetables even upto a month depending on the stage of ripeness and variety. Cold room is for meat where supplies can be kept frozen for long periods. The best temperature for storing fresh meat poultry is 4oC-6oC with a controlled humidity. Fish should have a separate cold room so that it does not affect other foods. Chill rooms keep food cold without freezing and are suitable for those foods requiring a consistent temperature such as dessert fruits, salads, and cheese. Fresh fruits, salads and vegetables are best stored at temperature of 4oC– 6oC with a humidity that will not result in loss of water from the leaves causing them to go limp. Green vegetables should be stored in dark area to prevent leaves turning yellow. Certain fruits such as peaches and avocados are best stored at 10oC, dairy products are best stored at 2oC, and cheese requires different storage temperature according to the type of cheese. Fats and oils are best stored at 4oC -7oC otherwise they are liable to go rancid.

Freezer Storage: In freezer storage the temperature ranges from –20oC to 0oC. For successful freezing it is necessary to blanch foods, cool quickly to freezing temperature and pack in airtight containers or bags in quantities, which can be utilized immediately on thawing. A food removed from the freezer storage must never be partly or wholly kept back, or refrozen.

Whatever the type of storage required, its planning and arrangement depend on a number of factors such as proximity to markets, menu and purchasing policy of the establishment.

Proximity to sources of supply: planning of storage spaces will depend on the volume and frequency of deliveries possible.

Nature of the menu: the nature of the menu in terms of size and variety of items offered will directly affect the storage space required.

Purchasing policy: large catering establishment may order dry ingredient monthly and fresh ones bi-weekly or even daily, if their operations are seasonal only.

LAYOUT: Every store layout should aim at reducing mental and physical strain, time and effort of store staff in locating items when required or placing them correctly on delivery. Depending on the size of the store, a reception platform (approx. 90cm in length) at the delivery point helps to prevent excessive lifting. The delivery vans can reverse upto the platform to offload the commodities. A make up counter in the centre is often necessary for holding commodities before they can be arranged in their assigned places in the store or issued directly to user depts. This can be achieved by placing items in a systematic manner. Whatever the type of arrangement, store items must be placed at height which allows for easy reach and readability, so that time is not wasted in trying to search for items when required. There should also be sufficient clearance between items, to allow them to be easily reached and replaced.

SANITATION, SAFETY, AND SECURITY OF STORES: Dry food stores should be fly proofed and walls treated with suitable insecticides. All stores should be guarded against rodents and pests, to safeguard both staff and consumers against infested and contaminated food. To maintain satisfactory standard s of hygiene and sanitation, it is necessary to keep stores neat and clean and to prevent attack of food by bacteria and molds. It is good policy to formulate a schedule or chart for regular cleaning and maintenance of stores.

Since stores stock items of daily use which are so vulnerable to pilferage and theft, it is extremely important to provide proper safety and security measures at the designing stage. The safety hazards to which stores can be exposed are:
 Infestation or contamination of food held in storage
 Theft or pilferage
 Microbial spoilage
 Fire

Store containers: Foods delivered in flimsy bags should be transferred to suitable store containers. These should be easy to wash and have tight fitting lids.
Glass or plastic containers are suitable for many foods, such as spices and herbs, being transparent. Bulk dry goods (pulses, sugar, salt etc.) should be stored in suitable bins with tight fitting lids. All bins should be clearly labeled or numbered. Sacks or cases of commodities should not be stored on the floor, they should be raised on duck boards to permit a free circulation of air.
Some goods are delivered in containers suitable for storage and these need not be transferred. Heavy jars and cases should be stored at a convenient height to prevent any strain in lifting.

TYPES OF RECORDS USED IN STORES CONTROL
Bin Card: There should be an individual bin card for each item held in stock.
Stores Ledger: This is usually found in the form of a loose leaf file giving one ledger sheet to each item held in stock.
Departmental Requisition Book: One of these books should be issued to each department in the catering establishment, which needs to draw goods from the store. 
Order Book: This is in duplicate and has to be filled in by storekeeper every time he or she wishes to have goods delivered.
Stocks Sheets: Stock should be taken at regular intervals of either one week or one month.
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EQUIPMENTS (Quantity Food Production)

Types of equipments required in a kitchen vary with the activities carried out in a particular area of work. It ranges from simple pots and pans to sophisticated cooking ranges, steamers, ovens, grills and fryers.

The list can be endless and it all depends on what kind of cooking and the type of food to be prepared.

Quantity food equipments can be divided broadly into: - 

A. Heat producing equipment
B. Cold producing equipment
C. Processing equipment

These can be further divided into

1) Heavy equipment
2) Light equipment
3) Miscellaneous equipment

The types of kitchen equipment are

1) Food preparation equipment
2) Cooking equipment
3) Holding, service and clearing equipment
4) Washing and storing equipment

Selection of equipment

Some basic factors for selection of equipment are 

1. Size and type of establishment: It is very important to select equipment keeping in mind what exactly is your requirement. The design of the
equipment should be in harmony with the general plan.

