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Gary Ray R
Attended U of Hawaii '83, Cal Poly '96
Lives in Central Coast California
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Gary Ray R

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I want one of these Mobility Scooters

My knee surgery is complete, I am learning how to walk again, and could use a mobility scooter.    Like this one.

It is just a bit faster than the electric ones you see, this one can do a quarter mile and get to almost 108 miles per hour. (173 Kilometers/hour)  

Alas, I don't think my doc and PT will go for it.  And it really is a souped up go-cart with a motorcycle engine and a scooter frame, so I think Medicare might not pay for it.  Also kinda hard to use indoors.  But a man can dream.

According to Guinness World Record rules, to qualify the vehicle has to be based on a commercially available mobility aid and, from the outside, must look like a traditional motorscooter. So Anderson took a racing go-kart chassis, and re-designed it to fit the dimensions of a Days Strider mobility scooter. He then equipped it with the engine from a Suzuki 600 cc Bandit and replaced the 8-mph (13-km/h)-rated tires with racing wheels and tires from the go-kart.

Souped-up mobility scooter rockets into the record books at 107 mph
http://www.gizmag.com/mobility-scooter-record/41749/
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+Gary Ray R I thoroughly understand, and we'll all be looking forward to seeing the Jays. Take care! 🌞
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♄Ѧ℘ρƴ  ᾔℰω  ƴεαя  ❣

To all my dear friends here on Google Plus I wish a very 
Happy New Year!

So far the year is not too bad.  

The picture is of a Bird of Paradise in our yard, and I wanted to share it.
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Thanks +Kathy D, I softened this up a bit, I am going to take the original sharp version and print it out big at Costco.  I haven't tried that with my new camera yet and this image is a good one to try it with.

シ ッ ツ ヅ +Gita Jaisinghani 😀😀😀
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Community Policy (MODS only!)  - 
 
Notice To All Members of Science on G+
 
The amount of Spam has been increasing exponentially lately.  The moderators and owners are working constantly to keep up with it, but more and more spam posts are getting through Google's filters and we are asking for your help.

When you see a spam post please flag it immediately, this helps us and helps the filter to learn the spammers identity and get them off of G+. Also please use the feedback feature to notify Google of these spam posts.  

Thank you.
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+Gary Ray R​ Yes, the lack of adequate moderation capabilities is definitely something to be reported using the feedback tool. That's exactly the process that they're using: launch something new, learn from the feedback, fix issues, repeat. :-) And sending high quality feedback pays off, because it really increases chances that the issue is going to be fixed.
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Merry Christmas my Friends

I'm not religious, but for today I thought this post by +Don Komarechka was a good science/photography/symbolic one for Christmas Eve. 

Don is an amazing photographer of snowflakes, and he explains how these beautiful tiny crystals are formed as well as how he takes these amazing images.

So Merry Christmas to all and all a Good Night. 
 
Snowflake-a-Day #24
I’m not a religious person, but I thought this snowflake might be symbolic for many people. I saved it for Christmas Eve for that reason, but I’ll explain scientifically how these “crossed needles” form. View large!
 
 “Bullet rosette” type snowflakes like the one posted yesterday form in a similar way, but this is the “needle” variety. Needle crystals grow at slightly warmer temperature, only about 2 degrees below the freezing point of water. They form into elongated columns that grow much more rapidly, but they can also begin their lives around a common object with multiple nucleation sites.
 
Each crystal needs a nucleus to begin its growth. You can see a few new crystals forming from nucleation sites on top of the already-formed needed as well, two are easy to see where the needles cross. These could have been started from the impact of a super-cooled water droplet freezing on impact, giving rise to a new starting point. The same kind of origin is likely true for the initial needles that make up this snowflake.
 
Imagine a tiny pellet of ice, as if a small droplet of water has simply frozen solid. It wouldn’t be a crystal itself, but might have some irregular surface features for which water vapour could begin attaching itself to. This erratic start can cause crystals to begin forming at multiple points along the tiny ice pellet, growing independently of one another.
 
So, why the cross? Each crystal has the best chance of success if it grows into an open area where there is more water vapour to fuel further growth. The best-case scenario is seen when these crystals grow perpendicular to each-other, allowing for the maximum amount of space between the columns so that they do not inhibit the growth of one another. Other angles might be possible but by far the most common is this variety, as it has the greatest chance for outward growth.
 
