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Science - From Archaeology to Zoology and More!
Science - From Archaeology to Zoology and More!

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Slow Motion Ferrocerium Sparks

Ferrocerium is a man-made metallic material that produces sparks reaching 3,000°C when scraped against a rough surface. Commonly referred to as "flint," it bears no chemical resemblance to naturally occurring flint mineral once used for the same purpose. When scraped on a piece of steel, tiny pieces of flint are shaved off and ignited by the heat generated by friction. This produces the shower of sparks that can be used to start a fire.

Source: https://youtu.be/qO9g1_BTz0o (The Slow Mo Guys)

#ScienceGIF #Science #GIF #Ferrocerium #Flint #Steel #Fire #Sparks #SlowMotion #SlowMo #SloMo #SlowMoGuys #Physics 
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Microscale Rockets

Each one of these microscopic cylindrical tubes is roughly 10 microns in length and chemically propelled like a space-faring rocket. They draw in fuel from the surrounding environment, which reacts with the catalysts coating the interior to produce gases (oxygen). These resulting gases bubble out the rear of the microrocket, creating thrust capable of propelling the tubes at more than 1000 body-lengths/second.

Researchers have already demonstrated the ability to haul cargo with these tiny rockets and hope to one day use them to precisely deliver drugs and isolate cancer cells.

Source: https://youtu.be/6b4o0wHDzpA

#ScienceGIF #Science #GIF #Nanoscience #Microscopic #Nanometer #Micrometer #Rocket #Chemical #Reaction #Propulsion #Load #Bubbles #Nanotechnology #Fabrication
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Evolution of the desk -- fascinating #GIF
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Here is an animated gif illustrating an earth year of the solar system, based on data source provided by NASA,  and made by Dynamic Diagrams. 

There is also a much better, interactive version assembling an Orrery that illustrates the positions of the planets and moons in our solar system and allows a user to view their alignment at any given date in the past or present. Check it out: http://bit.ly/17AlqWM

#solarsystem #spacegif #animatedgif    
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Static Electricity

Static electricity is the imbalance of electric charges within or on the surface of a material. A cheap electrostatic generator can be used to produce static electricity with high voltage and low continuous current. The charge imbalance between the hand and the particles of sand cause them to become repelled from one another.

Source: https://youtu.be/P5za9sa4-qk

#ScienceGIF #Science #GIF #Electricity #StaticElectricity #Physics #Sand #Electric #Charge 
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The Whoosh Bottle

The Whoosh Bottle is a classic classroom science demonstration of the energy released during combustion. A small volume of alcohol (ethanol, methanol, propanol) is poured into a polycarbonate bottle, which is then sealed to contain the vaporizing liquid. After a short wait, the stopper is removed and a flame placed near the opening to ignite the alcohol fumes. The name "Whoosh Bottle" comes from the roaring sound produced as the flame works its way through the bottle consuming all the vaporized alcohol. 

Source: https://youtu.be/0jCCP6rUEsc

#ScienceGIF   #Science   #GIF   #Whoosh   #WhooshBottle   #Combustion   #Alcohol   #Bottle   #Fire   #Flame   #Classroom   #Demonstration  
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Fastest Spring in Nature: Vorticella! Don’t blink now , but what you see as a graceful drifting up of the champagne-glass like body actually comes after an incredibly rapid contraction (~5 milliseconds) of the stalk. For its size, Vorticella convallaria is one of the fastest moving organisms on the planet.

What is this? Vorticella is a protozoan that attaches to solid objects (here, a layer of algae) through extremely strong natural adhesives. The 40 μm body is held up by a 150 μm long stalk.

How do they do this? Inside the stalk is a contractile spring, called the spasmoneme, which rapidly winds helically in response to binding calcium. The calcium signal is propagated down the stalk as a wave, after release from the body. This is similar to a muscle contraction, except that Vorticella is 10 times faster.

How fast is it? Contraction speed is estimated at 10 cm s−1. Expressed in units of lengths per second (Ls−1) (standard for muscle contraction), this works out to around 200 Ls−1. This speed is an order of magnitude faster than the fastest muscles, which contract at around 20 Ls−1. The tensile force is up to 500 nNewton. Young's modulus of the stalk is around 1 kPa.

Why do they do this? Contraction is a defense mechanism to protect Vorticella from environmental hazards such as turbulent water.

♫ Music for Science ♫: +Konstantin Makov suggests listening to The Beatles - Maxwell's Silver Hammer (2009 Stereo Remaster) while you marvel at Nature's fastest spring. Is Maxwell pounding on the little heads with an invisible hammer? Thank you, Konstantin, for being funny and clever as always.

Fastest Gif-er on G+: Thank you +Kevin Staff for being tolerant of my requests and obliging me for #ScienceSunday once again!

Read more: Don't blink: observing the ultra-fast contraction of spasmonemes. Marshall WF. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17933874
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2134882/
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Mercury filled water balloon popped in slow motion…
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Magic Sand or Hydrophobic Sand

Magic sand, Moon Sand, Mars Sand, Space Sand, Sqand or Aqua Sand is a toy made from sand coated with a hydrophobic compound. The presence of this hydrophobic compound causes the grains of sand to adhere to one another and form cylinders (to minimize surface area) when exposed to water. As soon as the sand is taken out of water, it is completely dry and flows freely.

These properties are achieved by covering ordinary beach sand, which contains tiny particles of pure silica, and exposing them to vapors of trimethylsilanol (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trimethylsilanol), an organosilicon compound. Upon exposure, the trimethylsilane compound bonds to the silica particles while forming water. The exteriors of the sand grains are thus coated with hydrophobic groups.

Magic sand was originally developed to trap ocean oil spills near the shore. This would be done by sprinkling Magic sand on floating petroleum, which would then mix with the oil and make it heavy enough to sink. However, due to the expense of production, it is not being used for this purpose. It has also been tested by utility companies in the Arctic areas as a foundation for junction boxes, as it never freezes. It can be also used as an aerating medium for potted plants.

Magic sand is made in blue, green, or red in colors but appears silvery in water because of a layer of air that forms around the sand, making it unable to get wet.

Earliest reference to waterproof sand can be found in a 1915 book called The Boy Mechanic Book 2 put out by Popular Mechanics. The Boy Mechanic states waterproof sand was invented by East Indian magicians. The sand was made by mixing heated sand with melted wax. The wax would repel the water when the sand was exposed to water.

Text source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magic_sand

The animated gif has been obtained from this video, entitled Hydrophobic Sand - QI - Series 10 Episode 10 - BBC Two:
Hydrophobic Sand - QI - Series 10 Episode 10 - BBC Two

Watch the video of how to make Magic Sand: How to make Magic Water-Proof Sand (Magic Sand)

Further reading: Magic Sand Experiment from the American Chemical Society
http://www.acs.org/content/dam/acsorg/education/whatischemistry/scienceforkids/characteristicsofmaterials/polymers/magic-sand-science-for-kids.pdf 

Further video: 'Magic Sand'

#chemistry #hydrophobic_sand #science #sciencesunday
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