2. Menu: Equipment also depends on the method of cooking. E.g. Menu consisting of fried snacks will require a fryer.

3. Usage: Every equipment selected must be able to fulfil a specific purpose, be it efficiency of production, profitability or customer satisfaction.
4. Price: The investment in equipment has to be made carefully. It is essential to judge whether the new equipment is improving production in both terms of quantity and quality and whether it has no operation and maintenance cost. Selection is also guided by the funds available to the buyer over a
period of time and resale.

5. Ease of installation, maintenance and operation: Equipment must be user friendly taking care of the existing skills of the catering staff. The
equipment should also be very easy to clean and maintain. If the equipment is very sophisticated then instructions in the form of simple steps should be
clearly displayed in the kitchen. Staff should be properly trained to handle the new equipment.

6. Safety: It is extremely important to select equipment that is guaranteed for safety. While in operation and when not in use guards and locks should be provided to avoid accidents.

7. Economy: The operating cost of a piece of equipment is an important consideration in its selection. In some places, electricity may be cheaper
than gas or vice versa. Therefore, select equipment accordingly.

8. Ease of cleaning: Equipments should be non corrosive, non toxic and stable to heat moisture.

9. Appearance: Good looking equipment attracts workers attention and creates a desire for using and caring for it.

10. Source of supply: Equipments should be purchased from reputed suppliers so that it is backed by a guarantee and after sales service and maintenance contracts.

The following check list will act as a guide

1.Size of equipment, space in hand.
2.Does it serve the purpose for which it is bought?
3.Easy to use and clean.
4.Could it be used for more than one function?
5.Has it helped to save space, time and energy?
6.Will it save money in the long term?
7.Does the staff like it or are they forced to use it?
8.Is it safe to use?
9.Has the fuel bill gone up or down?
10. Does it need constant supervision?

Heat producing equipments

A)Heavy equipment

1. Ranges: Heated either by gas or electricity are common in today’s food service. The menu dictates whether a heavy, medium or light
weight model is necessary. It should be selected on the basis of its capacity, versatility and consistency of temperature, serviceability
and dependability.
2. Griddles: Food services use either gas or electric griddles. They can be incorporated as part of the range or they may be stand alone on a
platform.
3. Tilting pans or brat pans: One of the most versatile pieces of equipment in the kitchen is the tilting pan. It comes in various sizes.
It can tilt up to 90 degrees.
4. Ovens:
There are different types of ovens to choose from conventional, mechanical, convectional, combo or microwave.

a) Convectional ovens: Atypical convectional oven is heated by a lower heat source and an overhead source as well in an enclosed
chamber. Transfer of heat occurs both by convection (of hot air moving in the chamber) and conduction (when pans or other
equipment in it comes in contact with the hot surfaces). The deck oven is the most common. It consists of a stack of ovens
built in decks or tiers one on top of another.
b) Mechanical Ovens: The mechanical oven evolved from the conventional one. It has a mechanically moving interior that
shifts food around to the different parts of the oven. One variety is the revolving tray or reel oven, which has trays that
rotate in a circle around the oven, which has trays that rotate in a circle around the oven interior. Another variety uses a
moving or travelling tray, which passes through a long oven, different temperature ranges are possible within the long area
travelled. Another type of mechanical oven is the conveyor oven. A moving belt or track carries an uncooked item through a
tunnel containing heating elements and the item emerges from the oven as a finished product. Food passes through as many as
three different temperature zones- for preheating, cooking and finishing. This oven is geared toward high volume operation that
has a peak demand.
c) Convection ovens: Many conventional ovens have stagnant heat areas where heat does not move. If heat is moved around by
forced convection, cooking is more rapid, less heat is needed. The convection oven is where heat is moved by a fan.
d) Combo ovens: The combo oven gets its name because it cooks with dry heat and steam heat. It is energy efficient and
can reduce food shrinkage in baking because moisture can be reintroduced. Fans circulate heat, which gives them the
same advantage that convectional ovens have. They use gas or electricity.
e) Microwave ovens: Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic energy intermediate in frequency and wavelength between
radio and infrared waves. When microwaves penetrate food, molecular activity or movement takes place withi8n the food
creating friction that heats the food internally. Microwaves pass through glass and non-metallic materials, so these
materials are used to hold foods being cooked in a microwave oven. Microwave cooking has not replaced conventional cooking
in food service operations because they do not allow production of large volumes of food. When it is appropriately used, The
unit can bring food from a refrigerated or frozen state to a serviceable hot state in a few minutes thus allowing operations
to prepare foods on order.

Light equipment

1. Fryers: Deep fat fryers are used to cook food in a bath of hot fat, producing a nicely browned crisp outer coating and a completely cooked,
moist interior. In the conventional fryer, fat is used to conduct heat from the heat source to the food. The pressure fryer also cooks in deep fat
trapping moisture from the foods to generate steam, which increases pressure inside the fryer and reduces the cooking time, especially successful
for producing tender moist fried chicken. Both regular and pressure fryers may have automatic, semi automatic or hand operated features.