This is similar to twelve-sided snowflakes, which are basically just two 6-sided crystals stuck together. They grow best when they’ve randomly stuck together in a 30-degree rotation, allowing each branch to have equal spacing on either side. Without equal spacing, twelve-sided snowflakes wouldn’t form and neither would crossed needles like this.
 
Needle-type crystals are very difficult to photograph because of the warm temperatures in which they form. The temperature in the clouds is often cooler than the temperature on the ground, and so close to the freezing point in the sky means they often begin melting before even hitting the ground. On rare occasions the ground temperature is equal or cooler than the environment where the crystal formed, and you have an opportunity to observe and photograph them before they disappear. There have only been two or three scenarios where I’ve been able to get solid needle images.
 
To understand how snowflakes form, and how to photograph them using the same techniques I use for all my snowflake photographs, pick up a copy of Sky Crystals: https://skycrystals.ca/book/ - it’s the best guide to photographing these beauties, and winter in North America is about to hit us in a few days! Temperatures are dropping, so get ready!

To see the fruits of my labour over five years and 2500 hours with the subject in a single image, check out “The Snowflake” print: https://skycrystals.ca/poster/ - nothing like this has ever been done before. It’s worth a look!
 
Merry Christmas!
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And a very Merry Christmas to you and yours, +Vladimir Tarnovsky 
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Some Political Ideas That Need to be Heard

I"m posting links to a couple of articles from the Washington Monthly that I found interesting.  I am not allowing comments as I don't want to get into a political argument. But have a look at these to see what you think.

The Electoral College Challenge
http://www.washingtonmonthly.com/political-animal-a/2015_12/the_electoral_college_challeng059011.php

Would a Ted Cruz Candidacy Be Good for the Country?
http://www.washingtonmonthly.com/political-animal-a/2015_12/would_a_ted_cruz_candidacy_be058978.php
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Heat dissipation during hovering and forward flight in hummingbirds

Excellent post by +Rajini Rao, one of the smart women scientists that posts regularly here on G+.

From the Abstract of the Open Access paper.
Flying animals generate large amounts of heat, which must be dissipated to avoid overheating. In birds, heat dissipation is complicated by feathers, which cover most body surfaces and retard heat loss. To understand how birds manage heat budgets during flight, it is critical to know how heat moves from the skin to the external environment.
 
The Flight of the Hummingbird

A route of evanescence
With a revolving wheel
A resonance of emerald,
A rush of cochineal

With these words, the poet Emily Dickinson summed up the fleeting magic of the hummingbird.  

Hummingbirds are the only vertebrates capable of hovering in place. In addition to flying forwards, they can also fly backward and upside down! They are tiny: the smallest bee hummingbird of Cuba weighs less than 2 grams, less than a penny! Add to this their speed- they can clock up to 45 mph, and stamina- they can fly 18 straight hours, and you may appreciate their unusual metabolism. In fact, they have the highest metabolic rate of any warm blooded animal. 

With a heart beat of 1,200/min and wing beat of 200/sec during flight, hummingbirds generate a tremendous amount of heat. Because their muscles are only ~10% efficient, much of the energy they consume is released as heat. But their thick plumage of feathers keeps in the heat: useful when the bird wants to conserve body heat, but a problem during flight. 

Using infrared thermal photography, scientists have found that hummingbirds (and probably most birds) lose body heat from three areas seen as bright white spots in the gif below: the region around the eyes, at the shoulder where the wings meet the body, and the feet, which they can dangle downward to dissipate even more heat. 

Ref: http://rsos.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/2/12/150598
Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=btuu_hDU7B4
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The little guy I photographed was almost entirely unafraid of me. Shortly after taking the picture you see, after he'd moved to another location a bit closer to the feeder he was guarding, he let me reach out and pet him with my finger.

I believe an Anna's hummingbird was the species of one we had nesting on a floodlight right outside our patio door two years in a row before we moved from SoCal. She successfully raised two chicks each of the last two years.

Here she is:

https://goo.gl/photos/xm2zqKFtDoJvEdH56

The colored stuff stuck on her nest is paint chips, gather from two different sections of fence in our yard, and arranged, interestingly enough, to camouflage the outline of her nest. The chips were arranged that when looking toward her nest from a distance, at about the same altitude, the predominate chip color matched the background as seen from that angle.
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It's Really Beginning to Look Like a Wet Season for California

I read and like to pass along the latest California weather information from one of the experts, +Daniel Swain.  He is a Ph.D at Stanford and really knows the material.  