B) Cold producing equipments
1. Refrigerator: A refrigerator is a cooling appliance comprising of a thermally insulated compartment and a heat pump. Cooling is a popular food storage technique in developed countries and works by decreasing the reproduction rate of bacteria. A device described as a refrigerator maintains a
temperature a few degrees above the freezing point of water, a similar device which maintains a temperature below the freezing point of water is
called a Freezer.

2. Freezer: Freezer units are used in households and in industry and commerce. Most freezers operate around 0°F (18°C). Domestic freezers can be
included as a separate compartment in a refrigerator, or can be a separate appliance. Domestic freezers are generally upright units resembling
refrigerators, or chests resembling upright units laid on their backs.

C) Processing equipment
1. Food mixers: Food mixers are available in different sizes and capacities. Various attachments are available to perform slicing, grating, grinding,
preparing dough, cake batters, whipping cream, meringues and mayonnaise.
2. Food cutters: One type of food cutter known as the Buffalo chopper consists of a rotating bowl that move food into the path of a spinning
blade. As the food passes repeatedly through the blades, it is chopped into smaller pieces. The longer the machine is allowed to run, the smaller
the particles become. It is easy to clean and contains no cracks or crevices that could harbour bacteria. Attachments are available for
cutting, slicing, grating,shredding and similar operations. Another cutter called the Qualheim cutter chops, dices, makes strips, etc. The unit
should be used when there is a large quantity of work to be done since clean up and reassembly requires time. The vertical cutter and mixer
(known as the VCM) chops cuts, mixes, blends, emulsifies, purees food in a matter of seconds. The operations may be completed in a short time.
The cutter has few movable parts and is easy to clean. The VCM tilts to facilitate emptying of the bowl. It is available in various sizes.
3. Food slicer: The slicer is basically a circular knife on which items such as cheese, boneless meats, vegetables, breads can be sliced. A uniform
clean straight slice of almost any reasonably firm product is possible with this piece of equipment. The item to be sliced glides back and forth
on a carriage feeding into the knife. By adjusting the distance between the plate on which the product rests and the knife itself, the operator
can adjust the thickness of the slice as desired. Slicers are available in different sizes depending on the size of the knife. One should avoid
cross contamination in the use of the slicer. Proper cleaning of the slicer between uses must always be done as also thorough cleaning at the end
of all tasks.
4. Vegetable peeler: This equipment is useful when a large quantity of hard root vegetables such as turnips, potatoes, carrots are peeled rapidly
by an abrasive , lightweight disc that spins around, removing the skin.Water flowing into the chamber removes the waste as it accumulates.
5. Meat processing equipment: Includes meat saws, choppers, grinders, cubers
and tenderizers.
6. Stone grinding machine for dosa batter.
7. Pulverizer used to pulverize gravies in large quantities.

D) Miscellaneous equipments

Miscellaneous equipments include can openers, knife, whisk, sauce pans, etc.


EQUIPMENTS USED IN QUANTITY KITCHEN
Equipments play a vital role in the kitchen either it is domestic kitchen or hotels quantity kitchen. One should keep knowledge about the use of kitchen equipments. The up keep and maintenance of the kitchen equipments are very important. If we do not clean the equipments, they may cause different kind of diseases. Usually we use two types of equipments:-

1.       Heavy equipments: - refrigerator, dough mixer, gas range, walk-in, working table, potato peeler, griller, tandoor, oven, high and low pressure burners, masala grinder etc.

2.       Light equipments: - bowl, ladles, pressure cooker, kadhai, colanders, mixer, chopper, frying spoon, etc.

 




Use and upkeep of equipments: -
 
MASALA GRINDER: -
 
a.       Switch off the plug.

b.      Remove wire, and scrub with soapy hot water solution.

c.       Remove out the stone from grinder.

d.      Wash grinder and stone separately.

e.      Keep stone in grinder, attach belt to it.

f.        Put on main switch of grinder and on the currant.

DOUGH MIXER: -
•         Switch off plug and remove wire.

•         Wash bowl and dough kneading rod, or creamer or whisk with warm soapy water solution.

•         Again wash all the equipments with warm water.

•         Fix bowl on mixer, then attach rod or creamer as per requirement.

•         Put ingredients in the bowl; lift up the bowl by turning handle anti-clockwise.

•         Press green switch, improve speed by turning gear-handle clockwise.

•         To reduce speed, press red switch lift-down the bowl by turning clockwise remove mixing rod and then remove the finished product.

•         Check belt of the motor occasionally.

•         Repeat the steps again.

POTATO PEELER:-
•         Wash peeler from inside tightly close the door.

•         Put potatoes from top, start main switch as well as water supply.

•         After peeling open door of the peeler.

•         Let all the peeled potatoes come out of the peeler.

•         Switch off the main plug.

•         Remove all the potato peels from it; scrub thoroughly with scrubber and dry completely.

•         Wash with clean & warm water.

•         Attach all the parts again for reuse.

MINCER: -
•         Switch off the plug and remove wire.

•         Remove all the attachment of the mincer; soak in warm water for 10-15 minutes.

•         Remove and wash with soapy water. Wipe with clean duster.

•         Keep all the attachment in one cupboard.

•         Always keep mincer dry.

•         Grease/oil the mincer once in a week.