This week the post is:
Substantial Northern California storms this week; El Niño-influenced pattern likely to emerge in December
Now that is a good headline if you live in parched California. I am posting some of his excellent explanation of how El Niño will affect our wet season.  I highly recommend you click over and read the entire article.  And don't forget the comments, Daniel has a lot of really smart people that follow him and there is much to learn from the comments.

El Niño is presently maintaining its record-breaking peak intensity, and temperature anomalies in the key Niño 3.4 region of the tropical Pacific Ocean are higher on both a weekly and monthly basis than they have been at any time since at least the 1950s (surpassing even the 1982-1983 and 1997-1998 events). Clearly, an extremely strong El Niño remains deeply entrenched in the Pacific–and, as I’ll discuss shortly, California weather impacts are starting to emerge.

But what about our dry autumn? Is that a sign that El Niño is not behaving as expected?

In a word: no. The main reason why El Niño hasn’t yet brought a wet winter to California is that…well, winter hasn’t happened yet! For physical reasons relating to the seasonal cycle of the jet Pacific stream (which I described in considerable detail in my last post, with the aid of illustrations by Emily Underwood), El Niño’s primary influence upon California weather does not take hold until the the core rainy season months of December through March. Thus, we should expect even the strongest El Niño events to exert a relatively marginal influence upon autumn precipitation in the Golden State. When it comes to top-tier El Niño events, patience is a virtue.

Series of significant storm systems to bring substantial rain, wind to NorCal over next 10 days

Major North Pacific pattern shift underway; likely setting stage for very wet January statewide.

Long-range ensemble forecasts (from all major international models) are suggesting the development of a large-scale atmospheric pattern over the next 2-3 weeks that strongly resembles the very active and wet one which has been long-advertised by the CFS and other seasonal models for winter 2015-2016. In other words, it appears that El Niño’s influence will finally start to dominate–and significant rains will return to all of California–before the end of December.

http://www.weatherwest.com/archives/3677

PS  We now have our 550 Gallon rain catchment tank installed and the French drains all around the house are done.  I want to see if it all works. 


Image:  From comments, this is a model of the upper level temperature for around December 20.   It shows cold and possible snow for much of California right before Christmas.  Cool.
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+Gary Ray R Keeping my fingers crossed for everyone!! "Drücken die Daumen' !!
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Finally the Weather Shifts to Winter Rain in California

My favorite weather scientist +Daniel Swain has written a new blog post about the weather in California.  The short version, "Rainy Season is finally here in CA, some drought relief in sight"

Daniel states in his newest blog report:
There is very strong multi-model support for an extended period (of at least 3 weeks, starting on Sunday) of greatly enhanced storminess and widespread precipitation throughout California.
That is science speak for "It's gonna rain a lot for a while in CA." 

The large-scale atmospheric shift I’ve been referencing in nearly every blog post from the past 6 months has finally materialized, and will make itself known in California as early as this weekend.

This is the classic El Niño pattern that I have discussed in previous posts, with a powerful Pacific jet aimed either directly at or south of California.

The jet stream is dipping down enough for it to bring a long line of storms to California. That jet stream is shown below.

The area along of just north of the jet stream is a favorable position for storm development and intensification. Usually, California is located near the regional minimum of jet stream strength as it veers northward, but the imminent pattern shift will create a situation in which storms are much more likely to maintain their open-ocean strength or even strengthen as the approach California from the west. There is very strong multi-model support for an extended period (of at least 3 weeks, starting on Sunday) of greatly enhanced storminess and widespread precipitation throughout California.

EDIT
WeatherWest is read by many top climate scientists and weather experts, check out the extensive comments on this blog to get even more detail.  (for you real weather nerds)

Stay dry my California friends, have you cleaned out your gutters?

WeatherWest.com.
Parade of East Pacific storms to affect all of California as subtropical jet strengthens
http://www.weatherwest.com/archives/3754
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Thanks LP, we should be ready for the 'gully washer' they are predicting.  The lakes are ready to receive the flows from the watersheds.   
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End of the Year Round Up

I have been bit busy with the holidays and our house remodel.  Thought I should check in with some pictures.  

There is a before and after of the solarium, and another before and after of the shower.  

I also included a picture of a Santa Sculpture that we have as part of our weird Santa collection, +Chad Haney should like this.   We call this Santa the 2nd Amendments Santa, he has his hunting rifle and a grim determined look. 