CONVECTION OVEN:-
•         The oven should be switched off.

•         The oven should be allowed to cool until warm.

•         Remove all removable shelves or rack for separate cleaning.

•         Using a clean cloth soaked in hot soap solution, wipe the oven. Rinse the cloth as necessary.

•         The racks and shelves should be cleaned in the same way.

GRILLER HOT PLATE: -
•         Switch off the plug and remove wire.

•         Wait to cool and wash with soapy solution.

•         Use scrubber to rinse and clean thoroughly.

•         Remove the grill bars from side; rinse and wash them properly.

•         Scrap all the greasing parts from the corner and upside of the hot plate.

•         Wash properly and dry.

DEEP FAT FRYER: -
•         Switch off the fryer and allow for cooling.

•         Drain all the oil in normal way.

•         Remove all debris from fryer.

•         Fill the entire compartment with soap solution.

•         Brush inside using a bristle brush (never use steel wool).

•         Flush with clean water to which vinegar has been added. Dry with cloth.

TILTING PAN: -
•         The equipment should be cleaned thoroughly after use. Normally washing with hot soapy water and rinsing with clean will be sufficient.

•         Wire scourers or scouring powders are not recommended for models with on all the stainless steel finish.

•         If the pan has been used for frying, care should be taken to remove all oil film build up.

HIGH PRESSURE BURNERS RANGE: -

•         Turn of the main tunnel of the gas range and the secondary tunnel of the same. If removable, remove the supporting rods (square size).

•         Wash and rinse them with soapy water solution with the help of scrubber. Wash them with plain water and dry them.

•         To keep range top clean: - immediately wipe up all the spilling and boil over. Remove dust and tarnish, food particles etc on it.

•         If during cooking periods, spilling are left to bake and harden on hot surface. The cooling becomes much more difficult.

•         An inspection should be made after each cooking cycle when the equipment has been turned off and is in the cooling after obvious grease and other matter should be cleaned off immediately.

 
NOTE: - All the light equipments should be rinsed and washed with first, soapy water and then fresh water, wipe out with a clean duster after every use.
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MENU PLANNING & IT'S TYPES IN QUANTITY FOOD PRODUCTION

Menu planning means to compose a series of dishes for a meal. Composing a good menu is an art and it needs careful selection of dishes for the different courses. So that each dish harmonies with the other. 

The planning of meals in commercial catering establishment is based more on economic considerations and reputation than on the desire to provide nutritionally “balanced diets”. The dishes produced are intended to please the eye and the palate. The planning of menu for school feeding, industrial canteens, hostels, etc. has a different aspect and nutritious and well-balanced foods are compiled. 

There are some rules in the gastronomic laws which must be observed if one is to obtain success. As a badly compiled menu will spoil the complete meal. Menu should provide nutritious food, tempt the appetite, and satisfy the guests. 

It is essential to have knowledge about the sequence of courses in Western menus, because for Indians menus all the dishes are served at one time in a thali. The modern trend is to give about 4 to 6 courses and a list of various courses has been given. This is to enable one to choose from the sequence.

Institutional catering
Institutional catering is described as the art of feeding people who are unable to feed themselves in the modern world. It is responsible for the health and welfare of the younger generation. It involves catering for youth in schools, colleges & residential universities. These youth are generally in the age group of 5 – 25. It has the social responsibility of developing good food habits among the children of the nation and helping to build a strong and healthy population. Today this sector is recognized as being a significant and influential part of the catering industry.
Like all public sector, institutional catering operates under severe budgetary limitation. Public spending restraints mean that caterers must examine all areas f cost minutely. However, their degree of freedom to cut costs is often curtailed by the imposition of bureaucratic measures designed to monitor spending for instance, most caterers must deal with designated suppliers, work within rigid budgets and pay nationally negotiated wages. At times of cutbacks in spending the catering service is one of the first to be affected. Institutional catering differs in some aspects from those in the hotel industry. 

Yet both have some common objectives.
a. Food of good quality, property cooked & prepared.
b. Prompt and courteous service.
c. Well balanced, varied means.
d. Reasonable prices, consistent with service offered.
e. Adequate facilities
f. High standard of cleanliness and sanitation
The essential skills of an institutional caterer around selecting preparing and cooking food together with the skill of administration which becomes even more important as services grow in size and complexity.
Most institutional catering services operate on a ‘no profit no loss’ basis. There are fixed charges for the meals of the control of the budget is very tight. When planning a menu for an institutional service, the following points must be borne in mind.
- There is quantity production of a few products for each meal so the meal should be simple, properly cooked and palatable.
- Generally a cyclic menu is adopted but there should be enough variety to maintain appeal in the food.
- The nutrition aspect must be given due importance
- As there is likely to be lack of skilled / trained personnel, in the kitchens, there is need for simple meals without any elaborate items.
In addition to the fixed menus, there will be special occasions like festivals, functions etc. which will call for special meals.
Equipment purchase is a major consideration and a long term investment. Care should be taken in selecting equipment :
- Original costs, installation charges, maintenance cost, insurance depreciation
- Durability and simplicity in operation
- Efficient use of space
- Mechanical efficiency
- Availability of spare parts
- Menu choice, food quantities and meal hours
THE DINNING ROOM: Adequate consideration should be given to the physical, sociological and psychological atmosphere including both functional and aesthetic value. The location should provide plenty of light and air and must be free of disagreeable odors, noises and fumes. The environment must satisfy the customer’s senses as well as appetite.
COSTING AND INDENTING: - In the first year you learn to calculate the cost of an entire standardized recipe and then work out the cost per portion by simple arithmetical exercise of multiplying the quantity required by the unit cost and work out the value.
Quantity in terms of unit x rate per unit = value. Similarly you calculate the food cost be taking into account the actual cost of the ingredients used in the preparation of an entire meal and the food cost percentage was worked out thus:
Food cost * 100 = Food Cost %
Selling price
This year you will learn the difference between just indenting for let’s say four portions and for a 100 person buffet or a 200 person wedding reception.
One of the main things to remember is that whatever provision or goods received in the kitchen on a said day is not necessarily the food cost, but the actual consumption of material on that day is termed as the food cost for that day.