The last is a picture of an American Bushtit (no, not that kind, pervertシ) in our hedge.  They are tiny little birds and difficult to get a picture of as they are skittish and fast.  This is for a nature photo challenge that +Nikki C asked me to do months ago.  I think this is the number 4 of "nature" found in our yard.  Plus Nikki just posted that nice picture of an English Robin and she inspired me. 
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That 's the way it should be, +Gary Ray R.......maybe not slow........but accurate. The wooden structure will remain visible and you don 't wanna look at slots and stuff like that when you enjoy your solarium.
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Terrible Fire in Massive Skyscraper in Dubai

I just saw this on Twitter.  Source is from Russia Today.

Pictures emerge on Twitter showing The Address Downtown Dubai hotel engulfed in flames. The building that hosts the 5-star hotel is 302 meters tall and is located not far from the New Year's Eve fireworks display.
It was not immediately clear what caused the fire, which covered at least 20 stories of the building near the Burj Khalifa, the world's tallest skyscraper, AP reports

https://www.rt.com/news/327592-dubai-hotel-fire-address/
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Dart road carriers@.com
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• Astronomy/Astrophysics ☄  - 
 
Why Is the Sun's Atmosphere Hotter than Its Surface? 

Excellent post by +annarita ruberto. She is one of the exceptional science teachers that posts regularly here on G+.  (H/T to +Jyoti Q Dahiya)

The sun's surface is blisteringly hot at 10,340 degrees Fahrenheit -- but its atmosphere is another 300 times hotter. This has led to an enduring mystery for those who study the sun: What heats the atmosphere to such extreme temperatures?
Normally when you move away from a hot source the environment gets cooler, but some mechanism is clearly at work in the solar atmosphere, the corona, to bring the temperatures up so high.
 
Why Is the Sun's Atmosphere Hotter than Its Surface?

The sun's surface is blisteringly hot at 10,340 degrees Fahrenheit -- but its atmosphere is another 300 times hotter. This has led to an enduring mystery for those who study the sun: What heats the atmosphere to such extreme temperatures?
Normally when you move away from a hot source the environment gets cooler, but some mechanism is clearly at work in the solar atmosphere, the corona, to bring the temperatures up so high.

Clear evidence now suggests that the heating mechanism depends on regular, but intermittent explosive bursts of heat, rather than on continuous gradual heating. This solution to the coronal heating mystery was presented in a media briefing on April 28, 2015, at the Triennial Earth-Sun Summit, or TESS, meeting in Indianapolis, Indiana.

This is the inaugural meeting for TESS, which is a first of its kind: uniting the various research groups that study the sun-Earth connection from explosions on the sun to their effects near our home planet and all the way out to the edges of the solar system – a research field collectively known as heliophysics. The overarching goal is to share techniques across disciplines and encourage interdisciplinary collaboration on outstanding heliophysics questions.

The coronal heating mystery is one such outstanding question. Four scientists spoke at the media briefing.

Jim Klimchuk, a solar scientist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, explained that the new evidence supports a theory that the sun's corona is heated by tiny explosions called nanoflares. These are impulsive heating bursts that individually reach incredibly hot temperatures of some 10 million Kelvins or 18 million degrees Fahrenheit – even greater than the average temperature of the corona – and provide heat to the atmosphere. The research evidence presented by the panel spotted this super hot solar material, called plasma, representative of a nanoflare.

"The explosions are called nanoflares because they have one-billionth the energy of a regular flare," said Klimchuk. "Despite being tiny by solar standards, each packs the wallop of a 10 megaton hydrogen bomb. Millions of them are going off every second across the sun, and collectively they heat the corona."

Read the whole article>>
http://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/sounding-rockets/strong-evidence-for-coronal-heating-theory-presented-at-2015-tess-meeting

Image Description: NASA's EUNIS sounding rocket examined light from the sun in the area shown by the white line (imposed over an image of the sun from NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory) then separated the light into various wavelengths (as shown in the lined images – spectra – on the right and left) to identify the temperature of material observed on the sun. The spectra provided evidence to explain why the sun's atmosphere is so much hotter than its surface.

►*Image Credits*: NASA/EUNIS/SDO

#solar_dynamics_observatory, #NASA, #Sun_Atmosphere, #nanoflares, #solar_system, #space, #universe, #astronomy
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+bruce gelman
The article linked helps explains the meaning of this image.

Here is the explanation of the image from the article:

NASA's EUNIS sounding rocket examined light from the sun in the area shown by the white line (imposed over an image of the sun from NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory) then separated the light into various wavelengths (as shown in the lined images – spectra – on the right and left) to identify the temperature of material observed on the sun. The spectra provided evidence to explain why the sun's atmosphere is so much hotter than its surface. 
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• Biology  - 
 
Heat dissipation during hovering and forward flight in hummingbirds

Excellent post by +Rajini Rao, one of the smart women scientists that posts regularly here on G+.

From the Abstract of the Open Access paper.
Flying animals generate large amounts of heat, which must be dissipated to avoid overheating. In birds, heat dissipation is complicated by feathers, which cover most body surfaces and retard heat loss. To understand how birds manage heat budgets during flight, it is critical to know how heat moves from the skin to the external environment.
 
The Flight of the Hummingbird

A route of evanescence
With a revolving wheel
A resonance of emerald,
A rush of cochineal

With these words, the poet Emily Dickinson summed up the fleeting magic of the hummingbird.  

Hummingbirds are the only vertebrates capable of hovering in place. In addition to flying forwards, they can also fly backward and upside down! They are tiny: the smallest bee hummingbird of Cuba weighs less than 2 grams, less than a penny! Add to this their speed- they can clock up to 45 mph, and stamina- they can fly 18 straight hours, and you may appreciate their unusual metabolism. In fact, they have the highest metabolic rate of any warm blooded animal. 

With a heart beat of 1,200/min and wing beat of 200/sec during flight, hummingbirds generate a tremendous amount of heat. Because their muscles are only ~10% efficient, much of the energy they consume is released as heat. But their thick plumage of feathers keeps in the heat: useful when the bird wants to conserve body heat, but a problem during flight. 

Using infrared thermal photography, scientists have found that hummingbirds (and probably most birds) lose body heat from three areas seen as bright white spots in the gif below: the region around the eyes, at the shoulder where the wings meet the body, and the feet, which they can dangle downward to dissipate even more heat. 

Ref: http://rsos.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/2/12/150598
Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=btuu_hDU7B4
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How about 'Excellent post by +Rajini Rao. She is one of the smart scientists that posts regularly here on G+.' instead?
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Education
  • U of Hawaii '83, Cal Poly '96
    Mechanical Engineering, 1983
  • California State Polytechnic University, San Luis Obispo
    M.S. Materials Engineering, 1996
  • US Navy
    Nuclear Power School
  • General Electric
    Field Engineer Traininng
Basic Information
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Tagline
I am science geek, and Engineer. I write posts about all types of Science, I love Mechanical Engineering, Materials Engineering and the sea. I am a man of odd enthusiasms. I also post some of my photographs. *EDIT* I don't post as much as I used too, but there are dozens and dozens of older science posts on my stream. I will post more.
Introduction

Notice: as of Jan 29, 2016, I am taking a short break from social media.

I have been on the Internet since 1990.  We have had a computer in our home since 1983.

As I am a bit older than the “average bear,”

I lived in Hawaii and Guam for years, and spent over one and a half years underwater on a Boomer and a Fast Attack Nuclear Submarine, and spent some time on a couple of WW2 Destroyers.   

 I have a Mechanical Engineering Degree from U of Hawaii and a Masters in Materials Engineering from Cal Poly.

I worked as a Field Engineer for General Electric. I worked in Power Delivery, Large and Medium Steam Turbines, Large Gas Turbines, and Nuclear Submarine Engines, in Hawaii, Massachusetts and Oregon.   

EDIT: I don't post as much as I used to, but I have lots of older science posts, more to come.

I laugh about everything and love dark humor, but really don’t put up with Internet Trolls well.  If you are a makebate or a mumpsimus you will be blocked.  

Mumpsimus is an action by a person, or the person themselves,who adheres to a routine, idea, custom, set of beliefs, that has been shown to be unreasonable or incorrect.

Makebate - a person who causes contention or discord, just wants to argue.

I am one of the Owners for Science on G+  Community

I am Co-Owner for Materials Science on G+ Community with Bill Carter.

I do not use Collections.  

Bragging rights
Worked on some of the largest most powerful machines on earth. (and loved it) Nuclear Submarine Veteran of the Cold War, Boomer, Engine Room Supervisor and Enlisted man. Field Engineer, General Electric. Masters in Materials Engineering. I am a strong advocate for People with Disabilities. Married the most beautiful woman in the world. I am a strong feminist. I once slept next to a nuclear weapon for a few weeks in the torpedo room of a submarine.
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Map of the places this user has livedMap of the places this user has livedMap of the places this user has lived
Currently
Central Coast California
Previously
Boston - Honolulu - Guam - Chicago - Albuquerque - Schenectady - Roswell - Under the Sea - Orlando, FL - San Diego, CA - Portland, OR
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