VOLUME FEEDING IN INDIA: - The difference between small and mass food production is very difficult to define. Most food standards, principles and large number of techniques are the same. Some define quantity food production (for volume feeding ) as the production of 25 or more portions. A report compiled by the National Restaurants Association, lists food service units under two major groupings
1. Commercial or those establishments which are open to the public, are operated for profit and which may operate facilities and / or supply meal service on a regular basis for others.
2. Non-commercial (as employee feeding in schools, industrial and non-commercial organisations), education, government of institutional organisations which run their own food service operations. Food services in schools and universities, hospitals and other transportation armed services, industrial plants and correctional units are in the second group and may not show a profit or even balance out financially at the break even point.
SALIENT FEATURES
1. To serve hygienically prepared wholesome food.
2. Food is primarily as a service to complement their other activities and contribute to the fulfillment of the objectives of the institute.
3. Cyclic menus
4. Not profit oriented
5. Educational experience for those who are involved as they happen to experience different regional cuisine through the cyclic menus. As a result, the food habits become more flexible.
Quantity control quantity control and portion control are very important. A good quality standard, should cover essential characteristics that indicate quality in a product. Quality control programmes make it possible to serve as a consistent standard. Employee evaluation, taste panel, scoring customer reaction and other menus can be used to evaluate quality.
Good purchase specifications and finding the right product to suit the production need can do much to raise and maintain the quality standards.
Proper forecasting of quantities needed in production and controlling portion size are two essentials of good quality controls. Portion size varies according to food, type of meal and patron, cost of the food, appearance. Adults, teenagers and small children consume different quantities and portion sizes vary from them. Men eat more than women, an individual doing hard work eats more than other doing sedentary tasks.
Giving liberal quantities of less costly foods and smaller ones of the more expensive foods can be practiced. The portion appearance is affected by the portion size and shape of the dish, decoration and width of the rim, dish colour and food arrangement.
HOSPITAL CATERING
The hospital, today, is one of the most complex and fascinating organizations that mobilizes the skills and efforts of a number of widely divergent groups of professionals, semi-professionals and non-professionals to provide a highly personalized service to individual patients.
Today, the dietary department ranks as one of the major departments of the hospital, headed by a specialist, the dietitian. "The object of catering in hospitals is to assist the nursing staff to get the patient better as soon as possible. To do this, it is necessary to provide good quality food, to cook it with the minimum loss of nutrients and to provide it to the patients in an appetizing manner. If the food supplied to the patient is good plentiful, appetizing and nutritionally correct, then it plays a very great part towards the speedy recovery of the patient. - A part possibly as equally important as careful nursing and skilled medical attention.
Diet therapy is the use of food; as an agent in effecting recovery from illness. It 'is concerned with the nutrition of all patients-those receiving normal diets as well as those for whom modified diets have been prescribed.
The normal diet may be modified
- To provide change in consistency as in fluid and soft diets
- To increase or decrease energy levels
- To include greater or lesser amounts of one or more nutrients egg, high protein, low sodium etc..
- To increase or decrease fiber content of diet
- To provide foods bland in flavor
- To include or exclude specific foods as' in allergic conditions.
DIFFERENT TYPES OF DIETS
Regular/Normal diet, soft diet, bland diet, high or low fibre diet high or low protein diet, high-or low, fat diet, sodium restricted diet. Menus are generally planned and then formulated into 'Diet 
List1. These are made available to all attending medical staff. General diets are those which are normally followed in the general wards. Menus are made four days to a week in advance. The dietitian plans menus for each separate meal, specifying the foods to be served in a suitable
form. The nursing supervisors will keep the dietary department advised as to the number of patients of each type of diet. Special diets are prepared for those who ate not medically capable or permitted to eat certain food items which are generally used in the making of the menu. These diets are prepared under the supervision of the dietician or the food service supervisor
Kitchen: The hospital kitchen is planned with much consideration. The kitchen has a receiving area, proper storage facilities, pre-preparation room, preparation area or the main/hot kitchen. The hospital kitchen may also have a cold kitchen.
The kitchen may also be divided into various sections such as pre-preparation area, preparation area, grain cleaning area, tea and coffee section, roti preparation, service and trolley loading area, washing area, stores. The pre-preparation and preparation area may be further divided into separate Indian and Continental areas. The location of storeroom in relation with the kitchen is very important to avoid contamination of the food material and also to prevent pilferage. Separate storage areas for perishable and non-perishable items are desired.
The work flow, sufficient spacing between work tables/platforms and the presence of various equipments must be considered when planning the kitchen.
Equipments commonly found in hospital kitchens:
 
Gas ranges
 Steamer
Refrigerators
Chapatti tava and puffer
Deep Freezers
Deep fat fryer
Walk-in Cooler
Pressure Cooker
Grinding stone
Ovens
Masala grinder
Salamander
Brat Pan 
Weighing scale
Dough mixer
Toaster
Food processor
Bain Marie
Rice boiler
 










SERVICE
Food service for patients may be may be any one of the two general patterns –
Decentralised or centralised.
In decentralised, service all food is prepared in a central kitchen and sent to the floors, where it is portioned out on trays and served to patients.
In centralised service, food is prepared in a central kitchen, trays are set up and food is portioned out in a central serving unit and trays are sent to all patients' floor.
Menus in Govt. Hospitals:
In Govt. hospitals where only a small percentage of the patients can afford to pay for special service, it is unwise to burden either the individual patient or the hospital with unnecessary expenses. The general menu is:
EMT
Breakfast:
One cup of milk
Two slices of bread
Lunch & Dinner:
Rice
Chapatti
Dal
One vegetable.


Menu in private hospital (First class):
EMT
Breakfast:
Two slices of bread
One bowl of cereal
Egg (any style)
Vegetarian snack
Mid morning:
Fresh fruit juice
Lunch:
Soup
Chapatti
Rice
Vegetable (choice of two vegs)
Pulse
Curd
Fruits
E/Tea - Milk, Biscuits
Dinner:
Same as Lunch

OFF PREMISES CATERING :- Off premises catering has always been a specialized business. It is the service of meals in offices, clubs, canteens and also in individual homes. In this reference, premises mean the area where food is planned and prepared. Its growth has been tremendous and there is a vast improvement of the equipment used. It covers everything from take home meals to the most elaborate meals at weddings.
QUALITY OF A GOOD PARTY CATERER: - The success of any catering service depends upon the person behind the venture. He must have good contact with the people who will be most likely to make use of his services. He must be able to perform these services satisfactorily and must employ suitable, efficient and capable staff. Most important he must be able to serve tasty, eye appealing food deliver it to its destination on time at right temperature.
COMPLEXITIES OF PARTY CATERING: - Party catering like other skilled technical jobs is highly specialised job. While profit is an interesting part of the catering industry, the multitude of activities throwing a challenge to the caterer, is the difficult side of the coin. If careful consideration is given to certain small details and the people concerned take active participation. It will increase turnover, improve profits and generally enhance the reputation of the caterer. There are no get standard procedures and formula for a successful caterer. Procedures and techniques vary from job to job to place and according to the requirement of the occasion. The facilities available and the cost factor also plays an important role.
PLANNING OF THE MENU :- The arrangement of a suitable menu, perfect from all points of view necessary for any successful party catering. The caterer must be an individualist full of novel ideas and must be able to pressure them profitable for the company and attractively for the client. 
Nothing could be more disappointing and irritating to the guest as being served a dish smaller in portion size than he was told at the time of booking the party. This could be avoided if the price of an item is given along with its portion size. Every party, whether for 20 or for 2000 must be a speciality and different from anything that has gone before. Clients seldom come to the caterer and ask him to arrange a party like the one they have had before, usually suggestions are wanted to make the party different, something that is unique and will be talked about. The following points will help in thoughtful planning of the menu.
1. Planning well in advance will ensure minimum amount of repetition of the dishes.
2. Planning a menu for a definite cycle of time has been found to be different.
3. Variation must be produced by serving different vegetables and meats having a colour contrast.
4. Seasonal availability is very important as parties are booked in advance.
5. Nutritional balance must be ensured.
6. It must fir within the budget of the customer and to his satisfaction.
7. Equipment and personal must be adequate for the party.
8. The menu must adhere to the established standards of service and must ensure quality and variety of the food.
9. It helps to procure stores in advance.
10. The occasion for which the catering is done is an important factor and so the pattern of food will change accordingly.
To be successful, the menu must reflect the eating habits and expectations of the restaurant market. The tastes of customers are complex and varied and change from day to day and time to time.
EQUIPMENT : - These may include an assortment of good china, for special occasions such as weddings and anniversaries, good hollow ware and flatware, attractive glass and silverware, serving dishes of all kinds and sizes, good quality linen and all kinds and types of buffet service equipment. These are the items that the guest see and by which they judge and catering establishment. For storage and transportation of these equipment, it is important to have special boxes where the equipment will fit. There are many kinds and types of kitchen equipment, such as insulated carriers for soup, coffee and other beverages. There are containers to carry ice cubes, portable hot cases to keep food warm and also portable griddles. Caterers could also hire out tables, chairs and other accessories on a contract basis.
CHECKLIST :- Various checklist help the caterers in smooth and systematic functioning of the parties. Server should be informed before service on the size of the portion by weight, Volume or count. The dish in which they are served, the serving tool etc.
The use of standard recipe offers a sound basis for controlled portioning and the achievement of a uniform product.
In almost all organizations where they have to cater to a large group of people, the kitchen as well as the service areas will be well equipped. The personnel handling the food will also be educated in the field of food production, nutrition, hygiene and service.

PARAMETERS OF QUANTITY FOOD MENU PLANNING
In volume catering units, the main factors influencing the planning of menus are as follows:
1. Cost: - This is one of the main considerations in menu planning. The cost of the menu should be within the budgeted allowance of any unit to be economically viable, whether it is run on a profit or non profit basis.
2. Ease of preparation: - Since mass catering units provide for large numbers, case of preparation of any dish must be considered. Elaborate preparation is time consuming and may result in delays in service of prepared foods leading to bad customer relations and appearance of inefficiency.
3. Incorporation of leftovers: - Menus for mass catering should be planned in such a way that any leftovers from one meal can be incorporated in the next meal so as to avoid abnormal wastage, reduce food cost.
4. Cyclic menus: - Menus should be planned in sets for a fortnight or for a month. This is then repeated all over again for ease in operations. Menus can be changed after such periods and seasonal foods can be incorporated. This will help provide variety economically.
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SOUS VIDE, COOK CHILL & COOK FREEZE

Sous-Vide Cooking
Sous-vide, French for “under vacuum”, is a method of cooking food sealed in airtight plastic bags in a water bath for a long time—72 hours is not unusual—at an accurately determined temperature much lower than normally used for cooking, typically around 60 °C or 140 °F. The intention is to maintain the integrity of ingredients and achieve very precise control of cooking.
By cooking the food at a precise temperature, foods are cooked to perfection every time. You may decide that the ideal temperature for the interior of a cut of beef is 140 degrees, but by using any traditional cooking method, no matter how good the chef is, it’s pretty hard to hit that number exactly right every time, and there can sometimes by some considerable difference between the ideal and the reality. With sous vide cooking, a food wanted at 140 degrees, will be cooked at 140 degrees in simmering water, and because the cooking medium is not hotter than the desired temperature, the food can never be overcooked, no matter how long it’s left in.
The second reason that chefs love this is for the intensity of flavoring possible. The food effectively cooks in its marinade, and since it’s vacuum sealed into the meat, the effects of the seasoning are more pronounced. Additionally, because the food is cooked under a vacuum, the natural juices are unable to escape from the meat, and the resulting food is much more succulent.
Thirdly, the technique allows for a manipulation of food that is not really possible in any other way. Take short oxtail for example. A really delicious and flavorful cut of meat…but also very chewy, and as such the only way to cook it and make it tender is to braise it low and slow, and keep cooking it until it is thoroughly well done, and all of the collagen in the meat is transformed to gelatin. Trying to eat a medium ox cheek cooked conventionally would be close to impossible. But using sous vide, the ox cheek can be cooked over a very low heat for many many hours, and during this very long and slow cooking, the collagen eventually transforms to gelatin, and what you get is the texture of a sirloin steak, and the incomparable beefy flavor of ox cheek. Pretty remarkable stuff.




Cooking at lower temperatures for extended periods of time also has these benefits:
• Minimal loss of moisture and weight
• Preservation of flavour and aroma as water soluble substances – especially aromatics – are not lost
• Flavours are enhanced, colours retained and little or no salt is required
• Nutrients are preserved as water-soluble minerals are not leached into cooking water, as cooking in a vacuum bag eliminates this
• Research has shown that sous vide gives the highest retention of vitamins vs. steaming and boiling
• Little additional fat is required during cooking
• Consistent results every time a dish is cooked
Professionals cook vacuum sealed food in water baths originally designed for laboratory usage, and these water baths can maintain the precise temperatures wanted for as long as needed.
The vacuum sealed meats can also be held without spoilage for far longer than usual, which is another thing that restaurants love, but this does raise some concerns of botulism.









The Cook Chill System
Cook Chill Systems are used by many types of food service organizations including Fine Dining Restaurants, Fast Food Restaurants, Restaurant Chains, Hospital Food Service Departments, School Food Service Departments, Institutional Food Service Departments and Caterers. These organizations produce large quantities of consistent 'just made fresh' foods using the Cook-Chill method which gives products an extended shelf life while achieving a reduction in food and labor costs and practicing safe food handling.
The Cook Chill System from Cryovac, D C Norris and Plascon Food Solutions is a major advance in prepared foods technology that ensures consistent quality in every batch, at every location, while reducing labor required for preparation and serving. Like no other system now on the market, Cook-Chill can provide a high degree of quality and fresh cooked taste.
Plascon Food Solutions in partnership with Cryovac Sealed Air Corporation and D C Norris, provides cook-chill bags, cook-chill bag closures, cook-chill equipment and cook-chill accessories. 
The Cook Chill 7-Step Process
1. Food Preparation
Food is prepared on site or at a central location under highest quality control standards and cooked in volume.
2. Bag Fill 
Upon reaching the exact degree of doneness, and while still above pasteurization temperature, food is filled directly into a Plascon Food Solutions Cook Chill bag to ensure strict sanitation.
3. Bag Seal
The Cook Chill bag is then securely closed with a heat seal system or clip closure.
4. Ice Bath 
The sealed bag is immediately placed in iced water to arrest the cooking process and reduce the food's core temperature to 40 degrees.
5. Store 
Food is stored refrigerated or frozen until ready to serve.
6. Retherm
At the serving location, product can be reheated in several ways. The bag can be placed in a steamer, or simply immersed in hot water. An additional option for the retherming process is opening the bag and
pouring the contents into a kettle or serving pan to reheat the product.
7. Finished Product
Aroma, taste, texture...the final presentation deliverys quality, 'fresh-cooked' goodness.
The Central Preparation Concept
Basically any food of pumpable consistency can be cooked and prepared at peak quality with the revolutionary Cook-Chill system. This includes soups, chowders, sauces, gravies, gelatins, chili, stews, casseroles, pasta dishes, pizza toppings, and many, many more.
Optimum Sanitation Throughout
With Cook-Chill, once the raw ingredients go into the cooking kettle, the food is never again exposed to handling. The SavorGuard bag is used for packaging, storing, distribution and reheating. This unique, multi layered material also prevents crossover of flavors or odors in distribution. The foods are packaged at above pasteurization temperature, and not exposed to air until the bag is opened for serving.
Freshness and Quality
Each batch prepared with the Cook-Chill method is a "prescription" for freshness and quality. This centralized preparation enables foodservice operators to maintain absolute control over uniformity and quality. All recipes are precisely measured and cooking cycles carefully monitored. Foods are cooked to proper doneness, never over- or undercooked. Thus, every serving location, no matter how distant, is assured uniform flavor, texture and quality. Best of all, even after weeks in storage, the foods taste as if they were freshly prepared.
A Proven, Successful System
The Cryovac Cook Chill System is now in use by leading foodservice operators nationwide, helping them serve a broader variety of fresh-tasting foods with new ease and consistency.
Family-style restaurant chains are supplying a wide variety of soups and entrees to their stores. A leading Mexican-food chain, for example, is packaging everything from chili con queso to refried beans.
A health care facility is supplying satellite locations from its central commissary, upgrading the quality of its "institutional" fare and realizing significant economic benefits in labor management and foodservice operations.
And a supermarket chain's central commissary is efficiently supplying in-store delis with soups, chili and a variety of hot entrees.
Other Benefits
Cook Chill Bags from Plascon Food Solutions work equally well for refrigerated or frozen foods. The Plascon Cook Chill bag withstands temperatures ranging from -20 F to 212 F.
Savings in manpower can be substantial, since highly skilled personnel (dietitians, chefs, etc.) are needed only at the central kitchen. No trained cooks are necessary at the serving locations; even part-time employees with minimal training are capable of reheating and serving. And, because so few pots and pans are used at the commissary and serving site, cleanup requires less time and labor.
Storage and inventory are easier to handle, too. Each package is identified by content and packaging date and is easily stackable minimizing storage space requirements. Deliveries can be reduced; each satellite can maintain fresh inventory in its own cooler with assured 30-day shelf life from date of packaging.







Cook - Freeze
 
Cook freeze is the process of cooking meals until they are almost done and then rapidly freezing them.
 
The process involves the preparation and cooking of meals at a central factory, rapidly reducing temperature to minus 20 degrees centigrade for storage until they are needed.
 
Cook Freeze foods need to be packed in shallow trays to make the process more efficient. The food is cooled to storage temperature within 90 minutes of cooking and stored at a maintained temperature of -20 degrees Celsius. The meals can then be transported in refrigerated transport to where the food is to be reheated (regenerated) and consumed when needed.
 
The length of storage depends on the food but typically it can be stored for months. For longer storage the food may be subjected to pasteurization after cooking.
 
The main target group for these products are people who have no time to spend cooking. These products are ideal because they are so easy. Typical categories would be schools, pensioners and possibly hospitals.
 
These processes have the advantage that the preparation and cooking of the meals is not tied to the times when the food is to be served, enabling staff and equipment to be used more efficiently.
 
A properly managed operation is capable of supplying high quality meals economically in spite of the high initial equipment costs. There are potential problems, however. In particular, careful attention has to be paid to hygiene, as there are a number of points in the process where food pathogens can gain access. This requires careful attention to both the control of the process and to staff training.
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hi chef can you please compare the difference between sous vide and centralised system.
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Introduction
Working as an Associate Professor & HOD - Food Production since past 8 years, I realized that there isn't any single handy book to refer for Food Production Theory notes. Thus the students have to gather material from various sources. This is an attempt to stream line data for a one stop shop for all culinary students.
I have taken help of multiple online as well as offline resources to compile these notes. My sincere thanks to all the authors of the secondary data resources for adding value and assistance and sharing free valuable information to the young generation.
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